Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor

Louis IV (German: Ludwig; 1 April 1282 – 11 October 1347), called the Bavarian, of the house of Wittelsbach, was King of the Romans from 1314, King of Italy from 1327, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1328.

Louis IV was Duke of Upper Bavaria from 1294/1301 together with his elder brother Rudolf I, served as Margrave of Brandenburg until 1323, as Count Palatine of the Rhine until 1329, and he became Duke of Lower Bavaria in 1340. He obtained the titles Count of Hainaut, Holland, Zeeland, and Friesland in 1345 when his wife Margaret inherited them.

Louis IV
Ludovico il Bavaro.jpeg
Portrait of Louis IV (on a late gothic graveplate made of red marble in 1468 by Hans Haldner), tomb in the Frauenkirche of Munich
King of the Romans
until 1330 with Frederick the Handsome
Reign20 October 1314 – 11 October 1347
Coronation25 November 1314 (Aachen)
PredecessorHenry VII
SuccessorCharles IV
King of Italy
Reign31 May 1327 – 11 October 1347
Coronation31 May 1327 (Milan)
PredecessorHenry VII
SuccessorCharles IV
Holy Roman Emperor
Reign1328 – 11 October 1347
Coronation17 January 1328 (Rome)
PredecessorHenry VII
SuccessorCharles IV
Duke of Bavaria
until 1317 with Rudolf I
Reign1301 – 11 October 1347
PredecessorRudolf I
SuccessorLouis V, Stephen II, Louis VI, William I, Albert I and Otto V
Born1 April 1282
Munich
Died11 October 1347 (aged 65)
Puch, near Fürstenfeldbruck
Burial
SpouseBeatrix of Świdnica
Margaret II, Countess of Holland
IssueMatilda, Margravine of Meissen
Louis V, Duke of Bavaria
Stephen II, Duke of Bavaria
Louis VI, Duke of Bavaria
William I, Duke of Bavaria
Albert I, Duke of Bavaria
Beatrice, Queen of Sweden
Otto V, Duke of Bavaria
HouseWittelsbach
FatherLouis II, Duke of Bavaria
MotherMatilda of Habsburg
ReligionRoman Catholicism
Coat of arms of the House of Wittelsbach (Bavaria)
Arms of the House of Wittelsbach (14th-century).
Arms of Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Arms of Louis IV as Holy Roman Emperor.

Early reign as Duke of Upper Bavaria

Louis was born in Munich, the son of Louis II, Duke of Upper Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine, and Matilda, a daughter of King Rudolph I.

Though Louis was partly educated in Vienna and became co-regent of his brother Rudolf I in Upper Bavaria in 1301 with the support of his Habsburg mother and her brother, King Albert I, he quarrelled with the Habsburgs from 1307 over possessions in Lower Bavaria. A civil war against his brother Rudolf due to new disputes on the partition of their lands was ended in 1313, when peace was made at Munich.

In the same year, on November 9, Louis defeated his Habsburg cousin Frederick the Fair who was further aided by duke Leopold I.[1] Originally, he was a friend of Frederick, with whom he had been raised. However, armed conflict arose when the guardianship over the young Dukes of Lower Bavaria (Henry XIV, Otto IV, and Henry XV) was entrusted to Frederick, even though the late Duke Otto III, the former King of Hungary, had chosen Louis. On 9 November 1313, Frederick was defeated by Louis in the Battle of Gammelsdorf and had to renounce the tutelage. This victory caused a stir within the Holy Roman Empire and increased the reputation of the Bavarian Duke.

Election as German King and conflict with Habsburg

The death of Holy Roman Emperor Henry VII in August 1313 necessitated the election of a successor. Henry's son John, King of Bohemia since 1310, was considered by many prince-electors to be too young,[2] and by others to be already too powerful. One alternative was Frederick the Fair, the son of Henry's predecessor, Albert I, of the House of Habsburg. In reaction, the pro-Luxembourg party among the prince electors settled on Louis as its candidate to prevent Frederick's election.

On 19 October 1314, Archbishop Henry II Cologne chaired an assembly of four electors at Sachsenhausen, south of Frankfurt. Participants were Louis' brother, Rudolph I of the Palatinate, who objected to the election of his younger brother, Duke Rudolph I of Saxe-Wittenberg, and Henry of Carinthia, whom the Luxembourgs had deposed as King of Bohemia. These four electors chose Frederick as King.

