In radio, longwave, long wave or long-wave, and commonly abbreviated LW, refers to parts of the radio spectrum with wavelengths longer than what was originally called the medium-wave broadcasting band. The term is historic, dating from the early 20th century, when the radio spectrum was considered to consist of longwave (LW), medium-wave (MW), and short-wave (SW) radio bands. Most modern radio systems and devices use wavelengths which would then have been considered 'ultra-short'.
In contemporary usage, the term longwave is not defined precisely, and its intended meaning varies. It may be used for radio wavelengths longer than 1,000 m i.e. frequencies[note 1] up to 300 kilohertz (kHz), including the International Telecommunications Union's (ITU's) low frequency (LF, 30–300 kHz) and very low frequency (VLF, 3–30 kHz) bands. Sometimes the upper limit is taken to be higher than 300 kHz, but not above the start of the medium wave broadcast band at 525 kHz.
In Europe, Africa, and large parts of Asia (International Telecommunication Union Region 1), where a range of frequencies between 148.5 and 283.5 kHz is used for AM broadcasting in addition to the medium-wave band, the term longwave usually refers specifically to this broadcasting band, which falls wholly within the low frequency band of the radio spectrum (30–300 kHz). The "Longwave Club of America" (United States) is interested in "frequencies below the AM broadcast band" (i.e., all frequencies below 525 kHz).
Because of their long wavelength, radio waves in this frequency range can diffract over obstacles like mountain ranges and travel beyond the horizon, following the contour of the Earth. This mode of propagation, called ground wave, is the main mode in the longwave band. The attenuation of signal strength with distance by absorption in the ground is lower than at higher frequencies, and falls with frequency. Low frequency ground waves can be received up to 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) from the transmitting antenna. Very low frequency waves below 30 kHz can be used to communicate at transcontinental distances, and can penetrate saltwater to depths of hundreds of feet, and is used by the military to communicate with submerged submarines.
Low frequency waves can also occasionally travel long distances by reflecting from the ionosphere (the actual mechanism is one of refraction), although this method, called skywave or "skip" propagation, is not as common as at higher frequencies. Reflection occurs at the ionospheric E layer or F layers. Skywave signals can be detected at distances exceeding 300 kilometres (190 mi) from the transmitting antenna.
Non-directional beacons transmit continuously for the benefit of radio direction finders in marine and aeronautical navigation. They identify themselves by a callsign in Morse code. They can occupy any frequency in the range 190–1750 kHz. In North America, they occupy 190–535 kHz. In ITU Region 1 the lower limit is 280 kHz.
There are institutional broadcast stations in the range that transmit coded time signals to radio clocks. For example:
Radio-controlled clocks receive their time calibration signals with built-in long-wave receivers. They use long-wave, rather than short-wave or medium-wave, because long-wave signals from the transmitter to the receiver always travel along the same direct path across the surface of the Earth, so the time delay correction for the signal travel time from the transmitting station to the receiver is always the same for any one receiving location.
Longwaves travel by groundwaves that hug the surface of the earth, unlike mediumwaves and shortwaves. Those higher-frequency signals do not follow the surface of the Earth beyond a few kilometers, but can travel as skywaves, ‘bouncing’ off different layers of the ionosphere at different times of day. These different propagation paths can make the time lag different for every signal received. The delay between when the long-wave signal was sent from the transmitter (when the coded time was correct) and when the signal is received by the clock (when the coded time is slightly late) depends on the overland distance between the clock and the transmitter and the speed of light through the air, which is also very nearly constant. Since the time lag is essentially the same, a single constant shift forward from the time coded in the signal can compensate for all long-wave signals received at any one location from the same time signal station.
The militaries of the United Kingdom, Russian Federation, United States, Germany, India and Sweden use frequencies below 50 kHz to communicate with submerged submarines.
In North America during the 1970s, the frequencies 167, 179 and 191 kHz were assigned to the short-lived Public Emergency Radio of the United States. Nowadays, in the United States, Part 15 of FCC regulations allows unlicensed use of 136 kHz and the 160–190 kHz band at output power up to 1 watt with up to a 15-meter antenna. This is called Low Frequency Experimental Radio (LowFER). The 190–435 kHz band is used for navigational beacons.
