Longwave

In radio, longwave, long wave or long-wave,[1] and commonly abbreviated LW,[2] refers to parts of the radio spectrum with wavelengths longer than what was originally called the medium-wave broadcasting band. The term is historic, dating from the early 20th century, when the radio spectrum was considered to consist of longwave (LW), medium-wave (MW), and short-wave (SW) radio bands. Most modern radio systems and devices use wavelengths which would then have been considered 'ultra-short'.

In contemporary usage, the term longwave is not defined precisely, and its intended meaning varies. It may be used for radio wavelengths longer than 1,000 m[2] i.e. frequencies[note 1] up to 300 kilohertz (kHz),[3][4] including the International Telecommunications Union's (ITU's) low frequency (LF, 30–300 kHz) and very low frequency (VLF, 3–30 kHz) bands. Sometimes the upper limit is taken to be higher than 300 kHz, but not above the start of the medium wave broadcast band at 525 kHz.[5]

In Europe, Africa, and large parts of Asia (International Telecommunication Union Region 1), where a range of frequencies between 148.5 and 283.5 kHz is used for AM broadcasting[6] in addition to the medium-wave band, the term longwave usually refers specifically to this broadcasting band, which falls wholly within the low frequency band of the radio spectrum (30–300 kHz). The "Longwave Club of America" (United States) is interested in "frequencies below the AM broadcast band"[5] (i.e., all frequencies below 525 kHz).

Harumphy.radio dial
The tuning dial on a 1946 Dynatron Merlin T.69 console radio receiver, showing long-wave wavelengths between 800 and 2000 metres, corresponding to frequencies between 375 and 150 kHz

Propagation

Because of their long wavelength, radio waves in this frequency range can diffract over obstacles like mountain ranges and travel beyond the horizon, following the contour of the Earth. This mode of propagation, called ground wave, is the main mode in the longwave band.[7] The attenuation of signal strength with distance by absorption in the ground is lower than at higher frequencies, and falls with frequency. Low frequency ground waves can be received up to 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) from the transmitting antenna. Very low frequency waves below 30 kHz can be used to communicate at transcontinental distances, and can penetrate saltwater to depths of hundreds of feet, and is used by the military to communicate with submerged submarines.

Low frequency waves can also occasionally travel long distances by reflecting from the ionosphere (the actual mechanism is one of refraction), although this method, called skywave or "skip" propagation, is not as common as at higher frequencies. Reflection occurs at the ionospheric E layer or F layers. Skywave signals can be detected at distances exceeding 300 kilometres (190 mi) from the transmitting antenna.[8]

Non-broadcast use

Non-directional beacons

Non-directional beacons transmit continuously for the benefit of radio direction finders in marine and aeronautical navigation. They identify themselves by a callsign in Morse code. They can occupy any frequency in the range 190–1750 kHz. In North America, they occupy 190–535 kHz. In ITU Region 1 the lower limit is 280 kHz.

Time signals

There are institutional broadcast stations in the range that transmit coded time signals to radio clocks. For example:

Radio-controlled clocks receive their time calibration signals with built-in long-wave receivers. They use long-wave, rather than short-wave or medium-wave, because long-wave signals from the transmitter to the receiver always travel along the same direct path across the surface of the Earth, so the time delay correction for the signal travel time from the transmitting station to the receiver is always the same for any one receiving location.

Longwaves travel by groundwaves that hug the surface of the earth, unlike mediumwaves and shortwaves. Those higher-frequency signals do not follow the surface of the Earth beyond a few kilometers, but can travel as skywaves, ‘bouncing’ off different layers of the ionosphere at different times of day. These different propagation paths can make the time lag different for every signal received. The delay between when the long-wave signal was sent from the transmitter (when the coded time was correct) and when the signal is received by the clock (when the coded time is slightly late) depends on the overland distance between the clock and the transmitter and the speed of light through the air, which is also very nearly constant. Since the time lag is essentially the same, a single constant shift forward from the time coded in the signal can compensate for all long-wave signals received at any one location from the same time signal station.

Submarine communication

The militaries of the United Kingdom, Russian Federation, United States, Germany, India and Sweden use frequencies below 50 kHz to communicate with submerged submarines.

LowFER

In North America during the 1970s, the frequencies 167, 179 and 191 kHz were assigned to the short-lived Public Emergency Radio of the United States. Nowadays, in the United States, Part 15 of FCC regulations allows unlicensed use of 136 kHz and the 160–190 kHz band at output power up to 1 watt with up to a 15-meter antenna. This is called Low Frequency Experimental Radio (LowFER). The 190–435 kHz band is used for navigational beacons.

Historic

Swedish station SAQ, located at the Varberg Radio Station facility in Grimeton, is the last remaining operational Alexanderson alternator long-wave transmitter. Although the station ended regular service in 1996, it has been maintained as a World Heritage Site, and makes at least two demonstration transmissions yearly, on 17.2 kHz.[9]

Broadcasting

Longwave is used for broadcasting only within ITU Region 1. The long-wave broadcasters are located in western, northern, central, and southeastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, Mongolia, Algeria, and Morocco.