The Luxembourg party did not accept this election and the next day a second election was held.[3] Upon the instigation of Peter of Aspelt, Archbishop of Mainz, five different electors convened at Frankfurt and elected Louis as King. These electors were Archbishop Peter himself, Archbishop Baldwin of Trier and King John of Bohemia - both of the House of Luxembourg - Margrave Waldemar of Brandenburg and Duke John II of Saxe-Lauenburg, who contested Rudolph of Wittenberg's claim to the electoral vote.

This double election was quickly followed by two coronations: Louis was crowned at Aachen - the customary site of coronations - by Archbishop Peter of Mainz, while the Archbishop of Cologne, who by custom had the right to crown the new king, crowned Frederick at Bonn. In the following conflict between the kings, Louis recognized in 1316 the independence of Switzerland from the Habsburg dynasty.

After several years of bloody war, victory finally seemed within the grasp of Frederick, who was strongly supported by his brother Leopold. However, Frederick's army was decisively defeated in the Battle of Mühldorf[4] on 28 September 1322 on the Ampfing Heath, where Frederick and 1300 nobles from Austria and Salzburg were captured.

Louis held Frederick captive in Trausnitz Castle (Schwandorf) for three years, but the determined resistance by Frederick's brother Leopold, the retreat of John of Bohemia from his alliance, and the Pope's ban induced Louis to release Frederick in the Treaty of Trausnitz of 13 March 1325. In this agreement, Frederick recognized Louis as legitimate ruler and undertook to return to captivity if he did not succeed in convincing his brothers to submit to Louis.[5]

Ignoto, re ludovico IV, bull d'oro, 1329
Golden Bull of Louis IV 1328

As he did not manage to overcome Leopold's obstinacy, Frederick returned to Munich as a prisoner, even though the Pope had released him from his oath. Louis, who was impressed by such nobility, renewed the old friendship with Frederick, and they agreed to rule the Empire jointly. Since the Pope and the electors strongly objected to this agreement, another treaty was signed at Ulm on 7 January 1326, according to which Frederick would administer Germany as King of the Romans, while Louis would be crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in Italy. However, after Leopold's death in 1326, Frederick withdrew from the regency of the Empire and returned to rule only Austria. He died on 13 January 1330.

Despite Louis' victory, Pope John XXII still refused to ratify his election, and in 1324 he excommunicated Louis, but the sanction had less effect than in earlier disputes between emperors and the papacy.

Coronation as Holy Roman Emperor and conflict with the Pope

Posse Band 1 b 0084
Seals of Louis IV (Otto Posse 1909)

After the reconciliation with the Habsburgs in 1326, Louis marched to Italy and was crowned King of Italy in Milan in 1327. Already in 1323, Louis had sent an army to Italy to protect Milan against the Kingdom of Naples, which was together with France the strongest ally of the papacy. But now the Lord of Milan Galeazzo I Visconti was deposed since he was suspected of conspiring with the pope.

In January 1328, Louis entered Rome and had himself crowned emperor by the aged senator Sciarra Colonna, called captain of the Roman people. Three months later, Louis published a decree declaring Pope John XXII (Jacques Duèze) deposed on grounds of heresy. He then installed a Spiritual Franciscan, Pietro Rainalducci as Nicholas V, but both left Rome in August 1328. In the meantime, Robert, King of Naples had sent both a fleet and an army against Louis and his ally Frederick II of Sicily. Louis spent the winter 1328/29 in Pisa and stayed then in Northern Italy until his co-ruler Frederick of Habsburg had died. In fulfillment of an oath, Louis founded Ettal Abbey on 28 April 1330 on his return from Italy.

Edward III becomes Vicar to the Emperor Ludwig V
Edward III becomes Vicar to the Emperor Louis IV.

Franciscan theologians Michael of Cesena and William of Ockham, and the philosopher Marsilius of Padua, who were all on bad terms with the Pope as well, joined Emperor Louis in Italy and accompanied him to his court at Alter Hof in Munich which became the first imperial residence of the Holy Roman Empire.

