Louis Borno

Eustache Antoine Francois Joseph Louis Borno (September 20, 1865 – July 29, 1942) was a lawyer and Haitian politician who served as President of Haiti from 1922 to 1930 during the period of the American occupation of Haiti (1915–34).

Louis Borno
Louis Borno
26th President of Haiti
In office
15 May 1922 – 15 May 1930
Preceded byPhilippe Sudré Dartiguenave
Succeeded byLouis Eugène Roy
Minister of Foreign Affairs, Finance and Commerce
In office
20 June 1918 – 19 December 1918
PresidentPhilippe Sudré Dartiguenave
Preceded byEdmond Dupuy (Foreign Affairs)
Edmond Héreaux (Finance and Commerce)
Succeeded byConstantin Benoit (Foreign Affairs)
Fleury Féquière (Finance and Commerce)
Minister of Foreign Affairs, Worship and Education
In office
9 May 1916 – 17 April 1917
PresidentPhilippe Sudré Dartiguenave
Preceded byHimself (Foreign Affairs and Public Education)
Etienne Dornéval (Worship)
Succeeded byFurcy Châtelain (Foreign Affairs)
Osmin Cham (Worship)
Périclès Tessier (Public Education)
Minister of Foreign Affairs, Education and Public Works
In office
29 January 1916 – 2 May 1916
PresidentPhilippe Sudré Dartiguenave
Preceded byHimself (Foreign Affairs and Public Education))
Jean-Baptiste Dartigue (Public Works)
Succeeded byHimself (Foreign Affairs and Public Education)
Constant Vieux (Public Works)
Minister of Foreign Affairs and Education
In office
9 September 1915 – 29 January 1916
PresidentPhilippe Sudré Dartiguenave
Preceded byHorace Pauleus Sannon
Succeeded byHimself
Minister of Foreign Affairs and Justice
In office
12 December 1914 – 16 February 1915
PresidentJoseph Davilmar Théodore
Preceded byJustin Joseph
Succeeded byJoseph Cadet Jérémie
Minister of Foreign Affairs and Worship
In office
14 March 1908 – 6 December 1908
PresidentPierre Nord Alexis
Preceded byHorace Pauleus Sannon
Succeeded byJ. J. F. Magny
Personal details
Born20 September 1865
Port-au-Prince, Haiti
Died29 July 1942 (aged 76)
Pétion-Ville, Haiti
NationalityHaitian
Spouse(s)Marie-Hélène Saint-Macary
ChildrenMadeleine Brun née Borno, Henri Borno, Simone Armand née Borno
ProfessionLawyer, journalist

Early life and education

Borno was of mixed race, the son of a white French father and a black Haitian mother.[1] Encouraged by his parents, he went to Paris for his college education, earning a law degree in 1890 at the Faculty of Paris. He became part of the professional mixed-race elite in Haiti, setting up a law practice on his return.

Nationalist minister

In 1899, Borno served as a diplomat in the Dominican Republic. In 1908, he served as Minister of Foreign Affairs for President Pierre Nord Alexis.

The country of Haiti was looked upon as a strategically vital location by the United States at the onset of World War I. The U.S. had extended its influence throughout the Caribbean and Latin America following the construction of the Panama Canal by invoking the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine.

In 1914, the United States under President Woodrow Wilson presented a project for the control of customs and finances of Haiti, which was having increasing problems in repaying debts to the US and France. Borno, then Foreign Minister of President Joseph Davilmar Théodore, refused to cede financial control. The United States responded by confiscating the reserves of the National Bank of Haiti.

On 28 July 1915, a Haitian mob killed President Vilbrun Guillaume Sam in the legation of France, where he had taken refuge after having ordered the execution of nearly 200 political prisoners, most from the mixed-race elite. The same day, U.S. troops landed in the country, restoring order to Port-au-Prince. They organized the election of a new president, Philippe Sudré Dartiguenave, and immediately imposed a US protectorate. Borno, appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs, negotiated a U.S. commitment to the economic development of the country and refused to transfer any territory.