Typically, a larger geographic area can be covered by a long-wave broadcast transmitter compared to a medium-wave one. This is because ground-wave propagation suffers less attenuation due to limited ground conductivity at lower frequencies.[10]

Carrier frequencies

Long-wave carrier frequencies are exact multiples of 9 kHz; ranging from 153 to 279 kHz, except for a French-language station, Europe #1 in Germany. This station kept correctly spaced channels spacing for 4 months—only 7 years ago, and all Mongolian transmitters are 2 kHz above the internationally recognized channels.

Until the 1970s, some long-wave stations in northern and eastern Europe and the Soviet Union operated on frequencies as high as 433 kHz.[11]

Some radio broadcasters, for instance Droitwich transmitting station in the UK, derive their carrier frequencies from an atomic clock, allowing their use as frequency standards. Droitwich also broadcasts a low bit-rate data channel, using narrow-shift phase-shift keying of the carrier, for Radio Teleswitch Services.

In 2014 and 2015 Russia closed all of its LW broadcast transmitters.[12]

Long-distance reception

Because long-wave signals can travel very long distances, some radio amateurs and shortwave listeners engage in an activity called DXing. DXers attempt to listen in to far away transmissions, and they will often send a reception report to the sending station to let them know where they were heard. After receiving a report, the sending station may mail the listener a QSL card to acknowledge this reception.

Reception of long-wave signals at distances in excess of 17,000 kilometres (11,000 mi) have been verified.[13]

List of long-wave broadcasting transmitters

Height diagram of the antenna towers and antenna masts of long-wave broadcasting stations
Height diagram of the antenna towers and antenna masts of long-wave broadcasting stations

List of stations currently operating

[14] [15] [16] [17]

freq.
(kHz)
station
name
language country location aerial
type
power
(kW)
coordinates notes
153 Radio Antena Satelor Romanian  Romania Brașov T-aerial on 2 guyed steel lattice masts, height: 250 metres (820 ft) 200 45°45′22.27″N 25°36′26.77″E / 45.7561861°N 25.6074361°E
45°45′13.16″N 25°36′25.15″E / 45.7536556°N 25.6069861°E
 