In 1333, Emperor Louis sought to counter French influence in the southwest of the empire so he offered Humbert II of Viennois the Kingdom of Arles which was an opportunity to gain full authority over Savoy, Provence, and its surrounding territories. Humbert was reluctant to take the crown due to the conflict that would follow with all around him, so he declined, telling the emperor that he should make peace with the church first.[6]

Emperor Louis also allied with King Edward III of England in 1337 against King Philip VI of France, the protector of the new Pope Benedict XII in Avignon. King Philip VI had prevented any agreement between the Emperor and the Pope. Thus, the failure of negotiations with the papacy led to the declaration at Rhense in 1338 by six electors to the effect that election by all or the majority of the electors automatically conferred the royal title and rule over the empire, without papal confirmation. King Edward III was the Emperor's guest at the Imperial Diet in the Kastorkirche at Coblence in 1338 and was named Vicar-General of the Holy Roman Empire. However in 1341, the Emperor deserted Edward III but came to terms with Philip VI only temporarily. For the expected English payments were missing and Louis intended to reach an agreement with the Pope one more time.

Imperial privileges

Louis IV was a protector of the Teutonic Knights. In 1337 he allegedly bestowed upon the Teutonic Order a privilege to conquer Lithuania and Russia, although the Order had only petitioned for three small territories.[7] Later he forbade the Order to stand trial before foreign courts in their territorial conflicts with foreign rulers.

Louis concentrated his energies also on the economic development of the cities of the empire, so his name can be found in many city chronicles for the privileges he granted. In 1330 the emperor for example permitted the Frankfurt Trade Fair, and in 1340 Lübeck, as the most powerful member of the future Hanseatic League, received the coinage prerogative for golden gulden.

Dynastic policy

Behrens 66
Gold Gulden of Lübeck, 1341

In 1323 Louis gave Brandenburg as a fiefdom to his eldest son Louis V after the Brandenburg branch of the House of Ascania had died out. With the Treaty of Pavia in 1329 the emperor reconciled the sons of his late brother Rudolph and returned the Palatinate to his nephews Rudolf and Rupert. After the death of Henry of Bohemia, the duchy of Carinthia was released as an imperial fief on 2 May 1335 in Linz to his Habsburg cousins Albert II, Duke of Austria, and Otto, Duke of Austria, while Tyrol was first placed into Luxemburg hands.

With the death of duke John I in 1340 Louis inherited Lower Bavaria and then reunited the duchy of Bavaria. John's mother, a member of the Luxemburg dynasty, had to return to Bohemia. In 1342 Louis also acquired Tyrol for the Wittelsbach by voiding the first marriage of Margarete Maultasch with John Henry of Bohemia and marrying her to his own son Louis V, thus alienating the House of Luxemburg even more.

In 1345 the emperor further antagonized the lay princes by conferring Hainaut, Holland, Zeeland, and Friesland upon his wife, Margaret II of Hainaut. The hereditary titles of Margaret's sisters, one of whom was the queen of England, were ignored. Because of the dangerous hostility of the Luxemburgs, Louis had increased his power base ruthlessly.

Conflict with Luxemburg

Tomb of Louis the Bavarian
Ludwig IV's tomb, Frauenkirche, Munich

The acquisition of these territories and his restless foreign policy had earned Louis many enemies among the German princes. In the summer of 1346 the Luxemburg Charles IV was elected rival king, with the support of Pope Clement VI. Louis himself obtained much support from the Imperial Free Cities and the knights and successfully resisted Charles, who was widely regarded as a papal puppet ("rex clericorum" as William of Ockham called him). Also the Habsburg dukes stayed loyal to Louis. In the Battle of Crécy Charles' father John of Luxemburg was killed; Charles himself also took part in the battle but escaped.

But then Louis' sudden death avoided a longer civil war. Louis died in October 1347 from a stroke suffered during a bear-hunt in Puch near Fürstenfeldbruck. He is buried in the Frauenkirche in Munich. The sons of Louis supported Günther von Schwarzburg as new rival king to Charles but finally joined the Luxemburg party after Günther's early death in 1349 and divided the Wittelsbach possessions amongst themselves again. In continuance of the conflict of the House of Wittelsbach with the House of Luxemburg, the Wittelsbach family returned to power in the Holy Roman Empire in 1400 with King Rupert of Germany, a great-grandnephew of Louis.