American racial contempt and brutality against the local population led to armed revolts in the countryside carried out by "cacos", farmers who had remained armed since the war of independence. The peasants had a strong culture of rebellion. U.S. troops claimed several thousand victims. Embarrassed by media coverage of the war and disappointed at the ineffectiveness of the occupation, U.S. President Warren G. Harding decided in 1922 to improve the level of American administrators; he appointed as High Commissioner Major General John H. Russell, Jr..

Cooperating President

When President Dartiguenave had served out his term, Louis Borno was elected by the State Council on 10 April 1922, to the surprise of the Americans. Borno, however, soon came to an agreement with Russell. He maintained a policy of "honest and frank cooperation", as Borno called it, and persuaded the Americans to help develop the country economically.

The Haitian state was deeply in debt. The external debt alone was equivalent to 4 years of the government budget. Borno decided in June 1922 to take out a loan of 23 million dollars to clear all debts. He reduced export taxes and soon the trade deficit balanced.

He achieved impressive infrastructure improvements: 1700 km of roads were made usable; 189 bridges were built; many irrigation canals were rehabilitated; hospitals, schools, and public buildings were constructed; and drinking water was brought to the main cities. Port-au-Prince became the first city of Latin America to have phone service available with automatic dialing. Agricultural education was organized with a central school of agriculture and 69 farms in the country.

Borno relied on the Catholic Church, with congregations coming from France to develop low-cost quality education throughout the country. Aware that many Haitians did not speak French, he was the first president to authorize the use of Haitian Creole in the education system.

He went to the United States in 1926, where he met President Calvin Coolidge. He mainly settled old border conflicts with Dominican President Horacio Vásquez in 1929.

But Borno refused to organize free elections. He maintained a Council of State, whose 21 members he had appointed. He was re-elected by this body on 12 April 1926, which aroused opposition in the press. Borno tried to regulate it and imprisoned some journalists.

The world economic crisis that began in 1929 with the Stock Market Crash in the United States changed American policy. President Herbert Hoover sought to disengage from Haiti. He appointed a commission for this purpose, chaired by Cameron Forbes, who arrived in December 1929.

Because of the economic crisis, Haitian farmers became upset. On 6 December 1929, an excited group faced some U.S. Marines who fired on them and killed some.

The Forbes Committee resolved to organize free elections and end the American administration, but remained pessimistic about the sustainability of democracy in Haiti. The opposition chose a provisional president, Louis Eugène Roy.[2]

References

  1. ^ Philip (1992), p. 267
  2. ^ Staff report (20 January 1930), Honest Borno. Time

Bibliography

  • Philip, George D., British documents on foreign affairs: Part 2. From the First to the Second World War. Series D. Latin America, 1914 – 1939, Volume 7, Univ. Publ. of America, 1991, ISBN 0-89093-607-2
  • Auguste Nemours A. (1926) Les Borno dans l'histoire d'Haiti, Port-au-Prince: Imprimeriee Nationale
Political offices
Preceded by
Philippe Sudré Dartiguenave
President of Haïti
May 1922 – May 1930
Succeeded by
Louis Eugène Roy
1942

1942 (MCMXLII)

was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1942nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 942nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 42nd year of the 20th century, and the 3rd year of the 1940s decade.

Attalea crassispatha

Attalea crassispatha is a palm which is endemic to southwest Haiti. The most geographically isolated member of the genus, it is considered a critically endangered species and has been called one of the rarest palms in the Americas.

Auguste de Pradines

Auguste Linstant de Pradines, also known as August de Pradines, Ti Candio or Kandjo (10 September 1879 – October 1947) was an influential Haitian musician who largely created the archetype of the Haitian troubadour.

Over nearly five decades, de Pradines composed love songs as well as songs of political and social commentary, traveling throughout Haiti to perform in clubs, at private parties, in theaters, and outdoor rallies.

de Pradines had twelve children, including his daughter Emerante de Pradines Morse who also became a prominent Haitian musician, as did her son, Richard Auguste Morse, and another of Auguste de Pradines' grandsons, Michel Martelly, who also served as president of Haiti (2011-2016).

Dumarsais Estimé

Léon Dumarsais Estimé (21 April 1900 – 20 July 1953) served as the President of Haïti from 16 August 1946 until 10 May 1950.

First Lady of Haiti

The First Lady of Haiti (French: Première dame d'Haïti, Haitian Creole: Premye dam Ayiti) is the title attributed to the spouse of the President of Haiti. The country's current first lady is Martine Moïse, wife of President Jovenel Moïse, who has held the position since February 7, 2017.