NRK P1 Norwegian  Norway Ingøy Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast 352 metres (1,155 ft) tall, fed at the top, ex-Omega equipment 100 71°4′17″N 24°5′14″E / 71.07139°N 24.08722°E The transmitter is important for the fishing fleet in the Barents Sea
Radio Algeria
Chaîne 1
Arabic  Algeria Kénadsa Three 357 metres (1,171 ft) tall guyed masts 500 Active with very low modulation and power[18]
162 ANFR (TDF time signal) French  France Allouis Two guyed lattice steel masts, height: 350 metres (1,150 ft) fed on the top 1000
/
2000
47°10′10.45″N 2°12′16.75″E / 47.1695694°N 2.2046528°E
47°10′25.34″N 2°12′16.81″E / 47.1737056°N 2.2046694°E
Time signal phase-modulated; the frequency broadcast France Inter until the end of 2016. Now only the time signal for public clocks is transmitted. The ANFR is in charge of this.
164 MNB Radio 1 Mongolian  Mongolia Ulaanbaatar 259 metres (850 ft) tall cable-stayed steel truss mast[19] 500 47°47′54.67″N 107°11′14.7″E / 47.7985194°N 107.187417°E Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC
171 Médi 1 Arabic and French  Morocco Nador Directional aerial consisting of three guyed steel lattice masts, 380 metres (1,250 ft) tall 1600 35°02′50.65″N 2°55′22.81″W / 35.0474028°N 2.9230028°W
35°02′30.27″N 2°55′16.16″W / 35.0417417°N 2.9211556°W
35°02′9.89″N 2°55′9.52″W / 35.0360806°N 2.9193111°W
183 Europe 1 French  Germany Felsberg-Berus Directional aerial, four ground insulated steel lattice masts 270 metres (890 ft), 276 metres (906 ft), 280 metres (920 ft) and 282 metres (925 ft) tall; spare aerial: two ground insulated steel lattice masts, height: 234 metres (768 ft) 2000 Main antenna:
49°17′4.2″N 6°40′57.73″E / 49.284500°N 6.6827028°E
49°16′55.86″N 6°40′46.16″E / 49.2821833°N 6.6794889°E
49°16′47.55″N 6°40′34.48″E / 49.2798750°N 6.6762444°E
49°16′39.18″N 6°40′22.72″E / 49.2775500°N 6.6729778°E
Spare antenna:
49°17′8.93″N 6°39′31.71″E / 49.2858139°N 6.6588083°E
49°17′1.54″N 6°39′23.6″E / 49.2837611°N 6.656556°E
DRM tests after 00:00 UTC
189 RÚV Rás 1/RÚV Rás 2 Icelandic  Iceland Gufuskalar near Hellissandur Slight oval bi-directivity aerial, top loaded parallel connected triangular loops, mast as a common member, all guys insulated except two radiating diametrically opposed grounded top guys, loops closed by copper straps in the ground from two conducting guy grounding points to base of the guyed steel lattice mast insulated against ground, height: 412 metres (1,352 ft) 300 64°54′26″N 23°55′19.5″W / 64.90722°N 23.922083°W
198 BBC Radio 4/BBC World Service English  United Kingdom Droitwich (SFN) T-aerial on two guyed steel lattice masts insulated against ground with a height of 213 metres (699 ft) 500 52°17′46.9″N 2°6′24.32″W / 52.296361°N 2.1067556°W
52°17′40.4″N 2°6′20.62″W / 52.294556°N 2.1057278°W
All four transmitters carry Radio teleswitch PSK data; Droitwich relays BBC World Service from 01:00 to 05:20 UTC
Burghead (SFN) Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, height 154 metres (505 ft) 50 57°41′57.9″N 3°28′4.78″W / 57.699417°N 3.4679944°W
Westerglen (SFN) Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, height 152 metres (499 ft) 55°58′33″N 3°48′58.8″W / 55.97583°N 3.816333°W
Dartford Tunnel (SFN) 0.004
207 RÚV Rás 1/RÚV Rás 2 Icelandic  Iceland Eiðar near Egilsstaðir Omnidirectional aerial, steel lattice mast insulated against ground, height 221 metres (725 ft) 100 65°22′22.93″N 14°20′27.29″W / 65.3730361°N 14.3409139°W
209 MNB Radio 1 Mongolian  Mongolia Choibalsan Cable-stayed steel truss mast, height: 275.84 metres (905.0 ft) 75 48°00′17.27″N 114°27′17.6″E / 48.0047972°N 114.454889°E Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC
Dalanzadgad 43°31′54.43″N 104°24′41.4″E / 43.5317861°N 104.411500°E Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC
Olgii Omnidirectional antenna, 352.5 metres (1,156 ft) high guyed mast 30 48°57′24.52″N 89°58′13.15″E / 48.9568111°N 89.9703194°E Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC
216 Radio Monte Carlo Info French  France Roumoules Directional aerial, three 300 metres (980 ft) high guyed steel lattice masts, 330 metres (1,080 ft) high guyed steel lattice mast as backup aerial 700
/
1400
43°47′41.45″N 6°8′48.41″E / 43.7948472°N 6.1467806°E
43°47′34.56″N 6°8′59.09″E / 43.7929333°N 6.1497472°E
43°47′27.7″N 6°9′9.85″E / 43.791028°N 6.1527361°E,
Backup antenna:
43°47′36.29″N 6°9′30.61″E / 43.7934139°N 6.1585028°E
Transmitter located in France, in operation from 5:30 to 23:00 CET
225 Polskie Radio Jedynka Polish  Poland Solec Kujawski Directional aerial, two guyed radio masts fed on the top, heights 330 metres (1,080 ft) and 289 metres (948 ft) 1000 53°1′21.01″N 18°15′32.63″E / 53.0225028°N 18.2590639°E
53°1′12.83″N 18°15′44.06″E / 53.0202306°N 18.2622389°E
Earlier Konstantynów was used ( 52°22′3.91″N 19°48′7.04″E / 52.3677528°N 19.8019556°E )
227 MNB Radio 1 Mongolian  Mongolia Altai Cable-stayed steel truss mast 75 46°19′25.52″N 96°15′31.2″E / 46.3237556°N 96.258667°E Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC
234 RTL French  Luxembourg Beidweiler Directional aerial, three guyed grounded steel lattice masts, 290 metres (950 ft) high, with vertical cage aerials 1500
/
2000
49°43′42.57″N 6°19′4.29″E / 49.7284917°N 6.3178583°E
49°43′49.2″N 6°19′15.02″E / 49.730333°N 6.3208389°E
49°43′55.81″N 6°19′25.67″E / 49.7321694°N 6.3237972°E
Spare transmitter site Junglinster ( 49°43′0.35″N 6°15′28.9″E / 49.7167639°N 6.258028°E
49°43′6.56″N 6°15′40.27″E / 49.7184889°N 6.2611861°E
49°43′12.75″N 6°15′51.44″E / 49.7202083°N 6.2642889°E )
243 DR Langbølge Danish  Denmark Kalundborg Semi-directional Alexanderson antenna 153/333 degrees, two grounded 118 metres (387 ft) steel lattice radiating towers with interconnecting top wire capacitance 50 55°40′39.27″N 11°4′8.6″E / 55.6775750°N 11.069056°E
55°40′32.91″N 11°4′14.33″E / 55.6758083°N 11.0706472°E
Transmitting in time slots only
252 Radio Algeria
Chaîne 3
Arabic  Algeria Tipaza Omnidirectional aerial, single guyed lattice steel mast, height 355 metres (1,165 ft) 750
/
1500
36°33′58.14″N 2°28′50.3″E / 36.5661500°N 2.480639°E Half transmitter power during night
RTÉ Radio 1 English  Ireland Clarkstown Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, insulated against ground, height 248 metres (814 ft) 100
/
300
53°27′46″N 6°40′39″W / 53.46278°N 6.67750°W The only AM transmitter for RTÉ Radio 1, power is decreased at night to 100 kW, it is tentatively scheduled to cease broadcasting in June 2019[20]
270 ČRo Radiožurnál Czech  Czech Republic Topolná Directional aerial (maximum of radiation in east-west direction), two grounded 257 metres (843 ft) high guyed steel lattice mast with cage aerials 50 49°7′32.88″N 17°30′45.97″E / 49.1258000°N 17.5127694°E
49°7′18.85″N 17°30′41.78″E / 49.1219028°N 17.5116056°E
Broadcasting from Monday to Friday 5:00-24:00 CET and 6:00-24:00 CET at weekends
279 TR1 Watan Radio Turkmen  Turkmenistan Ashgabat Cable-stayed steel truss mast 150 37°51′14.89″N 58°21′57.99″E / 37.8541361°N 58.3661083°E Almost no modulation

