Loreto, Baja California Sur

Loreto (or Conchó) is a resort town and municipal seat of Loreto Municipality, located on the Gulf of California in eastern Baja California Sur state, Mexico. In 2019, the city of 20,385 inhabitants is located about 350 km (220 mi) north of La Paz, the capital of Baja California Sur state.[4]

The city is a tourist resort, catering mostly to American travelers, with daily flights from California to Loreto International Airport.

Misión Nuestra Señora de Loreto
Loreto, BCS, City Hall
From up to down and left to right: Misión Nuestra Señora de Loreto, Golf Course in Loreto Resorts, Loreto City Hall
Coat of arms of Loreto

Coat of arms
Loreto is located in Mexico
Loreto is located in Baja California Sur
Coordinates: 26°00′46″N 111°20′36″W / 26.01278°N 111.34333°W
Country Mexico
StateBaja California Sur
MunicipalityLoreto Municipality
FoundedOctober 25, 1697
Founded asReal de Loreto
Founded byJuan María de Salvatierra
 • MayorArely Arce Peralta
3 m (10 ft)
 (2019 [3])
 • Town20,385[1]
 • Metro
21,071 [2]
 • Demonym
Time zoneUTC−7 (Pacific (US Mountain))
 • Summer (DST)UTC−6 (Pacific)
Postal code
Area code(s)613


Loreto was the first Spanish colonial settlement of the Viceroyalty of New Spain on the Baja California Peninsula.

The town was founded in 1697 by Jesuit missionaries, who found a steady spring of fresh water on this site, as the Misión Nuestra Señora de Loreto. The Jesuits were expelled in 1767, and control of the Baja California missions was given to the Franciscans. In 1769, the Franciscans were ordered to turn over the Baja missions to the Dominican order and accompany the expedition of Gaspar de Portolà to establish new missions in the unexplored northern frontier that became Alta California. The expedition departed from Loreto on March 24, 1769.[5]

The town served as the capital of the province of Las Californias from its founding until the capital was moved to Monterey on February 3, 1777. In 1768, the province had been split into Alta California (today's U.S. state of California) and Baja California. At first, the two provinces continued with a single governor. Later, the town became the headquarters for the Lieutenant Governor of California Viejo (the province of Baja California).


Loreto is located on the east coast of the Baja California Peninsula, at 26º00'46" N 111º20'36" W. It is bordered on the east by the Gulf of California, on the west by the Transpeninsular Highway, and on the south by the Arroyo Loreto, a dry creek bed that only fills with water after a heavy rainfall. The city is built on relatively flat land with an average elevation is 10 meters (33 ft) above sea level. “La Giganta” Mountain Range (“Sierra de la Giganta”) lies to the west, extending along the center of the state of Baja California Sur, parallel to the gulf coast.

The geology and topography of the Loreto region, extending from Bahía Concepción to Agua Verde, is a coastal belt consisting "mainly of a narrow belt of ridges, valleys, and pediments adjacent to the escarpment, low- to moderate-elevation ranges transverse to the coast, and narrow coastal plains”.[6]

The city is a tourist resort, catering mostly to American travelers, with daily flights from California to Loreto International Airport. Many American tourists enjoy fishing in "pangas" for "dorado" (Mahi-mahi or Dolphin Fish). Local restaurants willingly prepare the daily catch of the tourists. Loreto has a museum that coexists alongside the historic, but still active, parish. Loreto has active sister city relationships with the California cities of Hermosa Beach, Cerritos, and Ventura.


Loreto’s climate is hot and humid, with abundant sunshine (desert with some rainfall in summer). The median temperature is 24.4 °C (76 °F).[7] The temperatures are hot from June through October. These summer days have highs around 34 °C (93 °F) and high humidity. According to the National Meteorological Service, Loreto's highest official temperature reading of 44.2 °C (112 °F) was recorded on July 2, 2006; the lowest temperature ever recorded was 0.0 °C (32 °F) on December 15, 1987.[8] In spring season, the temperatures are moderate and temperate. Autumn and winter months are usually windy.