Swedish station SAQ, located at the Varberg Radio Station facility in Grimeton, is the last remaining operational Alexanderson alternator long-wave transmitter. Although the station ended regular service in 1996, it has been maintained as a World Heritage Site, and makes at least two demonstration transmissions yearly, on 17.2 kHz.
Longwave is used for broadcasting only within ITU Region 1. The long-wave broadcasters are located in western, northern, central, and southeastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, Mongolia, Algeria, and Morocco.
Typically, a larger geographic area can be covered by a long-wave broadcast transmitter compared to a medium-wave one. This is because ground-wave propagation suffers less attenuation due to limited ground conductivity at lower frequencies.
Long-wave carrier frequencies are exact multiples of 9 kHz; ranging from 153 to 279 kHz, except for a French-language station, Europe #1 in Germany. This station kept correctly spaced channels spacing for 4 months—only 7 years ago, and all Mongolian transmitters are 2 kHz above the internationally recognized channels.
Until the 1970s, some long-wave stations in northern and eastern Europe and the Soviet Union operated on frequencies as high as 433 kHz.
Some radio broadcasters, for instance Droitwich transmitting station in the UK, derive their carrier frequencies from an atomic clock, allowing their use as frequency standards. Droitwich also broadcasts a low bit-rate data channel, using narrow-shift phase-shift keying of the carrier, for Radio Teleswitch Services.
In 2014 and 2015 Russia closed all of its LW broadcast transmitters.
Because long-wave signals can travel very long distances, some radio amateurs and shortwave listeners engage in an activity called DXing. DXers attempt to listen in to far away transmissions, and they will often send a reception report to the sending station to let them know where they were heard. After receiving a report, the sending station may mail the listener a QSL card to acknowledge this reception.
Reception of long-wave signals at distances in excess of 17,000 kilometres (11,000 mi) have been verified.
|153||Radio Antena Satelor||Romanian||Romania||Brașov||T-aerial on 2 guyed steel lattice masts, height: 250 metres (820 ft)||200|
|NRK P1||Norwegian||Norway||Ingøy||Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast 352 metres (1,155 ft) tall, fed at the top, ex-Omega equipment||100||The transmitter is important for the fishing fleet in the Barents Sea|
|Arabic||Algeria||Kénadsa||Three 357 metres (1,171 ft) tall guyed masts||500||Active with very low modulation and power|
|162||ANFR (TDF time signal)||French||France||Allouis||Two guyed lattice steel masts, height: 350 metres (1,150 ft) fed on the top||1000
|Time signal phase-modulated; the frequency broadcast France Inter until the end of 2016. Now only the time signal for public clocks is transmitted. The ANFR is in charge of this.|
|164||MNB Radio 1||Mongolian||Mongolia||Ulaanbaatar||259 metres (850 ft) tall cable-stayed steel truss mast||500||Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC|
|171||Médi 1||Arabic and French||Morocco||Nador||Directional aerial consisting of three guyed steel lattice masts, 380 metres (1,250 ft) tall||1600|
|183||Europe 1||French||Germany||Felsberg-Berus||Directional aerial, four ground insulated steel lattice masts 270 metres (890 ft), 276 metres (906 ft), 280 metres (920 ft) and 282 metres (925 ft) tall; spare aerial: two ground insulated steel lattice masts, height: 234 metres (768 ft)||2000||Main antenna:
|DRM tests after 00:00 UTC|
|189||RÚV Rás 1/RÚV Rás 2||Icelandic||Iceland||Gufuskalar near Hellissandur||Slight oval bi-directivity aerial, top loaded parallel connected triangular loops, mast as a common member, all guys insulated except two radiating diametrically opposed grounded top guys, loops closed by copper straps in the ground from two conducting guy grounding points to base of the guyed steel lattice mast insulated against ground, height: 412 metres (1,352 ft)||300|