List of stations that have closed or are otherwise inactive

freq.
kHz
station
name
country location aerial
type
power
(kW)
coordinates notes
153
Deutschlandfunk  Germany Donebach Directional aerial, two guyed steel lattice masts, 363 m high, fed at the top 500 49°33′40.25″N 9°10′22.76″E / 49.5611806°N 9.1729889°E ; 49°33′33.53″N 9°10′50.82″E / 49.5593139°N 9.1807833°E closed
Radio Mayak  Turkmenistan Ashgabat 650 closed
YuFM  Russia Taldom transmitter Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 257 m height 300 56°45′30.04″N 37°37′12.17″E / 56.7583444°N 37.6200472°E closed
Radio Rossii Popova near Komsomolsk-na-Amure 1200 50°39′16.75″N 136°54′46.9″E / 50.6546528°N 136.913028°E closed
162 TRT Radyo 4  Turkey Agri Two guyed lattice steel masts, height 250 m 1000 39°46′23.11″N 43°02′14.55″E / 39.7730861°N 43.0373750°E ; 39°46′25.86″N 43°02′33.32″E / 39.7738500°N 43.0425889°E inactive
Kanal Uzbekistan  Uzbekistan Tashkent 150 closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Norilsk Omnidirectional antenna, 205 m high antenna 150 69°22′46″N 87°6′26″E / 69.37944°N 87.10722°E ? closed
Radio Yuldash, Radio Rossii Ufa 54°46′19.73″N 56°0′17.02″E / 54.7721472°N 56.0047278°E closed
171
-  Netherlands Lopik 500 closed
Radio-1  Belarus Lapichi ? 500/1000 closed
Voice of Russia  Russia Oktyabrsky 257 m metres tall antenna. 1200 closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Bolshakovo near Kaliningrad Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 600 54°54′42.62″N 21°43′2.32″E / 54.9118389°N 21.7173111°E closed
Radio Ukraine 1  Ukraine Krasne near Lviv Omnidirectional antenna, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150/75 49°54′12.85″N 24°41′15.22″E / 49.9035694°N 24.6875611°E inactive
Radio Rossii  Russia Raduga Omnidirectional antenna, 255 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 250 55°29′16″N 83°41′28″E / 55.48778°N 83.69111°E closed
Radio 1  Russia Murmansk Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150 69°00′59.07″N 32°55′57.17″E / 69.0164083°N 32.9325472°E closed
Radio 1  Russia Noginsk Omnidirectional antenna, 242 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150 55°50′0.89″N 38°20′35.18″E / 55.8335806°N 38.3431056°E closed
Radio 1  Russia Ezhva near Syktyvkar Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150 61°49′09.34″N 50°41′26.42″E / 61.8192611°N 50.6906722°E closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Tulagino near Yakutsk Omnidirectional antenna, circle antenna with 1 central and 6 ring masts 150 62°14′15.01″N 129°48′10.4″E / 62.2375028°N 129.802889°E ; 62°14′22.82″N 129°48′0.85″E / 62.2396722°N 129.8002361°E ; 62°14′15.06″N 129°47′51.2″E / 62.2375167°N 129.797556°E ; 62°14′7.27″N 129°48′0.82″E / 62.2353528°N 129.8002278°E ; 62°14′7.31″N 129°48′20″E / 62.2353639°N 129.80556°E ; 62°14′15.06″N 129°48′29.7″E / 62.2375167°N 129.808250°E ; 62°14′22.82″N 129°48′20″E / 62.2396722°N 129.80556°E closed
177
Deutschlandradio Kultur  Germany Zehlendorf near Oranienburg Omnidirectional aerial, cage aerial mounted on 359.7 m high guyed mast, triangle aerial on 3 150 m high guyed steel lattice masts 500 52°47′41.87″N 13°23′9.5″E / 52.7949639°N 13.385972°E closed
180 TRT Radyo 2  Turkey Polatli Omnidirectional antenna, 250 m high guyed latice steel mast 1200 39°45′22.46″N 32°25′6.24″E / 39.7562389°N 32.4184000°E inactive
Radio Rossii  Russia Yelizovo near Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy Omnidirectional antenna, 255 m high guyed lattice steel mast 150 53°11′4.92″N 158°24′2.24″E / 53.1847000°N 158.4006222°E closed
Radio Mayak  Russia Kruchina near Chita Omnidirectional antenna, 200 m high guyed lattice steel mast 150 51°50′22.5″N 113°44′8.9″E / 51.839583°N 113.735806°E inactive
Kazakh Radio 1  Kazakhstan Alma-Ata 250 closed
Kazakh Radio 1  Kazakhstan Aktyubinsk 150 closed
Kazakh Radio 1  Kazakhstan Chimkent 50 closed
189
Rai Radio 1  Italy Caltanissetta Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, height 282 m 10 37°29′53.05″N 14°04′04.08″E / 37.4980694°N 14.0678000°E closed
