Lono

In Hawaiian religion, the deity Lono is associated with fertility, agriculture, rainfall, music and peace. In one of the many Hawaiian stories of Lono, he is a fertility and music god who descended to Earth on a rainbow to marry Laka. In agricultural and planting traditions, Lono was identified with rain and food plants. He was one of the four gods (with , Kāne, and Kāne's twin brother Kanaloa)[1] who existed before the world was created. Lono was also the god of peace. In his honor, the great annual festival of the Makahiki was held. During this period (from October through February), war and unnecessary work was kapu (forbidden). In Hawaiian weather terminology, the winter Kona storms that bring rain to leeward areas are associated with Lono. Lono brings on the rains and dispenses fertility, and as such was sometimes referred to as Lono-makua (Lono the Provider). Ceremonies went through a monthly and yearly cycle. For 8 months of the year, the luakini (temple) was dedicated to Ku-with strict kapus. Four periods (kapu pule) each month required strict ceremonies. Violators could have their property seized by priests or overlord chiefs, or be sentenced to death for serious breaches.[2]

Figure of Lono-71.1879.10.11-DSC00191-black
Late 18th-century figure of Lono, on display at the Louvre.

Lono and Captain Cook

Some Native Hawaiians may have misidentified Captain James Cook as Lono's incarnation, which may have later caused Cook's death (see Third voyage of James Cook). It is uncertain whether Cook was mistaken for the god Lono, or one of several historical or legendary figures also named Lono-i-ka-Makahiki. It was traditionally held that the god Lono had appeared as a human who then established games and the annual taxing. Before departing to "Kahiki", he promised returning "by sea on the canoes ʻAuwaʻalalua". An unidentified queen identified it as a "Spanish man of war", recalling the alleged arrival of a Spanish galleon. Mary Pukui interpreted this as "very large double canoe", from ʻAu[hau]-waʻa-l[o]a-lua. However, Pukui may have been referring to the Portuguese man o' war, which Hawaiians called ʻAuwaʻalalua.[3]

Other Lonos

Better known to the Hawaiian mythology is an earlier Lono-i-ka-makahiki from the ʻUmi line of ruling Hawaii Island aliʻi (i.e., chiefs, royalty). This Lono was born and raised near the graves of Keawe and his descendants, which were near the place of Captain Cook's monument. This Lono may have cultivated the arts of warfare and puns as well as riddle games and spear-dodging games for the Makahiki.[3]

However, it is unlikely either late ruling chiefs on the ʻUmi line was the mythological Lono who departed to Kahiki. Both chiefs were born in Hawaii, and no legend tells of either of them sailing away with a promise to return. A more plausible candidate for the god Lono is the legendary Laʻa-mai-Kahiki (i.e., the "Sacred-one-from-Tahiti), who purportedly lived several centuries earlier. Laʻa came as a younger member of the Moikeha family of North Tahiti, older members of whom had settled earlier in the Hawaiian archipelago. He brought with him a small hand-drum, and a flute for the hula. Upon his arrival, the locals heard his flute and the rhythm of the new drumbeat, believing it was the god Kupulupulu. Kupulupulu was worshiped as god of the hula, who also took the form of the flowering lehua tree as well as the god of native fauna that sustained early Polynesian settlers. Especially on Oahu, this Laʻa-mai-kahiki took wives in various districts. Oahu Island was the stronghold of Lono's worship, where many families claimed descent from La'a. He seems to have sailed back to Tahiti at least once before his final departure. This traveler of a great Tahitian family, who appeared like a god, enriched the New Year festivals with games and drama, ultimately influencing the Hawaiians into believing he was a god.[3]

Hunter S. Thompson

The late Gonzo writer Hunter S. Thompson wrote that he believed himself to be the resurrected Lono while on assignment in Hawaii for Running magazine with artist and friend Ralph Steadman. In a letter included in the book The Great Shark Hunt, Thompson describes his arrival to Kailua Bay in 1981:

The word traveled swiftly, up and down the coast, and by nightfall the downtown streets were crowded with people who had come from as far away as South Point and the Waipio Valley to see for themselves if the rumor was really true - that Lono had, in fact, returned in the form of a huge drunken maniac who dragged fish out of the sea with his bare hands and then beat them to death on the dock with a short-handled Samoan war club.