|198||BBC Radio 4/BBC World Service||English||United Kingdom||Droitwich (SFN)||T-aerial on two guyed steel lattice masts insulated against ground with a height of 213 metres (699 ft)||500||All four transmitters carry Radio teleswitch PSK data; Droitwich relays BBC World Service from 01:00 to 05:20 UTC|
|Burghead (SFN)||Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, height 154 metres (505 ft)||50|
|Westerglen (SFN)||Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, height 152 metres (499 ft)|
|Dartford Tunnel (SFN)||0.004|
|207||RÚV Rás 1/RÚV Rás 2||Icelandic||Iceland||Eiðar near Egilsstaðir||Omnidirectional aerial, steel lattice mast insulated against ground, height 221 metres (725 ft)||100|
|209||MNB Radio 1||Mongolian||Mongolia||Choibalsan||Cable-stayed steel truss mast, height: 275.84 metres (905.0 ft)||75||Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC|
|Dalanzadgad||Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC|
|Olgii||Omnidirectional antenna, 352.5 metres (1,156 ft) high guyed mast||30||Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC|
|216||Radio Monte Carlo Info||French||France||Roumoules||Directional aerial, three 300 metres (980 ft) high guyed steel lattice masts, 330 metres (1,080 ft) high guyed steel lattice mast as backup aerial||700
|Transmitter located in France, in operation from 5:30 to 23:00 CET|
|225||Polskie Radio Jedynka||Polish||Poland||Solec Kujawski||Directional aerial, two guyed radio masts fed on the top, heights 330 metres (1,080 ft) and 289 metres (948 ft)||1000||Earlier Konstantynów was used ( )|
|227||MNB Radio 1||Mongolian||Mongolia||Altai||Cable-stayed steel truss mast||75||Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC|
|234||RTL||French||Luxembourg||Beidweiler||Directional aerial, three guyed grounded steel lattice masts, 290 metres (950 ft) high, with vertical cage aerials||1500
|Spare transmitter site Junglinster ( |
|243||DR Langbølge||Danish||Denmark||Kalundborg||Semi-directional Alexanderson antenna 153/333 degrees, two grounded 118 metres (387 ft) steel lattice radiating towers with interconnecting top wire capacitance||50||Transmitting in time slots only|
|Arabic||Algeria||Tipaza||Omnidirectional aerial, single guyed lattice steel mast, height 355 metres (1,165 ft)||750
|Half transmitter power during night|
|RTÉ Radio 1||English||Ireland||Clarkstown||Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, insulated against ground, height 248 metres (814 ft)||100
|The only AM transmitter for RTÉ Radio 1, power is decreased at night to 100 kW, it is tentatively scheduled to cease broadcasting in June 2019|
|270||ČRo Radiožurnál||Czech||Czech Republic||Topolná||Directional aerial (maximum of radiation in east-west direction), two grounded 257 metres (843 ft) high guyed steel lattice mast with cage aerials||50||Broadcasting from Monday to Friday 5:00-24:00 CET and 6:00-24:00 CET at weekends|
|279||TR1 Watan Radio||Turkmen||Turkmenistan||Ashgabat||Cable-stayed steel truss mast||150||Almost no modulation|
|Deutschlandfunk||Germany||Donebach||Directional aerial, two guyed steel lattice masts, 363 m high, fed at the top||500||;||closed|
|YuFM||Russia||Taldom transmitter||Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 257 m height||300||closed|
|Radio Rossii||Popova near Komsomolsk-na-Amure||1200||closed|
|162||TRT Radyo 4||Turkey||Agri||Two guyed lattice steel masts, height 250 m||1000||;||inactive|
|Radio Rossii||Russia||Norilsk||Omnidirectional antenna, 205 m high antenna||150||?||closed|
|Radio Yuldash, Radio Rossii||Ufa||closed|
|Voice of Russia||Russia||Oktyabrsky||257 m metres tall antenna.||1200||closed|
|Radio Rossii||Russia||Bolshakovo near Kaliningrad||Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)||600||closed|