Sveriges Radio P1  Sweden Orlunda 300 58°25′37″N 14°58′38″E / 58.42694°N 14.97722°E closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Kostantinogradovka near Blagoveshchensk Omnidirectional aerial, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 1200 50°30′23.58″N 128°18′32.9″E / 50.5065500°N 128.309139°E closed
Sakartvelos Radio  Georgia Dusheti 250 42°03′1.76″N 44°40′37.56″E / 42.0504889°N 44.6771000°E inactive
198
Polskie Radio Parlament/Radio Polonia  Poland Raszyn Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast insulated against ground, 335 m high 200 52°4′21.72″N 20°53′2.15″E / 52.0727000°N 20.8839306°E closed[21]
Chaine 1  Algeria Berkaoui 2000 closed
Radio Mayak  Russia Saint Petersburg - Olgino Omnidirectional aerial, 205 m high guyed steel lattice mast 150 59°59′30.01″N 30°07′38.81″E / 59.9916694°N 30.1274472°E inactive
Radio Mayak  Russia Angarsk Before 2001: T-antenna spun between 2 205 m tall guyed steel lattice mast 250 52°31′51.95″N 103°52′9.46″E / 52.5310972°N 103.8692944°E, possibly 52°26′10.17″N 103°41′1.05″E / 52.4361583°N 103.6836250°E closed
Radio Mayak  Russia Avsyunino Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150 55°35′13.75″N 39°09′57.84″E / 55.5871528°N 39.1660667°E inactive
Radio Mayak  Russia Ufa 150 54°46′19.73″N 56°0′17.02″E / 54.7721472°N 56.0047278°E closed
 Kyrgyzstan Krasnaya Rechka near Bishkek Radio-1 150 42°52′51.9″N 74°59′43.79″E / 42.881083°N 74.9954972°E closed
207
RNE Radio 5  Spain Logroño Directional antenna, 300 metres tall. >100 closed
Radio Ukraine 1  Ukraine Brovary Omnidirectional antenna, 259.6 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 600 50°29′48.8″N 30°48′9.2″E / 50.496889°N 30.802556°E closed
Jordan Radio  Jordan Al Karanah ? 31°45′55.47″N 36°28′44.97″E / 31.7654083°N 36.4791583°E ; 31°45′29.66″N 36°28′59.11″E / 31.7582389°N 36.4830861°E closed
Radio Mayak  Russia Tynda Omnidirectional aerial, steel lattice mast insulated against ground, height 244 m 150 55°05′19.31″N 124°43′9.7″E / 55.0886972°N 124.719361°E closed
Deutschlandfunk  Germany Aholming Directional aerial, two guyed steel lattice masts, 265 m high, fed at the top 500 48°43′50.55″N 12°55′47.04″E / 48.7307083°N 12.9297333°E ; 48°43′38.46″N 12°56′2.06″E / 48.7273500°N 12.9339056°E closed
SNRT Al Idaâ Al-Watania  Morocco Azilal Demnate 304.8 metres (1,000 ft) tall guyed mast 400 inactive
209
Radio Mayak  Russia Tynda 150 closed
216
NRK P1  Norway Lambertseter near Oslo 200 closed
Azerbaijan Radio  Azerbaijan Baku 500 closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Krasnoyarsk Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 210 m tall 150 56°02′02.97″N 92°45′32.31″E / 56.0341583°N 92.7589750°E closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Atamanovka Directional antenna 150 51°50′02″N 113°43′10″E / 51.83389°N 113.71944°E closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Birobidzhan 2 guyed masts, 260 m high 30 48°44′19.37″N 132°48′3.95″E / 48.7387139°N 132.8010972°E ; 48°44′14.71″N 132°48′32.6″E / 48.7374194°N 132.809056°E closed
225 TRT GAP  Turkey Van Omnidirectional antenna, 250 m high guyed lattice steel mast 600 38°35′11.47″N 43°15′59.17″E / 38.5865194°N 43.2664361°E inactive
Radio Rossii  Russia Surgut Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 1000 61°23′35″N 72°53′20″E / 61.39306°N 72.88889°E closed
234
Radio Moldova  Moldova Grigoriopol 1000 closed
 Libya Yafran near Tripoli 1000 closed
Radio 1  Russia Krasny Bor transmitter near Sankt-Peterburg Omnidirectional aerial, 271.5 metres tall guyed mast with cage antenna 1200 59°39′12.32″N 30°41′50.12″E / 59.6534222°N 30.6972556°E closed
Public Armenian Radio  Armenia Kamo ? 500 ? closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Koskovo near Murmansk Omnidirectional aerial, 210 m tall guyed mast 250 64°21′35.83″N 41°23′4.01″E / 64.3599528°N 41.3844472°E inactive
Radio 1  Russia Novosemeykino near Samara Four 205 metres tall towers insulated against ground arranged in a square 2000 53°22′59.44″N 50°20′13.84″E / 53.3831778°N 50.3371778°E ; 53°22′59.53″N 50°20′19.23″E / 53.3832028°N 50.3386750°E ; 53°22′56.2″N 50°20′13.94″E / 53.382278°N 50.3372056°E ; 53°22′56.31″N 50°20′19.32″E / 53.3823083°N 50.3387000°E closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Raduzhnyy near Magadan Omnidirectional aerial, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 1000 59°42′51.14″N 150°11′29.9″E / 59.7142056°N 150.191639°E closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Odinsk near Irkutsk Omnidirectional aerial, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 500 52°24′57.43″N 103°42′0.29″E / 52.4159528°N 103.7000806°E closed