From January to March, winds blow from the NW (night hours) and the North (day hours), the rest of the year, the winds blow usually from the West.[12][13] Loreto's yearly precipitation is low; averaging about 160 mm (6.3 in). The wettest months are August and September, when there are occasional short-lived rainfalls. One concern for Loreto is the Pacific hurricane season, which runs from June 1 to November 30, and some times causes heavy rainfall and floods in the area. The last time the town area was hit by a hurricane was on September 2 and 3, 2006, when the hurricane John hit the Baja California Peninsula.[14][15]


Historical population
2005 10,283—    
2010 14,724+43.2%
2015 18,535+25.9%
2019 20,385+10.0%

According to INEGI, the 2015 city population was 18,535 people[17] with 2565 households, with 77.67% male and 22.32% female householders. The population is young: 29.75% are from 0 to 14 years of age, 19.19% from 15 to 24, and only 6.42% are 60 years of age or older. For every 100 females there are 102.5 males, and for every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 100.5 males. The Municipality of Loreto (which includes Nopoló, Puerto Escondido, San Javier and the rest of the little villages from the coast and mountains) has a population of 21,071 people.[17]

Due to Loreto's small population and low immigration, large families are characteristic, and residents often have the same last name, a phenomenon also found in other state localities. The two largest families are the “Davis”, predominating in the east of the city, along the beach (“Calle Davis” is a street with this last name), and the “Murillo”, predominating in the south along the Arroyo Loreto, in the neighborhood known as “barrio del Muro”, named after the retaining wall built to hold flood waters from the creek. Other large families are the Amador, the Arce, the Cota, the Higuera, the Romero and the Villalejo.[18]


Misión Nuestra Señora de Loreto
Mission of Our Lady of Loreto

There are seven buildings in Loreto from the 18th to the 20th century that are considered historical monuments by the federal government; the most important is the Mission of our Lady of Loreto, which is at the start of El Camino Real ("The Royal Road"), an historic corridor that follows north along the ancient route of the Spanish missions, to its ending in Sonoma, California, USA.[19][20][21] In the neighboring town of San Javier are five historical buildings, most importantly the Mission of Saint Francis Xavier (Misión de San Francisco Javier), the best preserved mission in the peninsula. The ruins of Mission of San Bruno, the first mission of Baja California, founded in 1683 by Jesuit missionary explorer Padre Eusebio Kino. It was ordered abandoned by the Spanish Crown a mere two years later. It is located twenty kilometers north of Loreto.

The Jesuit Missions Museum (Museo de las Misiones Jesuíticas) is located beside the Mission of our Lady of Loreto. It has a collection of religious art, weapons and tools from the 17th and 18th centuries that were used in the Spanish missions in Baja California.[22]

In the "La Giganta" Mountain Range ("Sierra de la Giganta"), there are cave paintings in canyons and rock shelters. The nearest sites to Loreto are "Cuevas Pintas" (15 km to the west) and "La Pingüica" (60 km to the North).[23] The cave paintings from the indigenous groups of Baja California are world-famous and some of them have been added to UNESCO's list of world heritage sites.


Loreto has a reputation as an excellent sport fishing location. This is its main tourist attraction, as well as the main source of employment in the area, thus linking Loreto’s economy closely to fishing. There are two well-defined fishing seasons: summer features “dorado” and species like marlin (black marlin, Atlantic blue marlin, striped marlin) and sailfish, which are ideal for fly fishing; winter fishing features “yellow tail” (jurel) and other species that usually are deep in the sea rocks. In addition to these seasonal species, Loreto's waters are home to other species like snapper and seabass, which are found all year long.[24][25][26] Thanks to this abundance, Loreto has been home of several IGFA records.[27] The two “foundations” of Loreto’s sport fishing are the “dorado” and the “yellow tail” (Seriola lalandi dorsalis). The dorado is the emblematic species of Loreto's warm waters, its season beginning in late May, peaking from July to September, and ending in November, with two important tournaments, in July and September. The yellow tail is one of the strongest species; its season begins in November, peaks from March to April, and comes to an end in late May.

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Yellow Tail (Jurel)
Seabass (Cabrilla)
Rooster (Gallo)
Snapper (Pargo)
Sailfish (Pez Vela)


The city has two public schools of superior studies:

The Catholic private school Colegio Calafia offers one associate degree in commerce.

High school students (10th to 12th grade) are served by two public schools:

  • Centro de Estudios de Bachillerato.
  • Colegio de Bachilleres (former Preparatoria Federal por Cooperación “Manuel Davis Ramírez”).

Middle school students (7th to 9th grade) are served by two public schools:

  • Escuela Secundaria Estatal “Benito Juárez”.
  • Escuela Secundaria Estatal “Modesto Sánchez Mayón”.

Elementary school students (1st to 6th grade) are served by six public schools and one catholic private school. There are five kindergarten schools. Boarding School Number 8 (Albergue Escolar Número 8 "General Venustiano Carranza") serves children from the mountain villages who attend school, away from their homes and families. It serves approximately sixty five students.