Foreign Ministers of Haiti

This is a list of foreign ministers of Haiti.

February 1807 - 6 December 1812: Joseph Rouanez, duc de Morin

December 1812 - May 1820: Julien Prévost, comte de Limonade

(Poste suspendu)

4 April 1843 - 7 January 1844: Philippe Guerrier

7 January 1844 - 3 May 1844: Hérard Dumesle

3 May 1844 - 1 March 1846: Jacques Hyppolite

2 March 1846 - 27 July 1847: Alexis Dupuy

27 July 1847 - 30 September 1847: Jean Elie

30 September 1847 - 9 April 1848: Alexis Dupuy (2nd term)

9 April 1848 - 26 December 1848: Lysius Salomon

31 December 1848 - 15 January 1859: Louis Dufrène (duc de Tiburon)

17 January 1859 - 28 January 1860: André Jean-Simon

28 January 1860 - 8 July 1862: Victorin Plésance

8 July 1862 - 13 August 1866: Théodate Philippeaux

13 August 1866 - 7 March 1867: Thomas Madiou

7 March 1867 - 13 March 1867: Linstant de Pradines

8 May 1867 - 21 July 1867: André Germain

21 July 1867 - 20 May 1868: Demesvar Delorme

20 May 1868 - 3 August 1868: Daguesseau Lespinasse

3 August 1868 - 19 February 1869: Alexandre Tate

19 February 1869 - 6 September 1869: Charles Archin

6 September 1869 - 29 December 1869: Dasny Labonté

29 December 1869 - 23 March 1870: Sauveur Faubert

23 March 1870 - 7 May 1870: Benomy Lallemand

7 May 1870 - 27 June 1870: Sauveur Faubert (2nd term)

27 June 1870 - 11 May 1871: Volmar Laporte

11 May 1871 - 19 June 1871: Normil Sambour

19 June 1871 - 29 June 1871: Charles Haentjens

29 June 1871 - 31 December 1871: Darius Denis

2 January 1872 - 9 May 1873: Liautaud Ethéart

9 May 1873 - 8 July 1873: Octavius Rameau (a. i.)

8 July 1873 - 15 June 1874: Joseph Lamothe

15 June 1874 - 15 April 1876: Raoul Excellent

24 April 1876 - 20 July 1876: Hannibal Price

20 July 1876 - 23 August 1877: Liautaud Ethéart (2nd term)

23 August 1877 - 1 September 1878: Félix Carrié

1 September 1878 - 14 November 1878: Ernest Roumain

14 November 1878 - 1 September 1879: Liautaud Ethéart (3rd term)

1 September 1879 - 3 October 1879: Joseph Lamothe

3 October 1879 - 23 October 1879: Lysius Salomon (3rd term)

3 November 1879 - 26 August 1881: Charles Laforesterie

26 August 1881 - 31 December 1881: Brutus Saint-Victor

31 December 1881 - 20 August 1883: Jean-Baptiste Damier

20 August 1883 - 13 March 1884: Callisthène Fouchard

14 March 1884 - 10 August 1888: Brutus Saint-Victor (2nd term)

1 September 1888 - 16 October 1888: François Denys Légitime

16 October 1888 - 19 December 1888: Osman Piquant

19 December 1888 - 20 June 1889: Eugène Margron

20 June 1889 - 3 August 1889: Solon Ménos

3 August 1889 - 3 May 1891: Anténor Firmin (2nd term)

3 May 1891 - 19 August 1891: Hugon Lechaud

19 August 1891 - 11 August 1892: Charles Archin (2nd term)

11 August 1892 - 19 May 1894: Edmond Lespinasse

19 May 1894 - 27 December 1894: Frédéric Marcelin

27 December 1894 - 17 December 1896: Pourcely Faine

17 December 1896 - 26 July 1897: Anténor Firmin (3rd term)

26 July 1897 - 13 December 1897: Solon Ménos

13 December 1897 - 12 May 1902: Brutus Saint-Victor (3rd term)

20 May 1902 - 4 April 1903: Cadet Jérémie

4 April 1903 - 30 June 1903: August e Bonamy

30 June 1903 - 21 May 1906: Murville Férère

21 May 1906 - 17 February 1908: Horace Pauleus Sannon

14 March 1908 - 30 November 1908: Louis Borno

8 December 1908 - 19 December 1908: J.J.F. Magny

19 December 1908 - 15 February 1910: Murat Claude