Radio 1  Russia Koskovo near Arkhangelsk Omnidirectional aerial, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 500 64°21′50.92″N 41°24′41.8″E / 64.3641444°N 41.411611°E closed
243 TRT Radyo 4  Turkey Erzurum Omnidirectional antenna, 185 m high guyed lattice steel mast 200 39°59′53.59″N 41°06′40.95″E / 39.9982194°N 41.1113750°E inactive
Radio Rossii  Russia Razdolnoye near Ussuriysk Omnidirectional antenna, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 1000 43°32′18″N 131°55′46″E / 43.53833°N 131.92944°E closed
Kazakh Radio 2 Shalkar  Kazakhstan Karaganda Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 254 m height 1000 49°47′32.45″N 73°01′40.15″E / 49.7923472°N 73.0278194°E closed
Kazakh Radio 2 Shalkar  Kazakhstan Alma-Ata 1000 closed
252
Armenian Radio 1  Armenia Kamo 150 ? closed
Yle Radio 1  Finland Lahti 200 60°58′48″N 25°38′39″E / 60.980137°N 25.644195°E, 60°58′43″N 25°38′57″E / 60.978747°N 25.649155°E closed
Radio Tojikston  Tajikistan Dushanbe 150 closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Kazan Omnidirectional aerial, 152 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 100 55°49′6.3″N 49°10′24.64″E / 55.818417°N 49.1735111°E closed (9 January 2014)[22]
261
Radioropa Info  Germany Burg Omnidirectional aerial, cage aerial on 324 m high guyed, grounded steel lattice mast, 210 m high steel tube mast, insulated against ground 200 52°17′12.93″N 11°53′50.52″E / 52.2869250°N 11.8973667°E closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Taldom Omnidirectional antenna, circle antenna with 1 central and 5 ring masts, height of central mast 275 m 2500 56°43′59.86″N 37°39′47.51″E / 56.7332944°N 37.6631972°E ; 56°44′10.32″N 37°39′46.53″E / 56.7362000°N 37.6629250°E ; 56°44′2.54″N 37°39′29.17″E / 56.7340389°N 37.6581028°E ; 56°43′51.09″N 37°39′37.2″E / 56.7308583°N 37.660333°E ; 56°43′51.76″N 37°39′59.6″E / 56.7310444°N 37.666556°E ; 56°44′3.64″N 37°40′5.34″E / 56.7343444°N 37.6681500°E closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Kruchina near Chita Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 260 m high 150 51°50′22.5″N 113°44′8.9″E / 51.839583°N 113.735806°E closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Tyumen Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 220 m high 150 closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Vorkuta Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 220 m high 50 closed
Radio Horizont  Bulgaria Vakarel One of the few Blaw-Knox Towers in Europe, 215 m high 75 42°34′35.18″N 23°41′55.52″E / 42.5764389°N 23.6987556°E closed
270
Radio Rossii  Russia Orenburg Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 137 m height 25 51°46′44.37″N 55°06′23.01″E / 51.7789917°N 55.1063917°E closed
Radio 1  Russia Khabarovsk 2 guyed steel lattice masts, height: 164 m 150 48°30′43.48″N 135°07′02.24″E / 48.5120778°N 135.1172889°E ; 48°30′48.75″N 135°07′18.15″E / 48.5135417°N 135.1217083°E closed
Radio Slovo  Russia Novosibirsk ? 150 ? closed
279
Radio Rossii  Russia Gorno-Altaisk Omnidirectional antenna, 143m high guyed lattice steel mast 50 51°58′1.12″N 85°54′54.68″E / 51.9669778°N 85.9151889°E closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Selenginsk Omnidirectional aerial, 260 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna (ARRT-antenna) 150 52°02′17.52″N 106°56′25.6″E / 52.0382000°N 106.940444°E closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Vestochka near Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 258 m high 1000 46°50′35″N 142°53′44″E / 46.84306°N 142.89556°E closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Yekaterinburg Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 256 m height, fed at the top 150 56°53′22.46″N 60°41′30.22″E / 56.8895722°N 60.6917278°E closed
BR Pershy Kanal/BR Radyjo Stalitsa  Belarus Sasnovy 353.5 metres tall guyed mast 500 53°24′31″N 28°31′57″E / 53.40861°N 28.53250°E closed