  • Fiestas de la Virgen de Loreto. The Our Lady of Loreto Festivities are celebrated on September 8. It's a series of religious, civic and cultural events.
  • Fiestas de la Fundación de Loreto. The foundation of the city is celebrated from October 19 to 25. It's one of the most important cultural events in the state.
  • Fiestas de San Javier. The festivities from December 1 to 3 are in honor of Saint Francis Xavier, patron saint from the neighbor town of San Javier. These festivities attract a lot of pilgrims from the peninsula.
  • Loreto 400. An off-road racing event that takes place in September. The course is a classic desert offroad race which route includes Comondú, San Javier and the old towns of La Giganta mountain range.
  • Loreto 300 milles. Off-road racing event. December.[28][29]
  • Torneo de las Mision Fishing Charity Tournament that started in 1993. The 2007 edition will be July 12–14.[30]
  • Loreto Dorado International Fishing Tournament. Takes place in July.
  • Copa Dorado Tournament. State tournament in September.
  • Governor's Cup Fishing Tournament. May


Loreto, BCS, City Hall
Loreto City Hall

The city of Loreto is the seat of the Municipality of Loreto, which is governed by a City Council (Ayuntamiento), consisting of a Mayor or Municipal President (Presidente Municipal), a Syndic (Síndico), and six City Councilors (Regidores), all eight elected by direct popular vote for a mandatory single term limit of three years. The Mayor is a voting member of the council, and as head of the public municipal administration is directly responsible for actual implementation of the City Council’s decisions, somewhat analogous to a City Manager. The Mayor of Loreto is Jorge Alberto Avilés Pérez, whose term runs until April 2014.

The Syndic (or Trustee), also a voting member, is responsible for the legal representation of both the council itself and of the municipal government more generally, and monitors municipal assets and supervises public servants conduct, similar to a US Inspector General.

The other six City Councilors are voting members whose principal function is analysis and overall direction, rather than direct implementation of the council's decisions.[31][32] The Mayor is represented at the community action level by seven subdelegates (Subdelegados Municipales), who are appointed by the City Council to perform certain functions: presently serving are Agua Verde, San Javier, Ligüi, Colonia Zaragoza, San Nicolás, Tembabiche, and San Juan.

Mayors of Loreto
Years Name Political Party
2014–2018 Prof. Arely Arce Peralta PAN
2011–2014 Jorge Alberto Avilés Pérez PRI
2008–2011 Prof. Yuan Yee Cunningham PRD
2005–2008 Rosalía Romero de Aguiar (2007–2008)
Rodolfo Davis Osuna (2005–2007)
2002–2005 Lic. Homero Davis Castro PAN
1999–2002 Lic. Antonio Verdugo Davis PRI
1996–1999 Ramón Davis Drew PRI
1993–1996 Alfredo García Green PAN


Municipality of Loreto Votes
by Party in Presidential Elections (organized by IFE)
2006 45.88% 2,315 14.47% 730 35.41% 1,787
2000 43.80% 2,149 41.99% 2,060 11.84% 581
1994 37.07% 1,671 57.72% 2,602 1.91% 86
Municipality of Loreto
Votes by Party in Mayoral Elections
2008 20.7% 1,362 54.23% 3,569 23.58% 1,552
2005 36.3% 2,121 27.4% 1,597 28.8% 1,680
2002 38.83% 2,125 23.00% 1,259 34.65% 1,896
1999 40.3% 2,122 44.8% 2,364 11.0% 579
1996 43.7% 2,003 51.3% 2,351
1993 50.1% 1,735 49.9% 1,728

The Municipality was created in 1992 and Loreto citizens elected their first Mayor (Municipal President) in 1993. The Federal Electoral Institute, as of February 3, 2008, recorded 9,073 registered voters for the Municipality of Loreto. In Loreto, the main political parties are:

Loreto politics has demonstrated two characteristics: high voter participation and differentiated voting.

Municipality of Loreto
Participation in Mayor Elections and 2006 Presidential Election
Year Participation
2008 72.5%
2006 62.42%
2005 74.4%
2002 75.36%
1999 80.05%
1996 83.5%
1993 48.2%

Baja California Sur State has high voter participation than the rest of the country, and within the State, Loreto is the Municipality with the highest turnout. Local elections have generally had higher participation than General Elections (Elecciones Federales) for President, Senators and Deputies. Local election participation was as low as 48.2% in 1993 and as high as 83% in 1996 while participation in the last General Election was 62.42%.