15 February 1910 - 20 July 1911: Pétion Pierre-André

20 July 1911 - 2 August 1911: Cadet Jérémie (2nd term)

4 August 1911 - 16 August 1911: Tertulien Guilbaud

16 August 1911 - 4 May 1913: Jacques Nicolas Léger

17 May 1913 - 8 February 1914: Etienne Mathon

8 February 1914 - 10 May 1914: Jacques Nicolas Léger (2nd term)

10 May 1914 - 11 November 1914: Enoch Désert

11 November 1914 - 12 December 1914: Justin Joseph

12 December 1914 - 16 February 1915: Louis Borno (2nd term)

16 February 1915 - 27 February 1915: Cadet Jérémie (3rd term)

27 February 1915 - 9 March 1915: August e Bonamy (2nd term)

9 March 1915 - 27 July 1915: Ulrick Duvivier

14 August 1915 - 9 September 1915: Horace Pauleus Sannon (2nd term)

9 September 1915 - 17 April 1917: Louis Borno (3rd term)

17 April 1917 - 3 July 1917: Furcy Châtelain

3 July 1917 - 20 June 1918: Edmond Dupuy

20 June 1918 - 19 December 1918: Louis Borno (4th term)

19 December 1918 - 17 October 1919: Constantin Benoit

17 October 1919 - 15 May 1922: Justin Barau

15 May 1922 - 27 November 1922: Léon Déjean

27 November 1922 - 27 September 1923: Félix Magloire

27 September 1923 - 20 October 1924: Camille Léon

20 October 1924 - 17 March 1926: Léon Déjean (2nd term)

17 March 1926 - 20 April 1926: Georges Gentil

20 April 1926 - 15 November 1926: Edmond Montas

15 November 1926 - 25 November 1929: Camille Léon (2nd term)

25 November 1929 - 15 May 1930: Antoine Sansaricq

15 May 1930 - 19 August 1930: Frédéric Bernardin

19 August 1930 - 22 November 1930: Emmanuel Volel

22 November 1930 - 18 May 1931: Horace Pauléus Sannon (3rd term)

18 May 1931 - 15 July 1932: Abel Nicolas Léger

15 July 1932 - 20 September 1933: Albert Blanchet

20 September 1933 - 24 December 1934: Léon Laleau

24 December 1934 - 16 March 1935: Lucien Hibbert

16 March 1935 - 10 October 1936: Yrech Châtelain

10 October 1936 - 15 September 1938: Georges Léger

15 September 1938 - 10 October 1940: Léon Laleau (2nd term)

10 October 1940 - 15 May 1941: Fernand Dennis

15 May 1941 - 9 June 1942: Charles Fombrun

9 June 1942 - 21 May 1943: Serge Défly

21 May 1943 - 11 January 1946: Gérard Lescot

12 January 1946 - 16 August 1946: Antoine Levelt

19 August 1946 - 10 April 1947: Jean Price Mars

10 April 1947 - 26 November 1948: Edmée Manigat

26 November 1948 - 14 October 1949: Timoléon C. Brutus

14 October 1949 - 10 May 1950: Vilfort Beauvoir

10 May 1950 - 6 December 1950: Antoine Levelt (2nd term)

6 December 1950 - 29 February 1952: Jacques Léger

29 February 1952 - 1 April 1953: Albert Ethéart

1 April 1953 - 31 July 1954: Pierre Liautaud

31 July 1954 - 6 September 1955: Mauclair Zephirin

6 September 1955 - 14 December 1956: Joseph D. Charles

14 December 1956 - 9 February 1957: Jean Price Mars (2nd term)

9 February 1957 - 2 April 1957: Evremont Carrié

6 April 1957 - 25 May 1957: Vilfort Beauvoir (2nd term)

27 May 1957 - 14 June 1957: Joseph Buteau

14 June 1957 - 22 October 1957: Louis Roumain

22 October 1957 - 17 June 1958: Vilfort Beauvoir (3rd term)

17 June 1958 - 19 December 1959: Louis Mars

19 December 1959 - 25 October 1960: Raymond A. Moyse

25 October 1960 - 30 May 1961: Joseph Baguidy

30 May 1961 - 22 April 1971: René Chalmers

22 April 1971 - 20 March 1974: Adrien Raymond

20 March 1974 - 3 November 1978: Edner Brutus

3 November 1978 - 13 November 1979: Gérard Dorcely

13 November 1979 - 5 January 1981: Georges Salomon