Thompson's writings on the experience have been compiled into a book, The Curse of Lono, illustrated by Ralph Steadman. As Lono, Thompson is shown as wearing the head of a marlin as a mask, with his eyes doubling as the eyes of the fish.

See also

References

  1. ^ The Kumulipō, line 1714
  2. ^ Cordy, Ross "Exalted sits the chief: The ancient History of the Hawai'i Island". Honolulu, HI Mutual Publishing (2000), 61
  3. ^ a b c Beckwith 1951.
  • Thompson, Hunter (1979). The Great Shark Hunt: Strange Tales from a Strange Time, 1st ed., Summit Books, 105-109. ISBN 0-671-40046-0.
  • Martha Warren Beckwith (1951). "The Kumulipō".
  • Leilehua Yuen (includes role of Lono in the Makahiki). "Makahiki, the Hawaiian New Year". Archived from the original on 2013-01-28.
100 Bullets

100 Bullets is an American comic book published by DC Comics under its Vertigo imprint. Written by Brian Azzarello and illustrated by Eduardo Risso, the comic book ran for 100 issues and won the Eisner Award and Harvey Award.

French onion soup

French onion soup (French: soupe à l’oignon [sup a lɔɲɔ̃]) is a type of soup usually based on meat stock and onions, and often served gratinéed with croutons and cheese on top or a large piece of bread. Although ancient in origin, the dish underwent a resurgence of popularity in the 1960s in the United States due to a greater interest in French cuisine. French onion soup is usually served as a starter.

Hawaiian religion

Hawaiian religion encompasses the indigenous religious beliefs and practices of the Native Hawaiians. It is polytheistic and animistic, with a belief in many deities and spirits, including the belief that spirits are found in non-human beings and objects such as animals, the waves, and the sky.

Hawaiian religion originated among the Tahitians and other Pacific islanders who landed in Hawaiʻi between 500 and 1300 AD. Today, Hawaiian religious practices are protected by the American Indian Religious Freedom Act. Traditional Hawaiian religion is unrelated to the modern New Age practice known as "Huna."

Kaikilani

Kaikilani was a legendary figure in Hawaiian native oral tradition who dates to around the 16th century in the western calendar. She was married to Lonoikamakahiki (Lono) who was heir to the throne of the main island, the moiship. When the king died Lono did not feel he was ready for the responsibility of kingship and declined to rule until he had mastered the martial skills. Kaikilani stepped into his place and ruled as the first chieftess in Hawaiian history. When Lono had shown his martial skills to the satisfaction of his subjects he returned and took up the throne.

A crater on the planet Venus has been named Kaikilani in her honour, see List of craters on Venus.

Kāne

In Hawaiian mythology, Kāne is considered the highest of the four major Hawaiian deities, along with Kanaloa, Kū, and Lono, though he is most closely associated with Kanaloa. He represented the god of procreation and was worshipped as ancestor of chiefs and commoners. Kāne is the creator and gives life associated with dawn, sun and sky. No human sacrifice or laborious ritual was needed in the worship of Kāne.

In Hawaiian mythology, Kū or Kūkaʻilimoku is one of the four great gods. The other three are Kanaloa, Kāne, and Lono.

Feathered god images or ʻaumakua hulu manu are considered to represent Kū. Kū is worshipped under many names, including Kū-ka-ili-moku (also written Kūkaʻilimoku), the "Snatcher of Land". Kūkaʻilimoku rituals included human sacrifice, which was not part of the worship of other gods.

Lewat Tengah Malam

Lewat Tengah Malam (literally Past Midnight) is a 1971 Indonesian film and the first feature-length production by director Sjumandjaja. Starring Rachmat Hidayat, Rima Melati, and Soekarno M. Noer, it follows a thief named Lono who steals from the corrupt to give to the poor. The film, which may have been influenced by The Thomas Crown Affair (1968), was reportedly very tiring for the director, who briefly considered never directing again. The social realist elements led to Suharto's New Order government keeping Sjumandjaja under surveillance.

List of 100 Bullets characters

100 Bullets is a fictional crime drama published by Vertigo imprint of DC Comics. As with other noir and pulp characters, both protagonists and antagonists of 100 Bullets are deeply flawed.