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Wave length and frequency are inversely related, with lower frequencies corresponding to longer wavelengths; 300 kHz corresponds to 1,000 m.

References

  1. ^ Graf, Rudolf F. (1999). "1000+meters&q=longwave#v=snippet&q=longwave&f=false Modern Dictionary of Electronics, 7th Ed. US: Newnes. p. 23. ISBN 0750698667.
  2. ^ a b "long wave". Macmillan Online Dictionary. Macmillan Publishers Limited. Archived from the original on 11 August 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  3. ^ "long wave". Cambridge Online Dictionary. Cambridge University Press. Archived from the original on 20 August 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2016 – via Cambridge.org.
  4. ^ Graf, Rudolf F. (1999). Modern Dictionary of Electronics (7th ed.). Newnes. p. 437. ISBN 0750698667.
  5. ^ a b "About LWCA". Longwave Club of America. Archived from the original on 27 June 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  6. ^ Barun Roy (September 2009). Enter The World Of Mass Media. Pustak Mahal. p. 21. ISBN 81-223-1080-X.
  7. ^ Seybold, John S. (2005). Introduction to RF Propagation. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 55–58. ISBN 0471743682.
  8. ^ Alan Melia, G3NYK. "Understanding LF Propagation". Radcom. Bedford, UK: Radio Society of Great Britain. 85 (9): 32.
  9. ^ SAQ Transmission. Archived 7 April 2015 at Wikiwix Radiostation Grimeton SAQ. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
  10. ^ Ground-wave propagation curves for frequencies between 10 kHz and 30 MHz. Archived 24 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine ITU-R Recommendation P.368-9
  11. ^ Guide to Broadcasting Stations (17th ed.). Butterworth. 1973. p. 18. ISBN 0-592-00081-8.
  12. ^ "Russia says 'So long, long-wave'". 7 May 2018. Archived from the original on 23 February 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2018 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  13. ^ http://www.classaxe.com/dx/ndb/rww/stats#top Archived 16 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ de:Langwellenrundfunk
  15. ^ World Radio TV Handbook
  16. ^ "MWLIST quick and easy: Europe, Africa and Middle East". www.mwlist.org. Archived from the original on 29 June 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  17. ^ "MWLIST quick and easy: Asia and Pacific". www.mwlist.org. Archived from the original on 29 June 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  18. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 September 2010. Retrieved 29 October 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  19. ^ "Ulan Bator Longwave Transmission Mast (Ulan Bator) - Structurae". Structurae. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  20. ^ Lonergan, Aidan. "RTÉ Longwave 252 to stay until closure by June 2019 – with digital replacement planned - The Irish Post". irishpost.co.uk. Archived from the original on 10 December 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  21. ^ "Wiadomości24 Polska". naszemiasto.pl. Archived from the original on 19 June 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  22. ^ Long Wave Radio Archived 16 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine www.asiawaves.net

External links

AM broadcasting

AM broadcasting is a radio broadcasting technology, which employs amplitude modulation (AM) transmissions. It was the first method developed for making audio radio transmissions, and is still used worldwide, primarily for medium wave (also known as "AM band") transmissions, but also on the longwave and shortwave radio bands.

The earliest experimental AM transmissions began in the early 1900s. However, widespread AM broadcasting was not established until the 1920s, following the development of vacuum tube receivers and transmitters. AM radio remained the dominant method of broadcasting for the next 30 years, a period called the "Golden Age of Radio", until television broadcasting became widespread in the 1950s and received most of the programming previously carried by radio. Subsequently, AM radio's audiences have also greatly shrunk due to competition from FM (frequency modulation) radio, Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB), satellite radio, HD (digital) radio and Internet streaming.

AM transmissions are much more susceptible than FM or digital signals are to interference, and often have lower audio fidelity. Thus, AM broadcasters tend to specialise in spoken-word formats, such as talk radio, all news and sports, leaving the broadcasting of music mainly to FM and digital stations.

Antenna height considerations

The Aspects for Antenna heights considerations are depending upon the wave range and economical reasons.

BBC Radio 4

BBC Radio 4 is a radio station owned and operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) that broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history. It replaced the BBC Home Service in 1967. The station controller is Gwyneth Williams, and the station is part of BBC Radio and the BBC Radio department. The station is broadcast from the BBC's headquarters at Broadcasting House, London. On 21 January 2019 Williams announced she was quitting the role. There are no details of when or who will be her replacement.It is the second most popular domestic radio station in the UK, broadcast throughout the UK, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands on FM, LW and DAB, and can be received in eastern and south eastern counties of Ireland, the north of France and Northern Europe. It is also available through Freeview, Sky, Virgin Media and on the Internet. Its sister station, BBC Radio 4 Extra (formerly BBC Radio 7), complements the main channel by broadcasting repeats from the Radio 4 archive, extended versions of Radio 4 programmes and supplements to series such as The Archers and Desert Island Discs.

It is notable for its news bulletins and programmes such as Today and The World at One, heralded on air by the Greenwich Time Signal "pips" or the chimes of Big Ben. Radio 4 broadcasts the Shipping Forecast, which reached 150 years old in August 2017. The pips are only accurate on FM, LW, and MW as there is a delay on DAB and digital radio of approximately 3 to 5 seconds, even longer online (up to 23 seconds).

BSF (time service)

BSF is the callsign of the time signal transmitter for Taiwan, which transmits time information on 77.5 kHz in the longwave range, and 5 MHz & 15 MHz in the shortwave range from Chung-Li. The longwave transmitter, which uses a T-antenna is situated at 24°03′59″N 120°25′18″E.

