Longue paume

Longue paume, or jeu de longue paume, is an outdoor version of jeu de paume, an ancestor of modern lawn tennis. Hundreds of years ago it was quite popular, particularly in France. It is a game of gain-ground as Balle à la main

It was part of the Paris 1900 Summer Olympics, but its medal status is disputed. Today, the sport is most played in the region of Picardy. The governing body of the sport is the Fédération Française de Longue Paume, with its headquarters in Amiens.

Popularity of Tennis in the 17th century
Longue Paume in the 17th century.
Coubertin - Une campagne de vingt-et-un ans, 1909 (page 46 crop)
Competition of longue paume in the Garden of the Luxembourg (Paris), on June 18th, 1889

Others games of gain-ground

See also

External links

  • "Fédération Française de Longue Paume". Archived from the original on May 27, 2016.
  • Connaissez-vous la Longue Paume?
1877 Wimbledon Championship

The 1877 Wimbledon Championship was a men's tennis tournament held at the All England Croquet and Lawn Tennis Club (AEC & LTC) in Wimbledon, London. It was the world's first official lawn tennis tournament, and was later recognised as the first Grand Slam tournament or "Major". The AEC & LTC had been founded in July 1868, as the All England Croquet Club; lawn tennis was introduced in February 1875 to compensate for the waning interest in croquet. In June 1877 the club decided to organise a tennis tournament to pay for the repair of its pony roller, needed to maintain the lawns. A set of rules was drawn up for the tournament, derived from the first standardised rules of tennis issued by the Marylebone Cricket Club in May 1875.

The Gentlemen's Singles competition, the only event of the championship, was contested on grass courts by 22 players who each paid one guinea to participate. The tournament started on 9 July 1877, and the final – delayed for three days by rain – was played on 19 July in front of a crowd of about 200 people who each paid an entry fee of one shilling. The winner received 12 guineas in prize money and a silver challenge cup, valued at 25 guineas, donated by the sports magazine The Field. Spencer Gore, a 27-year-old rackets player from Wandsworth, became the first Wimbledon champion by defeating William Marshall, a 28-year-old real tennis player, in three straight sets in a final that lasted 48 minutes. The tournament made a profit of £10 and the pony roller remained in use. An analysis made after the tournament led to some modifications of the rules regarding the court dimensions.

1900 Summer Olympics

The 1900 Summer Olympics (French: Les Jeux olympiques d'été de 1900), today officially known as the Games of the II Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that took place in Paris, France, in 1900. No opening or closing ceremonies were held; competitions began on 14 May and ended on 28 October.

The Games were held as part of the 1900 World's Fair. In total, 997 competitors took part in 19 different sports. This number relies on certain assumptions about which events were and were not "Olympic". Many athletes, among them some who won events, didn't know that they had competed in the Olympic Games. Women took part in the games for the first time, and sailor Hélène de Pourtalès, born Helen Barbey in New York City, became the first female Olympic champion. The decision to hold competitions on a Sunday brought protests from many American athletes, who travelled as representatives of their colleges and were expected to withdraw rather than compete on their religious day of rest.

At the Sorbonne conference of 1894, Pierre de Coubertin proposed that the Olympic Games should take place in 1900 in Paris. The delegates to the conference were unwilling to wait six years and lobbied to hold the first games in 1896. A decision was made to hold the first Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens and that Paris would host the second celebration.

Most of the winners in 1900 did not receive medals, but were given cups or trophies. Professionals competed in fencing and Albert Robert Ayat (France), who won the épée for amateurs and masters, was awarded a prize of 3000 francs.

Some events were contested for the only time in the history of the Games, including automobile and motorcycle racing, ballooning, cricket, croquet, Basque pelota, and 200m swimming obstacle race and underwater swimming. This was also the only Olympic Games in history to use live animals (pigeons) as targets during the shooting event.The host nation of France flooded the field, comprising over 72% of all the athletes (720 of the 997); given that, America dominated athletically, winning the second-most gold (19), silver (14), and bronze (14) medals, while fielding fewer than 8% of the athletes (75 of 997).

Balle à la main

Balle à la main is a traditional Picard sport. It is a team sport with two teams of seven players on a called field " ballodrome ". It is a game of gain-ground as Longue paume, which takes place in Picardy.

Balle à la main is played on a rectangular field of 65 meters by 12 meters. As all the ballodromes of the games of gain-ground, we find on the field a line of fire and a rope.