List of figures in the Hawaiian religion

Hawaiian narrative or mythology, tells stories of nature and life. It is considered a variant of a more general Polynesian narrative, developing its own unique character for several centuries before about 1800. It is associated with the Hawaiian religion. The religion was officially suppressed in the 19th century, but kept alive by some practitioners to the modern day.

List of teams and cyclists in the 1978 Tour de France

For the 1978 Tour de France, the following 11 teams each sent 10 cyclists, for a total of 110: Since the 1977 Tour de France, dominant riders as Eddy Merckx, Felice Gimondi, Raymond Poulidor and Luis Ocaña had retired.Lucien Van Impe, the winner of 1976, had broken his collarbone and was still recovering.The main contenders were debutant Hinault, who had won the 1978 Vuelta a España, and Joop Zoetemelk, who had already finished in second place for three times. Pre-race analysis judged Hinault better in the time trials, and Zoetemelk better in the mountains. Bernard Thévenet, the winner of the 1977 Tour de France, was out of form, and not considered a favourite.

Lono-a-Piilani

Lono-a-Piʻilani was the Moʻi of Maui. He was a king of that Hawaiian island and was named after god Lono.

Makahiki

The Makahiki season is the ancient Hawaiian New Year festival, in honor of the god Lono of the Hawaiian religion.

It is a holiday covering four consecutive lunar months, approximately from October or November through February or March. The focus of this season was a time for men, women and chiefs to rest, strengthen the body, and have great feasts of commemoration (ʻahaʻaina hoʻomanaʻo). During Makahiki season labor was prohibited and there were days for resting and feasting. The Hawaiians gave thanks to the god Lonoikamakahiki for his care. He brought life, blessings, peace and victory to the land. They also prayed to the gods for the death of their enemies. Makaʻainana (commoners) prayed that lands of their aliʻi (chief) may be increased, and that their own physical health along with the health of their chiefs be at the fullest.In antiquity, many religious ceremonies occurred during this period. Commoners stopped work, made offerings to the chief or aliʻi, and then spent their time practicing sports, feasting, dancing and renewing communal bonds. During the four lunar months of the Makahiki season warfare was forbidden which was used as "a ritually inscribed means to assure that nothing would adversely affect the new crops."Today, the Aloha Festivals (originally Aloha Week) celebrate the Makahiki tradition.

Piʻikea

Piʻikea (Hawaiian language: piʻi = "to ascend", ke = "the", ea = "life"; "the life ascends") was a High Chiefess, a Princess of Maui and Queen consort of Hawaii. She was born ca. 1626.

She was a daughter of King Piʻilani and Queen La’ieloheloheikawai and sister of Kings Lono and Kiha. Piʻilani built a great temple; according to the myth, he was a son of Kū.

Piʻikea went to Hawaiʻi and married their King ʻUmi-a-Liloa. Their son was called Kumalae. They also had a daughter, Aihākōkō.

When Kiha had to flee from Maui, he sought refuge with Piʻikea, at the court of ʻUmi. Here his sister advocated his cause so warmly, and insisted with ʻUmi so urgently, that the latter was induced to espouse the cause of the younger brother against the older, and prepared an expedition to invade Maui, depose Lono, and raise Kiha-a-Piʻilani to the throne of his father. ʻUmi summoned the chiefs of the various districts of Hawaii to prepare for the invasion of Maui. When all the preparations were ready, ʻUmi headed the expedition in person, accompanied by his wife and her brother and by his bravest warriors. Crossing the waters of ʻAlenuihāhā Channel between Maui and Hawaiʻi, the fleet of ʻUmi effected a landing at Kapueokahi, the harbour of Hāna, Maui, where Lono had continued to reside after Piilani's death.

Having failed to prevent the landing of ʻUmi's forces, Lono retired to the fortress on the top of the neighbouring hill called Kauwiki. ʻUmi laid siege to the fort of Kauwiki, and, after some delay and several unsuccessful attempts, finally captured the fort, and Lono having fallen in the battle, Kiha-a-Piʻilani was proclaimed and acknowledged as a king. Having accomplished this, ʻUmi and his forces returned to Hawaiʻi.