Family and children

In 1308 Louis IV married his first wife, Beatrix of Świdnica (1290-1320). Their children were:

  1. Mathilde (aft. 21 June 1313 – 2 July 1346, Meißen), married at Nuremberg 1 July 1329 Frederick II, Margrave of Meissen (d. 1349)
  2. Daughter (end September 1314 – died shortly after).
  3. Louis V the Brandenburger (July 1316 – 17/18 September 1361), duke of Upper Bavaria, margrave of Brandenburg, count of Tyrol
  4. Anna (c. July 1317[8] – 29 January 1319, Kastl)
  5. Agnes (c. 1318 – died shortly after).
  6. Stephen II (autumn 1319 – 19 May 1375), duke of Lower Bavaria

In 1324 he married his second wife, Margaret II, Countess of Hainaut and Holland (1308-1356). Their children were:

  1. Margaret (1325 – 1374), married:
    1. in 1351 in Ofen Stephen, Duke of Slavonia (d. 1354), son of the King Charles I of Hungary;
    2. 1357/58 Gerlach von Hohenlohe.
  2. Anna (c. 1326 – 3 June 1361, Fontenelles) married John I of Lower Bavaria (d. 1340).
  3. Louis VI the Roman (7 May 1328 – 17 May 1365), duke of Upper Bavaria, elector of Brandenburg.
  4. Elisabeth (1329 – 2 August 1402, Stuttgart), married:
    1. Cangrande II della Scala, Lord of Verona (d. 1359) in Verona on 22 November 1350;
    2. Count Ulrich of Württemberg (died 1388 in the Battle of Döffingen) in 1362.
  5. William V of Holland (12 May 1330 – 15 April 1389), as William I duke of Lower Bavaria, as William III count of Hainaut.
  6. Agnes (Munich, 1335 – 11 November 1352, Munich).
  7. Albert I of Holland (25 Jul 1336 – 13 December 1404), duke of Lower Bavaria, count of Hainaut and Holland.
  8. Otto V the Bavarian (1340/42 – 15/16 November 1379), duke of Upper Bavaria, elector of Brandenburg.
  9. Beatrix (1344 – 25 December 1359), married bef. 25 October 1356 Eric XII of Sweden.
  10. Louis (October 1347 – 1348).

See also

References

  1. ^ Rogers, Clifford J. (2010). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 190. ISBN 978-0195334036.
  2. ^ "John, King of Bohemia". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  3. ^ John Powell (2001). Magill's Guide to Military History: Cor-Jan. Salem Press. p. 588.
  4. ^ S. C. Rowell (6 March 2014). Lithuania Ascending. Cambridge University Press. pp. 189–. ISBN 978-1-107-65876-9.
  5. ^ Hans Prutz (22 March 2018). The Age of the Renaissance. Charles River Editors. pp. 16–. ISBN 978-1-5312-4075-2.
  6. ^ Cox 1967, p. 25-27.
  7. ^ Urban, William. The Teutonic Knights: A Military History. Greenhill Books. London, 2003, p. 136. ISBN 1-85367-535-0
  8. ^ Mumie Anna - Die Rettung einer Prinzessin (in German) [retrieved 22 March 2016].

Books

  • Cox, Eugene L. (1967). The Green Count of Savoy. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. LCCN 67-11030.

External links

Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Born: 1282 Died: 1347
Regnal titles
Preceded by
John I
Duke of Lower Bavaria
1340–1347
Succeeded by
Louis V
jointly with
Stephen II, Louis VI,
William I, Albert I, Otto V
Preceded by
Rudolf I
Duke of Upper Bavaria
1301–1347
Count Palatine of the Rhine
1319–1329
Succeeded by
Rudolf II
Preceded by
Henry II
Margrave of Brandenburg
1320–1323
Succeeded by
Louis I
Preceded by
William the Bold
Count of Hainaut,
Holland, and Zeeland

1345–1347
with Margaret II
Succeeded by
Margaret II &
William the Mad
Preceded by
Henry VII
German King
1314–1347
first in opposition to and then jointly with
Frederick the Handsome
Succeeded by
Charles IV
King of Italy
1327–1347
Holy Roman Emperor
1328–1347
Agnes of Bavaria (nun)

Agnes of Bavaria (1335 – 11 November 1352) was a Bavarian nun from Munich and a member of the House of Wittelsbach.