|Radio Ukraine 1||Ukraine||Krasne near Lviv||Omnidirectional antenna, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)||150/75||inactive|
|Radio Rossii||Russia||Raduga||Omnidirectional antenna, 255 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)||250||closed|
|Radio 1||Russia||Murmansk||Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)||150||closed|
|Radio 1||Russia||Noginsk||Omnidirectional antenna, 242 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)||150||closed|
|Radio 1||Russia||Ezhva near Syktyvkar||Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)||150||closed|
|Radio Rossii||Russia||Tulagino near Yakutsk||Omnidirectional antenna, circle antenna with 1 central and 6 ring masts||150||; ; ; ; ; ;||closed|
|Deutschlandradio Kultur||Germany||Zehlendorf near Oranienburg||Omnidirectional aerial, cage aerial mounted on 359.7 m high guyed mast, triangle aerial on 3 150 m high guyed steel lattice masts||500||closed|
|180||TRT Radyo 2||Turkey||Polatli||Omnidirectional antenna, 250 m high guyed latice steel mast||1200||inactive|
|Radio Rossii||Russia||Yelizovo near Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy||Omnidirectional antenna, 255 m high guyed lattice steel mast||150||closed|
|Radio Mayak||Russia||Kruchina near Chita||Omnidirectional antenna, 200 m high guyed lattice steel mast||150||inactive|
|Kazakh Radio 1||Kazakhstan||Alma-Ata||250||closed|
|Kazakh Radio 1||Kazakhstan||Aktyubinsk||150||closed|
|Kazakh Radio 1||Kazakhstan||Chimkent||50||closed|
|Rai Radio 1||Italy||Caltanissetta||Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, height 282 m||10||closed|
|Sveriges Radio P1||Sweden||Orlunda||300||closed|
|Radio Rossii||Russia||Kostantinogradovka near Blagoveshchensk||Omnidirectional aerial, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)||1200||closed|
|Polskie Radio Parlament/Radio Polonia||Poland||Raszyn||Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast insulated against ground, 335 m high||200||closed|
|Radio Mayak||Russia||Saint Petersburg - Olgino||Omnidirectional aerial, 205 m high guyed steel lattice mast||150||inactive|
|Radio Mayak||Russia||Angarsk||Before 2001: T-antenna spun between 2 205 m tall guyed steel lattice mast||250||, possibly||closed|
|Radio Mayak||Russia||Avsyunino||Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)||150||inactive|
|Kyrgyzstan||Krasnaya Rechka near Bishkek||Radio-1||150||closed|
|RNE Radio 5||Spain||Logroño||Directional antenna, 300 metres tall.||>100||closed|
|Radio Ukraine 1||Ukraine||Brovary||Omnidirectional antenna, 259.6 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)||600||closed|
|Jordan Radio||Jordan||Al Karanah||?||;||closed|
|Radio Mayak||Russia||Tynda||Omnidirectional aerial, steel lattice mast insulated against ground, height 244 m||150||closed|
|Deutschlandfunk||Germany||Aholming||Directional aerial, two guyed steel lattice masts, 265 m high, fed at the top||500||;||closed|
|SNRT Al Idaâ Al-Watania||Morocco||Azilal Demnate||304.8 metres (1,000 ft) tall guyed mast||400||inactive|
|NRK P1||Norway||Lambertseter near Oslo||200||closed|
|Radio Rossii||Russia||Krasnoyarsk||Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 210 m tall||150||closed|
|Radio Rossii||Russia||Atamanovka||Directional antenna||150||closed|
|Radio Rossii||Russia||Birobidzhan||2 guyed masts, 260 m high||30||;||closed|
|225||TRT GAP||Turkey||Van||Omnidirectional antenna, 250 m high guyed lattice steel mast||600||inactive|
|Radio Rossii||Russia||Surgut||Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)||1000||closed|
|Libya||Yafran near Tripoli||1000||closed|
|Radio 1||Russia||Krasny Bor transmitter near Sankt-Peterburg||Omnidirectional aerial, 271.5 metres tall guyed mast with cage antenna||1200||closed|
|Public Armenian Radio||Armenia||Kamo||?||500||?||closed|
|Radio Rossii||Russia||Koskovo near Murmansk||Omnidirectional aerial, 210 m tall guyed mast||250||inactive|