Sarcastic Gamer

SarcasticGamer.com was an independent video gaming blog and community site that was relaunched as a podcast. As part of the GamerCast Network, a community of independent podcasters, the website focused on parodying the latest events happening in the gaming industry. Although the website was best known for its satirical news articles and parodies, it also featured reviews, news, opinions and rants. All articles, however, stayed true to the "sarcastic" ethos of the site. Sarcastic Gamer was relaunched as a podcast-only website in December 2012 before closing its site in 2015.

Suicide Kings

Suicide Kings is a 1997 American crime comedy thriller film directed by Peter O'Fallon and starring Christopher Walken, Denis Leary, Sean Patrick Flanery, Johnny Galecki, Jay Mohr, Jeremy Sisto and Henry Thomas. Based on Don Stanford's short story The Hostage, the film follows the group of criminals who kidnap a respected Mafia figure. It has a 34% approval rating on Rotten Tomatoes and grossed $1.7 million in the US.

Temein language

Temein, also known as Ron(g)e, is an Eastern Sudanic language spoken by the Temein people of the Nuba Hills in Sudan.

Ronge is an approximation of the endonym. Stevenson reports the people are ɔ̀rɔ́ŋɡɔ̀ʔ and the language lɔ́ŋɔ na rɔŋɛ; Dimmendaal has ɔ́ràntɛ̀t for a person, kààkɪ́nɪ́ ɔ́rɔ̀ŋɛ̀ for the people, and ŋɔ́nɔ́t ná ɔ́rɔ̀ŋɛ for the language.

The Curse of Lono

The Curse of Lono is a book by Hunter S. Thompson describing his experiences in Hawaii in 1980. Originally published in 1983, the book was only in print for a short while. In 2005 it was re-released as a limited edition. Only 1000 copies were produced, each one being signed by the author and artist Ralph Steadman. Due to Steadman's popularity the book contained a large number of his drawings and paintings. The book is now available as a smaller hardcover edition.

The Voice (U.S. TV series)

The Voice is an American singing competition television series broadcast on NBC. It premiered during the spring television cycle on April 26, 2011, and expanded into the fall cycle with the premiere of the third season on September 10, 2012. Based on the original The Voice of Holland, it has aired fifteen seasons and aims to find currently unsigned singing talent (solo or duets, professional and amateur) contested by aspiring singers, age 13 or over, drawn from public auditions.The winner is determined by television viewers voting by telephone, internet, SMS text, and iTunes Store purchases of the audio-recorded artists' vocal performances. They receive US$100,000 and a record deal with Universal Music Group for winning the competition. The winners of the sixteenth seasons have been: Javier Colon, Jermaine Paul, Cassadee Pope, Danielle Bradbery, Tessanne Chin, Josh Kaufman, Craig Wayne Boyd, Sawyer Fredericks, Jordan Smith, Alisan Porter, Sundance Head, Chris Blue, Chloe Kohanski, Brynn Cartelli, Chevel Shepherd, and Maelyn Jarmon.

The series employs a panel of four coaches who critique the artists' performances and guide their teams of selected artists through the remainder of the season. They also compete to ensure that their act wins the competition, thus making them the winning coach. The original panel featured Christina Aguilera, CeeLo Green, Adam Levine, and Blake Shelton; the panel for the sixteenth season features Levine, Shelton, Kelly Clarkson and John Legend. Other coaches from previous seasons include Shakira, Usher, Gwen Stefani, Pharrell Williams, Miley Cyrus, Alicia Keys, and Jennifer Hudson. In the fifteenth season, Kelsea Ballerini was featured as an off-screen fifth coach for "Comeback Stage" contestants. Bebe Rexha took over as the "Comeback Stage" coach for the sixteenth season. In May 2019, it was announced that the series would continue into its seventeenth season.

Waka (mythology)

Waka, in Hawaiian mythology, is a lizard goddess worshipped by female chiefs. In the Ha'inakolo narrative, she was sent in the form of an eel to bar Lono-kai from the land of Kū'ai-he-lani. When Lono-kai caught the eel and cut it open, a beautiful woman emerged who attempted to seduce him. In the Lā'ie-i-ka-wei narrative, Waka acts as the guardian of a beautiful girl until she can find her a suitable husband.The Waka Mons, a mountain on Venus, is named for her.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.