Ballon au poing

The ballon au poing is a popular team sport in Picardy (France). This game is played by teams of six. It is a game of gain-ground.

This sport must not be confused with the fistball.

To be able to hit the ball, players surround their hand and their wrist with a strip of canvas or leather.

The teams are separated on the ground by a line ( la corde - the rope) which is mobile during the party. This new limit is shown by a chasse.

The purpose of the game is to gain ground by moving the rope. To do it, we try to make the ball "die" in the opposite camp.

Points mark by 15, 30, 40 and game.

Each 15 August at the Parc de la Hotoie ( Amiens ), the city receives the final stages of Ballon au poing.

Demonstration sport

A demonstration sport is a sport which is played to promote it, most commonly during the Olympic Games, but also at other sporting events.

Demonstration sports were officially introduced in the 1912 Summer Olympics, when Sweden decided to include glima, traditional Icelandic wrestling, in the Olympic program, but with its medals not counting as official. Most organizing committees then decided to include at least one demonstration sport at each edition of the Games, usually some typical or popular sport in the host country, like baseball at the 1984 Los Angeles Olympic Games and taekwondo at the 1988 Seoul Olympic Games. From 1912 to 1992, only two editions of the Summer Olympics did not have demonstration sports on their program. Some demonstration sports eventually gained enough popularity to become an official sport in a subsequent edition of the Games. Traditionally, the medals awarded for the demonstration events followed the same design as the Olympic medals, but of a smaller size. They are never included in the medal count.

Demonstration sports were suspended after the 1992 Summer Olympics, as the Olympic program grew bigger and it became more difficult for the organizing committees to give them the appropriate attention, since the IOC required the same treatment to be dispensed for official and demonstration sports. It is unlikely that they will be reintroduced as a requirement for future Olympic organizing committees. However, the Beijing Olympic Committee received permission from the IOC to run a wushu (martial arts) competition parallel to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, Wushu Tournament Beijing 2008.From the 1984 Summer Olympics until the 2004 Summer Olympics, two Paralympic events (a men's and a women's wheelchair racing event) were included in the athletics programme of each Games. These events are considered by many as a demonstration sport, but are, in fact, used to promote the Paralympic Games. Disabled events in alpine and Nordic skiing (1988 only) were also held as demonstration sports at the 1984 and 1988 Winter Olympics.

Gain-ground (game)

Games of gain-ground are team sports which are played with a small ball or a balloon. They are often outdoors on a "ballodrome" but can also be played indoors.

Among these games, longue paume and real tennis are the most well-known because they are played with rackets. The rules change a little depending on the game but the basic rules remain identical from one game to the other.

Games of gain-ground are characterized in particular by the use of "chasses". Chasses indicate the limit between both teams or in real tennis a limit to score a point. Points are counted as in tennis: 15, 30, 40 and set.

Handball International Championships

The Handball International Championships are yearly held competitions where many countries and regions play the handball sports derived from the Jeu de paume.

It is organized by the International Ball game Confederation, and there are three official varieties (International fronton, International game, and Llargues), but local modalities are also played.

Handball International Championships, 2007

The 2007 edition of the Handball International Championships was the VII European Championship (in French Championnat d’Europe des Jeux de Paume), organized by the

International Ball game Confederation, and was held at the Belgian cities of Nivelles and Buizingen during September 21 and 23.

The playing countries were Belgium, France, Italy, Netherlands and the Valencian Pilota Squad representing Spain.

Each own has its local variety: Belgian Balle pelote, Dutch Frisian handball, French Longue paume, Italian Pallone, and Valencian pilota.

Belgian players are professionals of their sport. There are also professional Valencian pilotaris, but in Escala i corda and Raspall, not in Llargues.

The varieties of the Handball sports derived from the old Jeu de paume that were played were International fronton, International game and Llargues.

The matches of International International fronton (1-walled) were played at the Turncentrum Start 65 of Buizingen, and the matches of International game and Llargues were played at the Parc de la Dodaine of Nivelles. Access to the matches was free.

International Ball game Confederation

The International Ball game Confederation (also known as CIJB, in French Confederation Internationale du Jeu de Balle), founded on May 13, 1928, is the organization that manages the common activities of the many ball game deriving from the Jeu de paume.

Local federations that take part in the CIJB are: Argentina, Belgium, Colombia, Ecuador, France, Italy, Mexico, Netherlands, Spain, Uruguay. In 2010 England joined the CIJB.