Differentiated voting means that the citizens’ vote for the candidates rather than the political party, and thus often chose candidates of diverse political affiliation at the same election. Examples of differentiated voting are the 2005 State and local election, and the 2006 General Election. In the 2005 State and local elections, three different political parties won on the same election day, one for each of three offices: the winning candidates in Lareto were the PRI candidate Rodimiro Amaya for State Governor (but he lost the rest of the State), the PAN candidate Rodolfo Davis for Mayor, and the PRD candidate Antonio Olachea for State Representative (the current XII District State Representative). In 2006, Loreto voters elected Felipe Calderón, the winning PAN candidate, for President, and PRD candidates Francisco Obregón Senators and Juan Adolfo Orci Martínez Deputies. This differentiated voting pattern began in 1993, the year that the PRI was first defeated in a local election: PRI won the Governor election, but lost the Municipalities of La Paz, Comondú and Loreto, as well as the State Congress. Each election has had winners of dissimilar political affiliation. From 1999 to 2005, even though the PRD won almost all the local elections across the State, the Loreto Municipality was carried by either the PRI or the PAN, while the PRD won the Governor’s election and State Representative Election. In 2008, however, the PRD won both Mayor and State Representative offices.[36][37][38][39]

Local media

The city has one local radio station, XHLBS 92.5 FM Estéreo Loreto, which plays popular music and offers local news.


Loreto was the setting for the 7th-season finale of ABC reality TV show The Bachelor, aired May 16, 2005.[40]


The city is served by Loreto International Airport, offering domestic flights on carriers Aeromexico, AeroCalafia, and Aeroservicio Guerrero. It is also one of the few places to get aviation fuel in the Baja area.[41] International service is currently provided by Alaska Airlines and Horizon Air to Los Angeles. Beginning in 2015, WestJet has also offered seasonal weekly direct flights to Calgary.[42]

Further reading

  • Ann O’Neil and Don O’Neil (2001), Loreto, Baja California: First Mission and Capital of Spanish California, Tio Press, ISBN 0-9708541-0-2.
  • Alan Axelrod, David Axelrod and Aaron Bodansky (2007), Best Guide: Loreto, Loreto, Baja California Sur, Mexico; ISBN 978-0-9700455-8-4.
  • Brett Alan Wyatt (2005), You Decide Travel Guide:Loreto, Riley Books, ISBN 0-9708898-5-2.
  • Conservación del Territorio Insular Mexicano, A.C., Estudio socioeconómico de las comunidades costeras El Juncalito, Ligui, Ensenada Blanca y Agua Verde, Municipio de Loreto, B.C.S.
  • Miguel León-Portilla (1997), Loreto's key role in the early history of the Californias (1697–1773), California Mission Studies Association, OCLC 37842990.
  • Paul Gangster, Oscar Arizpe and Antonina Ivanova (2007), Loreto - The future of the first capital of the Californias, ISBN 978-0-925613-52-3
  • Sergio Morales Polo (1993), Loreto : some relevant facts about the history of the keystone of California culture, Editorial Londó, OCLC 39034134.
  • Nicole Dyan Peterson (2005), Casting a wide net decision-making in a Mexican marine park, Ph.D. dissertation, UCSD, OCLC: 64507505.
  • Loreto: Baja California, Mexico fishing chart and guide (1999), Baja "Directions", Inc., ISBN 1-929394-05-5, ISBN 978-1-929394-05-0.


