Lopingian

The Lopingian is the uppermost series/last epoch of the Permian.[2] It is the last epoch of the Paleozoic. The Lopingian was preceded by the Guadalupian and followed by the Early Triassic.

The Lopingian is often synonymous with the informal terms late Permian or upper Permian.

The name was introduced by Amadeus William Grabau in 1931 and derives from Leping, Jiangxi in the then Republic of China.[3] It consists of two stages/ages. The earlier is the Wuchiapingian and the later is the Changhsingian.[4]

The International Chronostratigraphic Chart (v2018/07)[2] provides a numerical age of 259.1 ±0.5 Ma. If a Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) has been approved, the lower boundary of the earliest stage determines numerical age of an epoch. The GSSP for the Wuchiapingian has a numerical age of 259.8 ± 0.4 Ma.[5][6]

The Lopingian ended with the Permian–Triassic extinction event.

System/
Period
Series/
Epoch
Stage/
Age
Age (Ma)
Triassic Lower/
Early
Induan younger
Permian Lopingian Changhsingian 251.902 254.14
Wuchiapingian 254.14 259.1
Guadalupian Capitanian 259.1 265.1
Wordian 265.1 268.8
Roadian 268.8 272.95
Cisuralian Kungurian 272.95 283.5
Artinskian 283.5 290.1
Sakmarian 290.1 295.0
Asselian 295.0 298.9
Carboniferous Pennsylvanian Gzhelian older
Subdivision of the Permian system
according to the ICS, as of 2017.[1]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Chart/Time Scale". www.stratigraphy.org. International Commission on Stratigraphy.
  2. ^ a b International Commission on Stratigraphy. "Chart". Retrieved 10 July 2018.
  3. ^ Zhang, Shouxin (2009). Geological Formation Names of China (1866–2000). Beijing/Dordrecht: Higher Education Press/Springer. p. 681. ISBN 978-7-040-25475-4.
  4. ^ Allaby, Michael (2015). A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences (4th ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780199653065.001.0001. ISBN 9780199653065.
  5. ^ International Commission on Stratigraphy. "GSSPs". Retrieved 10 July 2018.
  6. ^ Gradstein, Felix M.; Ogg, James G.; Smith, Alan G. (2004). A Geologic Time Scale 2004. ISBN 9780521786737.
Alopecognathus

Alopecognathus is an extinct genus of therocephalian therapsids from the Late Permian of South Africa.

Ceratitida

Ceratitida is an order that contains almost all ammonoid cephalopod genera from the Triassic as well as ancestral forms from the Upper Permian, the exception being the phylloceratids which gave rise to the great diversity of post Triassic ammonites.

Ceratitids overwhelmingly produced planospirally coiled discoidal shells that may be evolute with inner whorls exposed or involute with only the outer whorl showing. In a few later forms the shell became subglobular, in others, trochoidal or uncoiled. Sutures are typically ceratitic, with smooth saddles and serrate or digitized lobes. In a few the sutures are goniatitic while in others they are ammonitic.

Endothiodontia

Endothiodontia is a clade of dicynodont therapsids that includes the family Endothiodontidae and possibly the family Eumantellidae.

Euptychognathus

Euptychognathus is an extinct genus of dicynodont therapsid. The type species E. bathyrhynchus was first named in 1942 as Dicynodon bathyrhynchus. Fossils of the genus have been recovered from the Usili Formation of the Ruhuhu Basin in Tanzania.

Glanosuchus

Glanosuchus is a genus of scylacosaurid therocephalian from the Late Permian of South Africa. The type species G. macrops was named by Robert Broom in 1904. Glanosuchus had a middle ear structure that was intermediate between that of early therapsids and mammals. Ridges in the nasal cavity of Glanosuchus suggest it had an at least partially endothermic metabolism similar to modern mammals.

Goniatite

Goniatids, informally Goniatites, are ammonoid cephalopods that form the order Goniatitida, derived from the more primitive Agoniatitida during the Middle Devonian some 390 million years ago (around Eifelian stage). Goniatites (goniatitids) survived the Late Devonian extinction to flourish during the Carboniferous and Permian only to become extinct at the end of the Permian some 139 million years later.

Ictidochampsa

Ictidochampsa is an extinct genus of therocephalian therapsids from the Late Permian of South Africa. The type species Ictidochampsa platyceps was named by South African paleontologist Robert Broom in 1948 from the Dicynodon Assemblage Zone.