The daughter of Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor, was brought up in a monastery of Clarissan nuns. She rejected a marriage with a nobleman chosen by her relatives and instead entered a cloister. Always sickly, Agnes died in 1352.

Alter Hof

The Alter Hof (Old Court) in the center of Munich is the former imperial residence of Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor and consists of five wings: Burgstock, Zwingerstock, Lorenzistock, Pfisterstock and Brunnenstock. Like most of the old town, it was rebuilt after being destroyed in World War II.

Elisabeth of Sicily, Duchess of Bavaria

Elisabeth of Sicily (1310–1349) was a daughter of Frederick III of Sicily and Eleanor of Anjou. Her siblings included: Peter II of Sicily and Manfred of Athens. After her death her title was given to Georgia Lanza of Australia

On June 27, 1328, Elisabeth married Stephen II, Duke of Bavaria, son of Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor and Beatrix of Silesia-Glogau. The couple had three sons and a daughter, they were:

Stephen III of Bavaria-Ingolstadt (1337–September 26, 1413, Niederschönfeld).

Frederick of Bavaria-Landshut (1339–December 4, 1393, Budweis).

John II of Bavaria-Munich (1341–1397).

Agnes (b. 1338), married c. 1356 King James I of Cyprus.

Frederick II, Elector of Brandenburg

Frederick II of Brandenburg (German: Friedrich II.) (19 November 1413 – 10 February 1471), nicknamed "the Iron" (der Eiserne) and sometimes "Irontooth" (Eisenzahn), was a Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg from 1440 until his abdication in 1470, and was a member of the House of Hohenzollern.

Henry II, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen

Henry II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, (before 1296 – after 1351), also called de Graecia ("of Greece"), was the eldest son of Henry I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg.

On their father's death in 1322, his sons agreed to rule the Principality of Grubenhagen jointly; but they finally divided up the territory, and Henry did not receive a part, and instead took over the administration of the brothers' joint property.

In 1327, Henry joined Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor, when Louis traveled to Rome for his coronation. Henry continued to travel to Greece and Constantinople, visiting his brother-in-law Emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos, and on to Jerusalem. Loaded with relics, he returned home in 1331. Apart from his travels, little is known about his life. Those of his sons who did not join the church obtained careers in southern European kingdoms; most notably Otto, who married Queen Joanna I of Naples.

Louis IV

Louis IV or Ludwig IV may refer to:

Louis the Child, known also as Louis IV (893–911)

Louis IV of France (920–954)

Ludwig IV, Landgrave of Thuringia (1200–1227)

Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor (1282–1347)

Louis IV, Elector Palatine (1424–1449)

Louis IV, Prince of Condé and Duke of Bourbon (1692–1740)

Ludwig IV, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine (1837–1892)

Louis IX, Duke of Bavaria

Louis IX (also known as Louis the Rich; 23 February 1417 – 18 January 1479), (German: Ludwig IX, Herzog von Bayern-Landshut) was Duke of Bavaria-Landshut from 1450. He was a son of Henry XVI the Rich and Margaret of Austria.

Magnus I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg

Magnus I (1304–1369), called the Pious (Latin Pius), was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg.

The son of Albert the Fat, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Magnus was still a minor when his father died in 1318; he and his brother Ernest were put under the guardianship of their elder brother Otto, who continued as sole ruler even after his brothers came of age. After marrying Sophia, a niece of Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Magnus was appointed margrave of Landsberg and count palatine of Saxony by the Emperor in 1333. Magnus took residence at Sangerhausen. When Otto died in 1344, Magnus and Ernest jointly took over government of the state; but already on 17 April 1345, they agreed to divide the territory. Magnus received the Principality of Wolfenbüttel.

In 1346, a border war between Wolfenbüttel and the Archbishop of Magdeburg broke out. In exchange for help in this conflict, Magnus sold the Margraviate of Landsberg to Frederick II, Margrave of Meißen. But the Archbishop conquered Schöningen in 1347, and Magnus had to cede Hötensleben and some other possessions to the Archbishop. Financially ruined by the war, Magnus could not stop the cities in the state from acquiring more and more rights; especially the City of Brunswick was becoming more powerful.

In 1348, the Emperor gave Landsberg and the Palatinate of Saxony to Bernard, Prince of Anhalt. The ensuing conflict over these territories between Magnus and Bernard ended amicably with a marriage between Magnus' son Magnus and Catherine, daughter of Bernhard III, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg.