  1. ^ http://www.saludbcs.gob.mx/estadistica/Tarjetas%20Estadisticas%20Ejecutivas%202015.pdf
  2. ^ http://www.saludbcs.gob.mx/estadistica/Tarjetas%20Estadisticas%20Ejecutivas%202015.pdf
  3. ^ http://www.saludbcs.gob.mx/estadistica/Tarjetas%20Estadisticas%20Ejecutivas%202015.pdf
  4. ^ http://www.saludbcs.gob.mx/estadistica/Tarjetas%20Estadisticas%20Ejecutivas%202015.pdf
  5. ^ Bolton, Herbert E. (1927). Fray Juan Crespi: Missionary Explorer on the Pacific Coast, 1769-1774. HathiTrust Digital Library. University of California Press. pp. 62–63. Retrieved 2016-10-15.
  6. ^ Paul J. Umhoefer (July 2002). "Evolution of the margin of the Gulf of California near Loreto, Baja California Peninsula, Mexico" (pdf). Geological Society of America Bulletin. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(2002)114<0849:eotmot>2.0.co;2. Retrieved 2007-01-23.
  7. ^ Aspectos geográficos de BCS. Temperatura media anual Archived 2007-06-10 at the Wayback Machine, INEGI
  8. ^ a b "Estacion Loreto (DGE)". Normales climatológicas 1951-2010 (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Retrieved January 17, 2013.
  9. ^ "Extreme Temperatures and Precipitation for Loreto (DGE) 1940-2010" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Retrieved February 13, 2016.
  10. ^ "NORMALES CLIMATOLÓGICAS 1981–2000" (PDF) (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Retrieved February 13, 2016.
  11. ^ "CLIMAT summary for 76305: Loreto, B.C.S (Mexico) – Section 2: Monthly Normals". CLIMAT monthly weather summaries. Ogimet. Retrieved February 4, 2018.
  12. ^ "Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México". Secretaría de Gobernación. Retrieved 2007-01-10.
  13. ^ Pam Bolles. "What's the weather going to be like tomorrow?". The Baja Big Fish Company Loreto. Retrieved 2007-01-23.
  14. ^ Alberto Hernández Unzón. (September 2006). "Resumen del huracán "John" del Océano Pacífico" (PDF). Comisión Nacional del Agua. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-10-04. Retrieved 2007-01-18.
  15. ^ "Hurricane John hits Loreto". The Baja Big Fish Company Loreto. 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-23.
  16. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-09-15. Retrieved 2014-09-15.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  17. ^ a b http://www.inegi.org.mx/
  18. ^ Vid. Francisco Davis Murillo Genealogía Familia Loretana
  19. ^ Harry Crosby (1977). "El Camino Real in Baja California: Loreto to San Diego". The Journal of San Diego History. 23. Retrieved 2007-01-18.
  20. ^ "Inauguration of the Binational Historic Corridor "El Camino Real Misionero de las Californias"" (Press release). California State Parks. April 27, 1996. Retrieved 2007-01-18.
  21. ^ "Camino Real Misionero de las Californias. Proyecto de Recuperación Patrimonial" (Press release). Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes. July 27, 2001. Archived from the original on October 12, 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-18.
  22. ^ David Rojas. "Loreto, Baja California Sur, Museo de las Misiones". Instituto Cultural "Raices Mexicanas". Archived from the original on 2007-06-06. Retrieved 2007-06-19.
  23. ^ "Zonas arqueológicas". Dirección de Turismo Municipal de Loreto. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-06-19.
  24. ^ Gene Kira. "Loreto Fishing Vacation & Travel Information". Mexico Fishing News. Retrieved 2007-01-18.
  25. ^ Pam Bolles (July 1998). "Loreto: Alive and Well". The Baja Big Fish Company Loreto, reedited from Pacific Fisherman Magazine. Archived from the original on 2006-12-06. Retrieved 2007-01-23.
  26. ^ Mark Malkin. "Head to Baja's Loreto for Hot Summer Fishing Action". BoatersWorld.com. Retrieved 2007-01-18.
  27. ^ Pam Bolles. "IGFA World Record Game Fish taken off Loreto". The Baja Big Fish Company Loreto. Archived from the original on 2006-12-06. Retrieved 2007-01-18.
  28. ^ "Última llamada para pilotos". Esto. 10 December 2006. Retrieved 2007-06-20.
  29. ^ Pato Rojo (10 December 2006). "Resultados oficiales Loreto 300 millas". Desert Baja. Archived from the original on 7 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-20.
  30. ^ Pallesen, Kristian (July 18, 2005). "Mexico 14th Annual Fishin for the Mission Tournament Report". Mexico Fishing News. Retrieved 2007-01-23.
  31. ^ Reglamento Interior de Cabildo Archived 2007-06-21 at the Wayback Machine Ayuntamiento de Loreto
  32. ^ Reglamento Interior de la Administración Pública Municipal Archived 2007-06-21 at the Wayback Machine Ayuntamiento de Loreto
  33. ^ Alfonso Gavito González, Desbandada de priístas en BCS y Quintana Roo tras la elección interna, La Jornada, Cd. de México, D.F., September 22, 1998.
  34. ^ Desbandada panista en BCS para afiliarse al PANAL Revista Dossier Político
  35. ^ El PANAL fortalecido por la fractura perredistaLa Jornada
  36. ^ de las Elecciones Federales de México 2006. Baja California Sur. Elección de Presidente, Instituto Federal Electoral
  37. ^ Local Election Database. Baja California Sur Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback MachineCenter of Research for Development Archived 2007-06-06 at the Wayback Machine
  38. ^ SIEM. Sistema Electoral Mexicano. Resultados Baja California Sur Archived 2007-09-29 at the Wayback Machine Instituto de Mercadotecnia y Opinión
  39. ^ Resultados Electorales 1998-2005 Baja California Sur Archived 2007-05-19 at the Wayback MachineInstituto Estatal Electoral de Baja California Sur
  40. ^ "CRM3 Delivers ABC's 'The Bachelor' to Loreto Bay". SiteSeek. Retrieved 2007-06-19.
  41. ^ Hoddenbach, Jim (9 April 2015) "Baja Bound, a Video" Reference contained in video. Disciples of Flight. Retrieved 21 August 2015)
  42. ^ "WestJet launches service to Loreto". Calgary International Airport. 14 February 2015. Retrieved 31 October 2017.