|Radio 1||Russia||Novosemeykino near Samara||Four 205 metres tall towers insulated against ground arranged in a square||2000||; ; ;||closed|
|Radio Rossii||Russia||Raduzhnyy near Magadan||Omnidirectional aerial, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)||1000||closed|
|Radio Rossii||Russia||Odinsk near Irkutsk||Omnidirectional aerial, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)||500||closed|
|Radio 1||Russia||Koskovo near Arkhangelsk||Omnidirectional aerial, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)||500||closed|
|243||TRT Radyo 4||Turkey||Erzurum||Omnidirectional antenna, 185 m high guyed lattice steel mast||200||inactive|
|Radio Rossii||Russia||Razdolnoye near Ussuriysk||Omnidirectional antenna, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)||1000||closed|
|Kazakh Radio 2 Shalkar||Kazakhstan||Karaganda||Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 254 m height||1000||closed|
|Kazakh Radio 2 Shalkar||Kazakhstan||Alma-Ata||1000||closed|
|Armenian Radio 1||Armenia||Kamo||150||?||closed|
|Yle Radio 1||Finland||Lahti||200||,||closed|
|Radio Rossii||Russia||Kazan||Omnidirectional aerial, 152 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)||100||closed (9 January 2014)|
|Radioropa Info||Germany||Burg||Omnidirectional aerial, cage aerial on 324 m high guyed, grounded steel lattice mast, 210 m high steel tube mast, insulated against ground||200||closed|
|Radio Rossii||Russia||Taldom||Omnidirectional antenna, circle antenna with 1 central and 5 ring masts, height of central mast 275 m||2500||; ; ; ; ;||closed|
|Radio Rossii||Russia||Kruchina near Chita||Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 260 m high||150||closed|
|Radio Rossii||Russia||Tyumen||Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 220 m high||150||closed|
|Radio Rossii||Russia||Vorkuta||Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 220 m high||50||closed|
|Radio Horizont||Bulgaria||Vakarel||One of the few Blaw-Knox Towers in Europe, 215 m high||75||closed|
|Radio Rossii||Russia||Orenburg||Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 137 m height||25||closed|
|Radio 1||Russia||Khabarovsk||2 guyed steel lattice masts, height: 164 m||150||;||closed|
|Radio Rossii||Russia||Gorno-Altaisk||Omnidirectional antenna, 143m high guyed lattice steel mast||50||closed|
|Radio Rossii||Russia||Selenginsk||Omnidirectional aerial, 260 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna (ARRT-antenna)||150||closed|
|Radio Rossii||Russia||Vestochka near Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk||Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 258 m high||1000||closed|
|Radio Rossii||Russia||Yekaterinburg||Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 256 m height, fed at the top||150||closed|
|BR Pershy Kanal/BR Radyjo Stalitsa||Belarus||Sasnovy||353.5 metres tall guyed mast||500||closed|
AM broadcasting is a radio broadcasting technology, which employs amplitude modulation (AM) transmissions. It was the first method developed for making audio radio transmissions, and is still used worldwide, primarily for medium wave (also known as "AM band") transmissions, but also on the longwave and shortwave radio bands.
The earliest experimental AM transmissions began in the early 1900s. However, widespread AM broadcasting was not established until the 1920s, following the development of vacuum tube receivers and transmitters. AM radio remained the dominant method of broadcasting for the next 30 years, a period called the "Golden Age of Radio", until television broadcasting became widespread in the 1950s and received most of the programming previously carried by radio. Subsequently, AM radio's audiences have also greatly shrunk due to competition from FM (frequency modulation) radio, Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB), satellite radio, HD (digital) radio and Internet streaming.