Magnus attempted to secure the Principality of Lüneburg for his son Louis, so that it could be reunited with Wolfenbüttel. The prince of Lüneburg, William II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, a member of the same house to which Magnus belonged, the House of Welf, did not have sons; however, he had already promised the principality to a son of his daughter, a relative of the Duke of Saxony, before he agreed to Magnus' plan. Louis then married William's daughter Matilda. A lengthy conflict broke out that culminated in the Lüneburg Succession War, which was resolved only in 1388.

In 1367, Magnus joined Dietrich, Archbishop of Magdeburg, Albert, Bishop of Halberstadt, Valdemar, Prince of Anhalt, and others in a campaign against Gerhard of Berg, Bishop of Hildesheim; they were defeated by Hildesheim in a battle near Farmsen and Dinklar on 3 September.(de:Schlacht von Dinklar) Magnus was taken prisoner, and had to buy his freedom. He died in Summer of 1369.

Margaret of Bavaria, Duchess of Slavonia

Margaret of Bavaria (1321–1374) was the eldest child of Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor, and Margaret II, Countess of Hainaut.

In Ofen in 1351, Margaret married Stephen, Duke of Slavonia, the youngest son of King Charles I of Hungary and Elizabeth of Poland. The couple's first child, Elizabeth, was born the next year, and was followed by John in 1354. Upon Stephen's death the same year, John inherited the duchy, with Duchess Margaret as his guardian.The Duchess remarried in 1356, choosing Gerlach von Hohenlohe as her second husband, but kept the regency over Slavonia, Croatia and Dalmatia. However, a war broke out between the Kingdom of Hungary and the Republic of Venice in the spring of the same year and the royal court decided to end the duchy's autonomy. Margaret was thus deprived of power. John, who had been recognised as heir presumptive of both Hungary and Poland, died in 1360.She died in 1374 and was survived by her daughter and second husband.

Matilda of Bavaria, Margravine of Meissen

Matilde of Bavaria (aft. 21 June 1313 – 2 July 1346) Meißen) was the eldest daughter of Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor and his first wife Beatrix of Świdnica. Matilde was a member of the House of Wittelsbach.

Mechtild of Nassau

Mechtild of Nassau (before 1280 – 19 June 1323) was the youngest child of Adolf of Germany and his wife Imagina of Isenburg-Limburg. Mechtild is also known as Matilda of Nassau. She was Duchess consort of Bavaria, by her marriage to Rudolf I, Duke of Bavaria.

Otto V, Duke of Bavaria

Otto VII redirects here. There was also a Otto VII, Count Palatine of Bavaria.Otto V the Bavarian, Duke of Bavaria (c. 1346 – 15 November 1379), was a Duke of Bavaria and Elector of Brandenburg as Otto VII. Otto was the fourth son of Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV by his second wife Margaret II of Avesnes, Countess of Hainaut and Holland.

Pope Benedict XII

Pope Benedict XII (Latin: Benedictus XII; 1285 – 25 April 1342), born Jacques Fornier, was Pope from 30 December 1334 to his death in April 1342. He was the third Avignon Pope. Benedict was a careful pope who reformed monastic orders and opposed nepotism. Unable to remove his capital to Rome or Bologna, he started the great palace at Avignon. He decided against a notion of Pope John XXII by saying that souls may attain the "fulness [sic] of the beatific vision" before the Last Judgment. Whilst being a stalwart reformer, he attempted unsuccessfully to reunite the Orthodox Church and Catholic Church, almost 3 centuries after the Great Schism; he also failed to come to an understanding with Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor.

Rudolf II, Count Palatine of the Rhine

Rudolf II "the blind" (8 August 1306 in Wolfratshausen – 4 October 1353 in Neustadt) was Count Palatine of the Rhine (see Palatinate) from 1329 to 1353.

He was the son of Rudolf I, Duke of Bavaria and Mechtild of Nassau, daughter of King Adolf of Nassau-Weilburg. His uncle was Emperor Louis IV.

During his childhood, his father and his uncle fought over their inheritance. After the death of his father, his family was placed under the guardianship of Duke Johann von Nassau, who was a partisan of the Austrian cause.