Morales Polo, Sergio, THE MISSION OF SAN JAVIER. A beautiful link of Jesuit Missions chain in the Royal Road of the Californias. Edit. Londó, México 2007

External links

Coordinates: 26°00′46″N 111°20′36″W / 26.01278°N 111.34333°W

Aeropuertos y Servicios Auxiliares

Aeropuertos y Servicios Auxiliares (ASA) is a Mexican Federal Government-owned corporation with its own equity capital and legal identity. It has its headquarters in Mexico City in Venustiano Carranza, Mexico City. It was set up in June 1965 to oversee management, operations and development of Mexico's airports. As of 2015 it operated 19 airports and part-operated another 5. It also provides aviation fuel at 63 Locations.

Alfredo García Green

Alfredo García Green (born December 29, 1953 in Baja California Sur) is a Mexican politician affiliated with the conservative National Action Party (PAN). He was the first municipal president (mayor) of Loreto, Baja California Sur, following that municipality's 1992 creation, and state's party president. García Green is the son of Consuelo Green Garayzar and stepson of Francisco Larrinaga. He has worked with the environmental NGO "Grupo Ecologista Antares", which is involved in conservation efforts in the Loreto region.

Carlos Mendoza Davis

Carlos Mendoza Davis (born 21 April 1969), is a Mexican public official. A lawyer by profession, he has earned two master's degrees and has held several positions in the federal government. From May 2007 to October 2010, he served as regional representative of the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) in Baja California Sur.

Ciudad Insurgentes

Ciudad Insurgentes is a city in the Mexican state of Baja California Sur. It is the second-largest community in the municipality of Comondú and is located 250 kilometers north of La Paz, Baja California Sur, and 175 kilometers south of Loreto, Baja California Sur. Ciudad Insurgentes's population was 11,503 inhabitants in the 2015 census.

Felipe de Barri

Felipe de Barri (?-1784) was Comandante of Alta California. He moved there from Loreto, Baja California Sur Pedro Fages served as the Military Governor from July 9, 1770 to March 23, 1774 at Presidio of Monterey, California. Barri has some friction with the President of the Catholic priests of the Franciscan order, Father President Fray Vicente Mora, but for the most part it was time of peace. But, Barri was quick to judge and was suspicious, fearing the return of troubles that the Jesuits were accused of. He and Francisco Palóu, administrator and historian on the Baja and Alta California has some troubles. There was a small revolt at Todos Santos.While Felipe de Barri was the Civil Governor three new Spanish missions in California were established: Mission San Gabriel founded in 1771, Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa founded in 1772 and Mission San Francisco de Asís (also called Mission Dolores) founded in 1776.

Felipe de Barri was asked to step down as Governor coming down too hard and too often the missionaries. He joined with Captain Fernando Rivera y Moncada often in judging and being too suspicious of the missionaries. After serving in Baja California he departed on March 26, 1775 for San Blas, Nayarit, Mexico. Later Barri became the Civil Governor of Durango, Mexico. He died in office in Durango in 1784.

Felipe de Goicoechea

Don Felipe Antonio de Goicoechea was born in 1747 in Cosalá, Sinaloa, Mexico. He joined the Spanish military at age 35 as a cadet. In June 1782, was promoted to alférez. In 1783 while serving in the presidial company of Buenavista (Lower California), Don Felipe was commissioned as lieutenant and received orders to proceed to Alta California to take command of the Presidio of Santa Barbara. He assumed command in Santa Bárbara on January 25, 1784, taking over from José Francisco Ortega. He supervised construction of the fortifications and living quarters for the soldiers and their families and remained in command until 1802. The Presidio was built based on designs he drew up in 1788.

In 1805 he was appointed governor of the province of Baja California, but did not assume office until 1806. He held that position until his death in 1814 at Loreto, Baja California Sur.


The Guaycura (Waicura, Waikuri, Guaycuri) were a native people of Baja California Sur, Mexico, occupying an area extending south from near Loreto to Todos Santos They contested the area around La Paz with the Pericú. The Guaycura were nomadic hunter-gatherers. They are distinguished by a language unrelated to any other Native American language, indicating in the opinion of some linguists that their ancestry in Baja California dates back thousands of years.