AM transmissions are much more susceptible than FM or digital signals are to interference, and often have lower audio fidelity. Thus, AM broadcasters tend to specialise in spoken-word formats, such as talk radio, all news and sports, leaving the broadcasting of music mainly to FM and digital stations.Antenna height considerations
The Aspects for Antenna heights considerations are depending upon the wave range and economical reasons.BBC Radio 4
BBC Radio 4 is a radio station owned and operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) that broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history. It replaced the BBC Home Service in 1967. The station controller is Gwyneth Williams, and the station is part of BBC Radio and the BBC Radio department. The station is broadcast from the BBC's headquarters at Broadcasting House, London. On 21 January 2019 Williams announced she was quitting the role. There are no details of when or who will be her replacement.It is the second most popular domestic radio station in the UK, broadcast throughout the UK, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands on FM, LW and DAB, and can be received in eastern and south eastern counties of Ireland, the north of France and Northern Europe. It is also available through Freeview, Sky, Virgin Media and on the Internet. Its sister station, BBC Radio 4 Extra (formerly BBC Radio 7), complements the main channel by broadcasting repeats from the Radio 4 archive, extended versions of Radio 4 programmes and supplements to series such as The Archers and Desert Island Discs.
It is notable for its news bulletins and programmes such as Today and The World at One, heralded on air by the Greenwich Time Signal "pips" or the chimes of Big Ben. Radio 4 broadcasts the Shipping Forecast, which reached 150 years old in August 2017. The pips are only accurate on FM, LW, and MW as there is a delay on DAB and digital radio of approximately 3 to 5 seconds, even longer online (up to 23 seconds).BSF (time service)
BSF is the callsign of the time signal transmitter for Taiwan, which transmits time information on 77.5 kHz in the longwave range, and 5 MHz & 15 MHz in the shortwave range from Chung-Li. The longwave transmitter, which uses a T-antenna is situated at 24°03′59″N 120°25′18″E.
Due to "low demand", the short wave of BSF was discontinued as of July 1, 2004. The time signal is currently transmitted at a low frequency of 77.5 kHzCloud forcing
Cloud forcing (sometimes described as cloud radiative forcing or cloud radiative effect) is, in meteorology, the difference between the radiation budget components for average cloud conditions and cloud-free conditions. Much of the interest in cloud forcing relates to its role as a feedback process in the present period of global warming.Deutschlandfunk
Deutschlandfunk (German pronunciation: [ˈdɔʏtʃlantˌfʊŋk]), abbreviated DLF, is a German public broadcasting radio station, broadcasting national news and current affairs.Europe 1
Europe 1, formerly known as Europe n° 1, is a privately owned radio station created in 1955. Owned and operated by Lagardère Active, a subsidiary of the Lagardère Group, it is one of the leading radio broadcasting stations in France and its programmes can be received throughout the country.France Inter
France Inter is a major French public radio channel and part of Radio France. It is a "generalist" station, aiming to provide a wide national audience with a full service of news and spoken-word programming, both serious and entertaining, liberally punctuated with an eclectic mix of music.
France Inter broadcasts on FM transmitters across France, and via the internet.
The radio channel France Inter announced during 2016 that the channel would discontinue transmitting on the 162 kHz frequency on the longwave on 1 January 2017, seeking cost savings of approximately €6 million per year. The transmission of the atomic clock generated time signal from Allouis will be continued after this date on the 162 kHz frequency as this time signal is critical for over 200,000 devices, which are deployed within French enterprises and state entities, like the French railways SNCF, the electricity distributor ENEDIS, airports, hospitals, municipalities, et cetera.Glücksburg
Glücksburg (Danish: Lyksborg) is a small town in the district Schleswig-Flensburg, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany and is the farmost northern settlement of Germany.
It is situated on the south side of the Flensborg Fjord, an inlet of the Baltic Sea, approx. 10 km northeast of Flensburg. The town was originally the home of the family Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (or simply Glücksburg), since 1863 the royal family of Denmark and since 1905 of Norway. A branch of the family is the former royal family of Greece, which includes Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. His descendants, including Charles, Prince of Wales, Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, and Prince George of Cambridge, are members of the House of Windsor under British law, but genealogically are members of a cadet branch of the House of Glücksburg.