5 January 1981 - 3 February 1982: Edouard Francisque

3 February 1982 - 30 December 1985: Jean-Robert Estimé

30 December 1985 - 7 February 1986: Georges Salomon (2nd term)

7 February 1986 - 24 March 1986: Jacques A. François

24 March 1986 - 5 January 1987: Jean-Baptiste Hilaire

5 January 1987 - 7 February 1988: Hérard Abraham

12 February 1988 - 20 June 1988: Gérard Latortue

20 June 1988 - 18 September 1988: Hérard Abraham (2nd term)

18 September 1988 - 12 May 1989: Serge Elie Charles

12 May 1989 - 16 March 1990: Yvon Perrier

16 March 1990 - 24 August 1990: Kesler Clermont

24 August 1990 - 27 September 1990: Alec Toussaint

27 September 1990 - 7 February 1991: Paul C. Latortue

19 February 1991 - 19 September 1991: Marie-Denise Fabien Jean-Louis (f)

19 September 1991 - 30 September 1991: Jean-Robert Sabalat

15 October 1991 - 16 December 1991: Jean-Jacques Honorat

16 December 1991 - 19 June 1992: Jean-Robert Simonise

19 June 1992 - 1 September 1993: François Benoît

1 September 1993 - 16 May 1994: Claudette Werleigh (f)

16 May 1994 - 8 November 1994: Charles Anthony David

8 November 1994 - 7 November 1995: Claudette Werleigh (f) (2nd term)

7 November 1995 - 2 March 2001: Fritz Longchamp

2 March 2001 - 29 February 2004: Philippe Antonio Joseph

17 March 2004 - 28 January 2005: Yvon Siméon

28 January 2005 - 9 June 2006: Hérard Abraham (3rd term)

9 June 2006 - 5 September 2008: Rénald Clérismé

5 September 2008 - November 2009: Alrich Nicolas

November 2009 - 24 October 2011: Marie-Michèle Rey (f)

24 October 2011 - 6 August 2012: Laurent Lamothe

6 August 2012 - 2 April 2014: Pierre-Richard Casimir

2 April 2014 - 27 April 2015: Duly Brutus

27 April 2015 - 23 March 2016: Lener Reneaud

23 March 2016 - 13 March 2017: Pierrot Delienne

13 March 2017- 5 September 2018 : Antonio Rodrigue

5 September 2018 - : Bocchit Edmond

Horace Pauleus Sannon

Horace Pauleus Sannon (7 April 1870 Les Cayes - 27 August 1938 Pétion-Ville) was a Haitian historian, politician and diplomat.

Born in Les Cayes, Pauleus Sannon began medical studies at the Sorbonne in Paris, France, but abandoned them to study social-political sciences at the Collège de France. While still in France, he published his first book, Haiti et le régime parlementaire.He wrote several books on the history of Haiti, including Essai historique sur la révolution de 1843 and Histoire de Toussaint Louverture. Scholars consider the latter to be his most important work, influencing the views of both Haitians and non-Haitians on the Haitian Revolution. As a historian, he had a reputation for scrupulously backing up his statements with evidence.He was a co-founder, and the first president, of Haiti's Société d'Histoire et de Geographie, a group of Haitian intellectuals formed in 1924 who saw studying the past as a means to generate national pride and understand the conditions of the present (at the time, Haiti was occupied by United States Marines). The Societe popularized history among the public.He served as Haiti's Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1906, and negotiated a trade treaty with France. He was appointed Haitian Minister to the United States in 1909. He was a Haitian presidential candidate in 1926 and 1930.

List of ambassadors of Haiti to Germany

The Haitian ambassador in Berlin is the official representative of the Government in Port-au-Prince to the Government of Germany.