The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) of the Catholic Church established Christian missions in their territory in the 18th century. The Guaycura may have numbered 5,000 at the time of Spanish contact, but their numbers quickly declined, mostly due to European diseases. They became extinct as a culture by about 1800, the survivors being absorbed into the mestizo society of Mexico.

Isla del Carmen (Baja California)

Isla del Carmen is an island of 37,000 acres (15,000 ha), located in the Gulf of California, in Loreto Municipality in the eastern portion of the state of Baja California Sur, Mexico. The island is protected within Loreto Bay National Park which is within the UNESCO "Islands and Protected Areas of the Gulf of California" Mexican World Heritage Site.

Jack Joseph Kempf

Jack Joseph Kempf (May 12, 1935 - July 1, 2003) was a business owner and politician in British Columbia. He represented Omineca in the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia from 1975 to 1991 as a Social Credit member.

He was born in Kelowna, British Columbia, the son of Steve Kempf and Katherine Klein. Kempf was a motel and restaurant owner. He served on the municipal council for Houston, British Columbia and also served as mayor. Kempf served in the provincial cabinet, first as Minister of Lands, Parks and Housing, and then as Minister of Forests and Lands.Kempf died in Loreto, Baja California Sur, Mexico, where he had lived in retirement.

José Antonio Roméu

José Antonio Roméu (1742? – 1792) was sixth Spanish governor of Alta California, from 1791 to 1792.While serving as a captain in the Spanish army in 1782, José Antonio Roméu led a retaliatory action after the Quechan Yuma Massacre of 1781. In 1781, the Yuma tribe attacked and damaged the Spanish Arizona mission settlements of San Pedro y San Pablo de Bicuñer and Puerto de Purísima Concepción, killing Lieutenant Governor Fernando Rivera, the mission Father of the Arizona mission, and others. Roméu was the military leader on this action against the tribe. The Spanish were unable to defeat the Yuma, and the tribe remained in control of the land for the following seventy years. The event closed the Anza Trail, crippling the overland population growth of the Yum colony.

Pedro Fages stepped down as governor, at the request of Father Junipero Serra, and departed Monterey, California in April 1791. The capital of Monterey also served as the main port of entry into California.In 1791 Lieutenant Colonel José Antonio Roméu was asked to replace Fages. Roméu, his wife Doña Josefa, and daughter first travelled to Loreto, Baja California Sur arriving on March 17, 1791. In Baja his health turned poor. He had chest pains that caused difficulty sleeping and indigestion. Roméu arrived at Monterey in 1791, he was very ill and barely able to do his job. He led in a time of peace and worked well with the Spanish missions in California and Franciscan padres. During Roméu's tenure as governor, two missions were founded: Mission Santa Cruz (August 28, 1791) and Mission Nuestra Señora de la Soledad (October 9, 1791). By March 1792 he was bed ridden. He served just one year before passing away on April 9, 1792. His funeral and burial interment were at Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo. In October 1792 his wife and daughter returned to Mexico.

José Velásquez (explorer)

José Velásquez (1717–1785) was a Spanish soldier who served in Baja California, Mexico, and in Alta California, leading notable exploring expeditions and describing the region in his diaries and reports.

Velásquez was born in San Ildefonso de Ostimuri, Sonora. In 1751, he enlisted as a private in the military forces based at Loreto, Baja California Sur, under the administration of the Jesuit missionaries.

When the Jesuits were expelled from Baja California and the Franciscans and the government of New Spain assumed responsibility for the peninsula in 1768, Velásquez was promoted to the rank of corporal. He apparently travelled with the Portolà expedition, first overland party to San Diego and Monterey in Alta California in 1769-1770. Velásquez served under Fernando Rivera y Moncada, second in command of the expedition. At Monterey in 1770 he was dispatched south with documents, travelling overland as far as southern Baja California Sur and from there to San Blas and Mexico City.

Velásquez returned to Baja California in 1771 and was promoted to sergeant. In 1773 he was again promoted, to the rank of alférez (ensign), and put in command of the military detachment at Velicatá.

In 1773, the Dominicans replaced the Franciscans in Baja California, and the remainder of Junipero Serra's Franciscans went north into Alta California. An important part of Velásquez' duties was to locate potential sites for Dominican missions in the frontier zone between Velicatá and San Diego. He led expeditions that located the sites of El Rosario, Santo Domingo, and San Vicente. He also explored the desert lying to the east of the Sierra San Pedro Mártir.

Velásquez was transferred in 1780 to the presidio of San Diego, where he served as second in command. In July 1781, the Quechan Indians on the lower Colorado River rose in revolt and killed Hispanic missionaries, settlers, and travelers. Velásquez was in charge of the San Diego detachment that was sent to punish the rebels (with little success).