Glücksburg is home to a German Navy base. Among the facilities at the base is the transmitter, callsign DHJ58. DHJ58, situated at 54° 50'N and 9° 32' E, ceased its transmissions on longwave frequency 68.9 kHz in 2002 and in 2004 its longwave antenna was disassembled.Horizont (radio station)
Horizont Radio or Хоризонт (Horizont) in Bulgarian is a state-owned Bulgarian radio station, specializing in news coverage from Bulgaria. It is the most popular radio station in Bulgaria and it is part of The Bulgarian National Radio Network. Horizon Radio is considered the most independent media in Bulgaria with news and comments from around the nation. It has an extensive network of correspondents in every big city in Bulgaria, ready to report when the news breaks. The programme plays a lot of music from all genres but prominence is given to the latest in the pop charts. The motto of radio Horizon is "Quick and in-depth".List of tallest structures built in the Soviet Union
This is an incomplete list of the tallest structures that are built in the former Soviet Union.List of tallest structures in Europe
This is a list of the tallest structures of any kind which exist or existed in Europe. The list contains all types of structures, including guyed masts and oil drilling platforms of 350 metres (1,150 feet) or more.List of tallest structures in Iceland
An incomplete list of the tallest structures in Iceland. This list contains all types of structures.Low frequency
Low frequency (low freq) or LF is the ITU designation for radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 30 kilohertz (kHz) to 300 kHz. As its wavelengths range from ten kilometres to one kilometre, respectively, it is also known as the kilometre band or kilometre wave.
LF radio waves exhibit low signal attenuation, making them suitable for long-distance communications. In Europe and areas of Northern Africa and Asia, part of the LF spectrum is used for AM broadcasting as the "longwave" band. In the western hemisphere, its main use is for aircraft beacon, navigation (LORAN), information, and weather systems. A number of time signal broadcasts are also broadcast in this band.Motala
Motala (Swedish pronunciation: [²muːˌtɑːla] (listen)) is a locality and the seat of Motala Municipality, Östergötland County, Sweden with 29,823 inhabitants (41,956 in the entire municipality) in 2010. It is the third largest city of Östergötland, following Linköping and Norrköping. Motala is situated on the eastern shore of Lake Vättern and is regarded as the main centre of both the Göta Canal and the surrounding lake region.RMC (France)
RMC is a private French-Monégasque radio station created in 1943, broadcasting from France with studios in Paris and Monte Carlo. RMC stands for Radio Monte Carlo.RTL (French radio)
RTL, formerly Radio Luxembourg, is a French commercial radio network owned by the RTL Group. Founded in 1933 as Radio Luxembourg, the station's name was changed to RTL in 1966. It broadcast from outside France until 1981, because only public stations had been allowed until then.
It is a general-interest, news, talk and music station, broadcasting nationally ("category E" as classified by the CSA).RTÉ Radio 1
RTÉ Radio 1 (Irish: RTÉ Raidió 1) is the principal radio channel of Irish public-service broadcaster Raidió Teilifís Éireann and is the direct descendant of Dublin radio station 2RN, which began broadcasting on a regular basis on 1 January 1926. The station is a rare modern example of a mixed radio channel, offering a wide spectrum of programming which is mainly speech-based but also includes a fair amount of music.
The total budget for the station in 2010 was €18.4 million. It is the most-listened-to radio station in Ireland.Transmitter
In electronics and telecommunications, a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device which produces radio waves with an antenna. The transmitter itself generates a radio frequency alternating current, which is applied to the antenna. When excited by this alternating current, the antenna radiates radio waves.
Transmitters are necessary component parts of all electronic devices that communicate by radio, such as radio and television broadcasting stations, cell phones, walkie-talkies, wireless computer networks, Bluetooth enabled devices, garage door openers, two-way radios in aircraft, ships, spacecraft, radar sets and navigational beacons. The term transmitter is usually limited to equipment that generates radio waves for communication purposes; or radiolocation, such as radar and navigational transmitters. Generators of radio waves for heating or industrial purposes, such as microwave ovens or diathermy equipment, are not usually called transmitters, even though they often have similar circuits.
The term is popularly used more specifically to refer to a broadcast transmitter, a transmitter used in broadcasting, as in FM radio transmitter or television transmitter. This usage typically includes both the transmitter proper, the antenna, and often the building it is housed in.
Radio spectrum (ITU)