Due to "low demand", the short wave of BSF was discontinued as of July 1, 2004. The time signal is currently transmitted at a low frequency of 77.5 kHz

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Europe 1

Europe 1, formerly known as Europe n° 1, is a privately owned radio station created in 1955. Owned and operated by Lagardère Active, a subsidiary of the Lagardère Group, it is one of the leading radio broadcasting stations in France and its programmes can be received throughout the country.

France Inter

France Inter is a major French public radio channel and part of Radio France. It is a "generalist" station, aiming to provide a wide national audience with a full service of news and spoken-word programming, both serious and entertaining, liberally punctuated with an eclectic mix of music.

France Inter broadcasts on FM transmitters across France, and via the internet.

The radio channel France Inter announced during 2016 that the channel would discontinue transmitting on the 162 kHz frequency on the longwave on 1 January 2017, seeking cost savings of approximately €6 million per year. The transmission of the atomic clock generated time signal from Allouis will be continued after this date on the 162 kHz frequency as this time signal is critical for over 200,000 devices, which are deployed within French enterprises and state entities, like the French railways SNCF, the electricity distributor ENEDIS, airports, hospitals, municipalities, et cetera.

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Glücksburg (Danish: Lyksborg) is a small town in the district Schleswig-Flensburg, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany and is the farmost northern settlement of Germany.

It is situated on the south side of the Flensborg Fjord, an inlet of the Baltic Sea, approx. 10 km northeast of Flensburg. The town was originally the home of the family Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (or simply Glücksburg), since 1863 the royal family of Denmark and since 1905 of Norway. A branch of the family is the former royal family of Greece, which includes Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. His descendants, including Charles, Prince of Wales, Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, and Prince George of Cambridge, are members of the House of Windsor under British law, but genealogically are members of a cadet branch of the House of Glücksburg.

Glücksburg is home to a German Navy base. Among the facilities at the base is the transmitter, callsign DHJ58. DHJ58, situated at 54° 50'N and 9° 32' E, ceased its transmissions on longwave frequency 68.9 kHz in 2002 and in 2004 its longwave antenna was disassembled.

Horizont (radio station)

Horizont Radio or Хоризонт (Horizont) in Bulgarian is a state-owned Bulgarian radio station, specializing in news coverage from Bulgaria. It is the most popular radio station in Bulgaria and it is part of The Bulgarian National Radio Network. Horizon Radio is considered the most independent media in Bulgaria with news and comments from around the nation. It has an extensive network of correspondents in every big city in Bulgaria, ready to report when the news breaks. The programme plays a lot of music from all genres but prominence is given to the latest in the pop charts. The motto of radio Horizon is "Quick and in-depth".

List of tallest structures built in the Soviet Union

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List of tallest structures in Europe

This is a list of the tallest structures of any kind which exist or existed in Europe. The list contains all types of structures, including guyed masts and oil drilling platforms of 350 metres (1,150 feet) or more.

List of tallest structures in Iceland

An incomplete list of the tallest structures in Iceland. This list contains all types of structures.

Low frequency

Low frequency (low freq) or LF is the ITU designation for radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 30 kilohertz (kHz) to 300 kHz. As its wavelengths range from ten kilometres to one kilometre, respectively, it is also known as the kilometre band or kilometre wave.

LF radio waves exhibit low signal attenuation, making them suitable for long-distance communications. In Europe and areas of Northern Africa and Asia, part of the LF spectrum is used for AM broadcasting as the "longwave" band. In the western hemisphere, its main use is for aircraft beacon, navigation (LORAN), information, and weather systems. A number of time signal broadcasts are also broadcast in this band.

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Motala (Swedish pronunciation: [²muːˌtɑːla] (listen)) is a locality and the seat of Motala Municipality, Östergötland County, Sweden with 29,823 inhabitants (41,956 in the entire municipality) in 2010. It is the third largest city of Östergötland, following Linköping and Norrköping. Motala is situated on the eastern shore of Lake Vättern and is regarded as the main centre of both the Göta Canal and the surrounding lake region.

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RMC is a private French-Monégasque radio station created in 1943, broadcasting from France with studios in Paris and Monte Carlo. RMC stands for Radio Monte Carlo.

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RTL, formerly Radio Luxembourg, is a French commercial radio network owned by the RTL Group. Founded in 1933 as Radio Luxembourg, the station's name was changed to RTL in 1966. It broadcast from outside France until 1981, because only public stations had been allowed until then.

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In electronics and telecommunications, a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device which produces radio waves with an antenna. The transmitter itself generates a radio frequency alternating current, which is applied to the antenna. When excited by this alternating current, the antenna radiates radio waves.

Transmitters are necessary component parts of all electronic devices that communicate by radio, such as radio and television broadcasting stations, cell phones, walkie-talkies, wireless computer networks, Bluetooth enabled devices, garage door openers, two-way radios in aircraft, ships, spacecraft, radar sets and navigational beacons. The term transmitter is usually limited to equipment that generates radio waves for communication purposes; or radiolocation, such as radar and navigational transmitters. Generators of radio waves for heating or industrial purposes, such as microwave ovens or diathermy equipment, are not usually called transmitters, even though they often have similar circuits.

The term is popularly used more specifically to refer to a broadcast transmitter, a transmitter used in broadcasting, as in FM radio transmitter or television transmitter. This usage typically includes both the transmitter proper, the antenna, and often the building it is housed in.

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