In 1783 Velásquez led an exploratory party that reconnoitered the backcountry east of San Diego for a possible more direct route to the lower Colorado River. In 1785, he led a more ambitious exploration that went from San Vicente northeast to the lower Colorado River and Imperial Valley, and then back to San Diego.

Velásquez described his explorations in several diaries or reports that have subsequently been published. These are important sources on the early history and ethnography of the region.

Misión de Nuestra Señora de Loreto Conchó

Misión de Nuestra Señora de Loreto Conchó, or Mission Loreto, was founded on October 25, 1697 at the Monqui Native American (Indian) settlement of Conchó in the present city of Loreto, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Established by the Catholic Church's Jesuit missionary Juan María de Salvatierra, Loreto was the first successful mission and Spanish town in Baja California. The mission is located at 26°00′37″N 111°20′36″W.

The mission closed in 1829. The Mission Church survives and is located in downtown Loreto.

Mission San Juan Bautista (disambiguation)

Mission San Juan Bautista may refer to any of the following missions, all of which are named for John the Baptist:

Mission San Juan Bautista, in San Juan Bautista, California, United States

Misión San Juan Bautista Malibat, near Loreto, Baja California Sur, Mexico

Mission San Juan Bautista (Mexico), in Guerrero, Coahuila, Mexico


The Monqui were indigenous peoples of Mexico (American Indians), who lived in the vicinity of Loreto, Baja California Sur, Mexico, at the time of Spanish contact. Monqui territory included about 65 kilometres (40 mi) of coast along the Gulf of California and extended a few kilometers inland to where the Cochimi people lived.

Probably first encountered by explorers traveling up the Gulf of California during the sixteenth century, the Monqui were subjected to some of the peninsula's earliest intensive Jesuit missionary efforts during the late seventeenth century. The Tyrolean Jesuit Eusebio Francisco Kino, together with Admiral Isidoro de Atondo y Antillon, unsuccessfully attempted to establish Misión San Bruno on the northern margin of Monqui territory in 1684-1685. The first permanent mission and settlement in Baja California was founded in Monqui territory at Loreto in 1697 by Juan María de Salvatierra.

In contrast to many of their Jesuit colleagues, Kino and Salvatierra included relatively few notes on native ethnography in their letters and reports. Most of what is known about the aboriginal culture of the Monqui comes from incidental comments in explorers' accounts and at second hand in the works of the Jesuit historian Miguel Venegas (1757, 1979).

Peninsular Ranges

The Peninsular Ranges (also called the Lower California province) are a group of mountain ranges that stretch 1,500 km (930 mi) from Southern California to the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula; they are part of the North American Coast Ranges, which run along the Pacific Coast from Alaska to Mexico. Elevations range from 500 to 10,834 feet (152 to 3,302 m).


Reductions or in Spanish reducciones, also called 'congregaciones', (Portuguese: redução, plural reduções) were settlements created by Spanish rulers in Spanish America and the Spanish East Indies. The Spanish relocated, forcibly if necessary, native inhabitants of their colonies (the indios) into settlements which were modeled on towns and villages in Spain. In Portuguese-speaking Latin America, reductions were also called aldeias.

USNS Mission Loreto

SS Mission Loreto was a Type T2-SE-A2 tanker built for the United States Maritime Commission during World War II. After the war she was acquired by the United States Navy as USS Mission Loreto (AO-116). Later the tanker transferred to the Military Sea Transportation Service as USNS Mission Loreto (T-AO-116). She was a Mission Buenaventura-class oiler and was named for Misión de Nuestra Señora de Loreto Conchó, located in Loreto, Baja California Sur, Mexico, considered the "Head and Mother of all the California Missions."


XHLBC-FM is a radio station on 95.7 FM in Loreto, Baja California Sur. The station is branded as Radio La Giganta.

Climate data for Loreto, Baja California Sur (1951–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 31.0
Average high °C (°F) 23.5
Daily mean °C (°F) 17.2
Average low °C (°F) 11.0
Record low °C (°F) 2.0
Average precipitation mm (inches) 12.3
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 1.3 0.7 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.1 2.3 2.1 1.0 0.7 1.2 10.9
Average relative humidity (%) 68 67 66 65 66 65 64 64 69 66 66 68 66
Mean monthly sunshine hours 248 293 297 309 360 352 326 305 289 289 255 240 3,563
Source #1: Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (humidity, 1981–2000)[8][9][10]
Source #2: Ogimet (sun 1981–2010)[11]
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