Ictidognathus

Ictidognathus is an extinct genus of non-mammalian synapsids that lived in South Africa during the Late Permian. Fossils are found in the Tropidostoma and Cistecephalus Assemblage Zones of the Beaufort Group in the Western Cape.

Kawingasaurus

Kawingasaurus is an extinct genus of dicynodont therapsid from the Late Permian. It is a member of the family Cistecephalidae, and like other cistecephalids it is thought to have been fossorial.

Macroscelesaurus

Macroscelesaurus is an extinct genus of therocephalian therapsid from the Late Permian of South Africa. The type species Macroscelesaurus janseni was named by Sidney H. Haughton in 1918 from the Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone. It is one of the few therocephalians known from postcranial remains.

Nanictidopidae

Nanictidopidae is an extinct family of therocephalian therapsids from the Late Permian. Two genera are currently included in the family, Nanictidops from South Africa and Purlovia from Russia. Nanictidopids have short skulls and were probably herbivorous.

Neopterygii

Neopterygii are a group of fish. Neopterygii means "new fins" (from Greek νέος neos, new, and πτέρυξ pteryx, fin). Only a few changes occurred during their evolution from the earlier actinopterygians. They appeared sometime in the Late Permian, before the time of the dinosaurs. The Neopterygii were a very successful group of fish, because they could move more rapidly than their ancestors. Their scales and skeletons began to lighten during their evolution, and their jaws became more powerful and efficient. While electroreception and the ampullae of Lorenzini are present in all other groups of fish, with the exception of hagfish (although hagfish are not Actinopterygii, they are Agnathans), Neopterygii have lost this sense, even if it has later been re-evolved within Gymnotiformes and catfishes, which possess nonhomologous teleost ampullae.

Niassodon

Niassodon is an extinct genus of kingoriid dicynodont therapsid known from the Late Permian of Niassa Province, northern Mozambique. It contains a single species, Niassodon mfumukasi.

Pelictosuchus

Pelictosuchus is an extinct genus of therocephalian therapsids from the Late Permian of South Africa. It is classified in the family Akidnognathidae. The type species Pelictosuchus paucidens was named by South African paleontologist Robert Broom in 1940 from the Dicynodon Assemblage Zone.Pelictosuchus was once classified in the family Nanictidopidae. Pelictosuchus and other therocephalians traditionally classified as nanictidopids have thin postorbital bars forming the back margins of the eye sockets and parietal bones that form a low sagittal crest at the top of the skull. They were thought to be closely related to another family of therocephalians called Scaloposauridae, although they differed from scaloposaurids in having higher, narrower skulls. Pelictosuchus is no longer classified as a nanictidopid, and is instead considered a member of Akidnognathidae.

Procynosuchus

Procynosuchus (Greek: "Before dog crocodile") is an extinct genus of cynodonts from the Late Permian. It is considered to be one of the earliest and most basal cynodonts. Remains of Procynosuchus have been found in Germany, Zambia and South Africa. It was 60 cm (2 ft) long.

Rhachiocephalus

Rhachiocephalus is an extinct genus of dicynodont therapsid.

Silphictidoides

Silphictidoides is an extinct genus of therocephalian therapsids from the Late Permian of Tanzania. The type species Silphictidoides ruhuhuensis was named by German paleontologist Friedrich von Huene in 1950 from the Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone. Silphictidoides was once classified within the family Silpholestidae. Silphedolestids are no longer recognized as a valid grouping, and Silphictidoides is now considered a basal member of the clade Baurioidea.

Tetracynodon

Tetracynodon is an extinct genus of therocephalian. Fossils of Tetracynodon have been found in the Karoo Basin of South Africa. Two species are known: the type species T. tenuis from the Late Permian and the species T. darti from the Early Triassic. Both species were small-bodied and probably fed on insects and small vertebrates. Although Tetracynodon is more closely related to mammals than it is to reptiles, its braincase is very primitive and shares more in common with modern amphibians and reptiles than it does with mammals.

Cenozoic era
(present–66.0 Mya)
Mesozoic era
(66.0–251.902 Mya)
Paleozoic era
(251.902–541.0 Mya)
Proterozoic eon
(541.0 Mya–2.5 Gya)
Archean eon (2.5–4 Gya)
Hadean eon (4–4.6 Gya)

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