His uncle, Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor had taken the Palatinate by force of arms. In August 1322, the war finally came to an end, but only after Mechthild's death in June 1323, were the three nephews finally able to make peace with their uncle. His sons inherited Bavaria and Rudolf I's sons inherited the Upper Palatinate and the Palatinate in line with the Treaty of Pavia.

He was blind only in the last years of his life.

Siege of Cambrai (1339)

The Siege of Cambrai was a siege of Cambrai, located in the Nord department of the Hauts-de-France region in France undertaken by an English army led by King Edward III of England during September and October 1339 in the early stage of the Hundred Years War. At the time Cambrai was not part of France but a Free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire.In 1339, Cambrai became the centre of a struggle between supporters of the Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor and William II, Count of Hainaut on the one hand, and those of king Philip VI of France on the other. Among Philip VI's allies were counts John I of Bohemia, Philip III of Navarre, Aymon, Count of Savoy, Humbert II of Viennois and vassals of King Alfonso XI of Castile and Leon. Cambrai had allowed the French to garrison the city with 300 men-at-arms.

Meanwhile, Edward III left Flanders in August 1339, where he had been on the continent since July 1338. Edward had asserted his rights to the throne of France, openly defying the authority of Philip VI. Wanting to satisfy his Bavarian allies, he decided to seize Cambrai. Edward asked the bishop of Cambrai, Guillaume d'Auxonne, a vassal of the Holy Roman Empire, to let him in, however the bishop also had instructions from Philip VI informing him to hold on for a few days until he arrived with a French army. Guillaume proclaimed his allegiance to France and prepared to resist a siege.

The defence of Cambrai was provided by the governor Étienne de la Baume, grand master of the crossbowmen of France. The French garrison had artillery comprising 10 guns, five of iron and five of other metals. This is one of the earliest instances to the use of cannon in siege warfare.Edward launched several attacks from 26 September, with Cambrai resisting every assault for five weeks.When Edward learned on the 6 October that Philip was approaching with a large army, he abandoned the siege on 8 October. He retreated across Picardy, devastating the plains of Cambresis along the way. A strong English garrison was left in the castle of Thun-l'Eveque. Edward then proceeded to Saint-Quentin. On 23 October, the armies of England and France faced each other across the plain between La Capelle and Buironfosse. They separated without engaging in battle.

Stephen II, Duke of Bavaria

Stephen II (1319 – 13 May 1375, Landshut; German: Stephan) was Duke of Bavaria from 1347 until his death. He was the second son of Emperor Louis IV the Bavarian by his first wife Beatrice of Silesia and a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty.

Treaty of Trausnitz

The Treaty of Trausnitz, signed at Trausnitz Castle by Frederick the Fair, duke of Austria and Styria, and Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor, duke of Upper Bavaria, on March 13, 1325 ended the dispute between the two men over the rule of the Holy Roman Empire.

Treaty of Ulm (1326)

The Treaty of Ulm established the joint rule of Frederick the Fair and Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor in the Holy Roman Empire. It was agreed on January 7, 1326.Under its terms, Frederick would administer the Holy Roman Empire as King of the Romans, and Louis would be crowned Holy Roman Emperor in Rome.

William V of Holland

William V of Holland may refer to:

William I, Duke of Bavaria (1330–1389), son of the emperor Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor and his second wife Margaret of Holland

William V, Prince of Orange (1748–1806), son of William IV and Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange

Ancestors of Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor
8. Louis I, Duke of Bavaria
4. Otto II, Duke of Bavaria
9. Ludmilla of Bohemia
2. Louis II, Duke of Bavaria
10. Henry V, Count Palatine of the Rhine
5. Agnes of the Palatinate
11. Agnes of Hohenstaufen
1. Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor
12. Albert IV, Count of Habsburg
6. Rudolph I of Germany
13. Heilwig of Kiburg
3. Matilda of Habsburg
14. Burckhard V, Count of Hohenburg
7. Gertrude of Hohenburg
15. Mechtild of Tübingen
Carolingian Empire
(800–888)
Holy Roman Empire
(800/962–1806)
East Francia within the
Carolingian Empire (843–911)
East Francia (911–962)
Kingdom of Germany within the
Holy Roman Empire (962–1806)
Confederation of the Rhine (1806–1813)
German Confederation (1815–1848)
German Empire (1848/1849)
German Confederation (1850–1866)
North German Confederation (1867–1871)
German Empire (1871–1918)

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