List of ambassadors of Haiti to the United States

The Haitian ambassador in Washington, D. C. is the official representative of the Government in Port-au-Prince to the Government of the United States.

List of people on the postage stamps of Haiti

This is a list of people who have been featured on Haitian postage stamps. The following entries list the name of the person, the year they were first featured on a stamp, and a short description of their notability. The list is complete through 1960.

Boisrond-Tonnerre (1954) - Author of the final version of the Haitian Act of Independence

Louis Bornó (1924) - President of Haiti

François Capois (1946) - Military leader during the Haitian Revolution Also known as Capois la Mort

Sylvio Cator (1958) - Olympic silver medalist in the long jump

Henri Christophe (1954) - President and later King of Haiti

Pierre de Coubertin (1960) - Founder of the modern Olympic Games

Jean Baptiste Point du Sable (1959) - First non-native settler in the area which is now Chicago, Illinois, USA

Jean-Jacques Dessalines (1904) - Leader of the Haitian Revolution and later Emperor of Haiti

Thomas-Alexandre Dumas (1935) - General in the French Revolution

Alexandre Dumas, père (1935) - French author

Alexandre Dumas, fils (1935) - French author and playwright

François Duvalier (1958) - President of Haiti

Claudinette Fouchard (1960) - Beauty queen

Occide Jeanty (1960) - Composer and pianist

Immanuel Kant (1956) - German philosopher

Hammerton Killick (1943) - Navy admiral

Lamartiniere (1954) - Military leader during the Haitian Revolution

Cincinnatus Leconte (1912) - President of Haiti

Abraham Lincoln (1959) - President of the United States

Paul Eugène Magloire (1953) - President of Haiti

Yolette Magloire (1954) - First Lady known for her charity work

Pierre Nord Alexis (1904) - President of Haiti

Toussaint L'Ouverture (1904) - Leader of the Haitian Revolution

Alexandre Pétion (1904) - President of the southern Republic of Haiti

Pope Pius XII (1959) - Head of the Roman Catholic Church

Lysius Salomon (1887) - President of Haiti

Antoine Simon (1910) - President of Haiti

Tirésias Simon Sam (1898) - President of Haiti

Sténio Vincent (1931) - President of Haiti

George Washington (1949) - First President of United States

Jean-Jacques Dessalines (1949) - Leader of the Haitian Revolution and later Emperor of Haiti

Simón Bolívar (1949) - Venezuelan military and political leader who led many Latin American nations to freedom

Louis Eugène Roy

Louis Eugène Roy (died 27 October 1939) was a prominent mulatto Haitian banker selected by U.S. General John H. Russell, Jr., the American High Commissioner to Haïti, to serve as that country's interim president following the resignation of Louis Borno. Roy served from 15 May to 18 November 1930, during which time his major duty was to oversee elections to the new National Assembly. When the Assembly selected Sténio Vincent as president, Roy stepped down.

Mayor of Port-au-Prince

The following is a list of the mayors and leaders of the city of Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

Petit Séminaire Collège Saint-Martial

Petit Séminaire Collège Saint-Martial (founded in 1865), is an all-boy Catholic school located in Port-au-Prince, the capital of Haiti. The school is under the control of the Holy Ghost Fathers.

Philippe Sudré Dartiguenave

Philippe Sudré Dartiguenave (6 April 1863 – 26 July 1926) was a Haitian political figure.

Republic of Haiti (1859–1957)

The period of 1859 to 1957 in Haitian history covers an era of political struggles, the period of American occupation and multiple coups and elections until the Duvalier dynasty seized control of the country in 1957.

Timeline of Haitian history

This is a timeline of Haitian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Haiti and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Haiti. See also the list of heads of state of Haïti.

Élie Lescot

Antoine Louis Léocardie Élie Lescot (December 9, 1883 – October 20, 1974) was the President of Haiti from May 15, 1941 to January 11, 1946. He was a member of the country's mixed-race elite. He used the political climate of World War II to sustain his power and ties to the United States, Haiti's powerful northern neighbor. His administration presided over a period of economic downturn and harsh political repression of dissidents.

Post-Revolutionary (1804–59)
Post-Imperial (1859–1930)
Post-Occupation (1930–86)
Post-Duvalier (1986–2011)
Post-earthquake (2011–present)

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