Since every country has developed minor changes, the CIJB set up a variety called International game that shares all the common traits of the direct style (face to face) and another variety for the indirect style (International fronton). That's how every year the Handball International Championships are held: On even years, Europeans, and on odd years, World Championships. England recenetley won the last European championship in 2010.

International game

The International game (Valencian: joc internacional, IPA: [ˈdʒɔk ˌinteɾnasi.oˈnal]) is a ball game modality that joins up many sports allegedly derived from the Jeu de paume. It's played in the Handball International Championships by teams from the Americas and Europe.

Jeu de paume

Jeu de paume (UK: , French: [ʒø d(ə) pom]; originally spelled jeu de paulme; lit. "palm game"), nowadays known as real tennis, (US) court tennis or (in France) courte paume, is a ball-and-court game that originated in France. It was an indoor precursor of tennis played without racquets, though these were eventually introduced. It is a former Olympic sport, and has the oldest ongoing annual world championship in sport, first established over 250 years ago.

Jeu de paume at the 1908 Summer Olympics

Jeu de paume was an event contested at the 1908 Summer Olympics. This was the only Summer Olympic Games to contain this sport as a medal event. An outdoor version called longue paume was a demonstration sport at the 1900 Summer Olympics. Real tennis, as jeu de paume is called in the United Kingdom, was an exhibition event at the 1924 Summer Olympics. In the Official Report of the 1908 Olympic Games, the sport is referred to as "Tennis (jeu de paume)" while tennis is named "lawn tennis."

The competition venue was the Queen's Club in West Kensington, London.

Kī-o-rahi

Kī-o-rahi is a ball sport played in New Zealand with a small round ball called a 'kī'. It is a fast-paced game incorporating skills similar to rugby union, netball and touch. Two teams of seven players play on a circular field divided into zones, and score points by touching the 'pou' (boundary markers) and hitting a central 'tupu' or target. The game is played with varying rules (e.g. number of people, size of field, tag ripping rules etc.) depending on the geographic area it is played in. A process called Tatu, before the game, determines which rules the two teams will use.

In 2005 kī-o-rahi was chosen to represent New Zealand by global fast-food chain McDonald's as part of its 'Passport to Play' programme to teach physical play activities in 31,000 American schools.

The programme will give instruction in 15 ethnic games to seven million primary school children.The New Zealand kī-o-rahi representative organisation, Kī-o-Rahi Akotanga Iho, formed with men's and women's national teams, completed a 14 match tour of Europe in September and October 2010. The men's team included 22-test All Black veteran Wayne Shelford who led the team to a 57–10 test win against Kī-o-Rahi Dieppe Organisation, the French Kī-o-Rahi federation.

Shelford's kī-o-rahi test jersey made him the first kī-o-rahi/rugby double international for NZ. The women's team coached by Andrea Cameron (Head of PE at Tikipunga High School) also won by 33–0. These were the first historic test matches between NZ and France.

List of Olympic venues in demonstration events

For the Olympic Games until the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona and 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, there have been demonstration or exhibition events that have occurred on various sports. Some of these sports later became Olympic sports such as basketball, canoeing, and short track speed skating. These are a list of other venues that hosted demonstration sports that did not become nor had never been official Olympic sports.

Longue paume at the 1900 Summer Olympics

Longue paume was on the Summer Olympic Games programme in 1900. In later years the IOC deemed each event of the 1900 Olympics to be either official or unofficial. Longue paume was regarded as unofficial.

Olympic sports

Olympic sports are contested in the Summer Olympic Games and Winter Olympic Games. The 2016 Summer Olympics included 28 sports, with five additional sports due to be added to the 2020 Summer Olympics program; the 2014 Winter Olympics included seven sports. The number and types of events may change slightly from one Olympiad to another. Each Olympic sport is represented by an international governing body, namely an International Federation (IF). The International Olympic Committee (IOC) establishes a hierarchy of sports, disciplines, and events. According to this hierarchy, each Olympic sport can be subdivided into multiple disciplines, which are often mistaken as distinct sports. Examples include swimming and water polo, which are in fact disciplines of the sport of aquatics (represented by the International Swimming Federation), and figure skating and speed skating, which are both disciplines of the sport of ice skating (represented by the International Skating Union). In turn, disciplines are subdivided into events, for which Olympic medals are awarded. A sport or discipline is included in the Olympic program if the IOC determines it to be widely practiced around the world, that is, the popularity of a given sport or discipline is indicated by the number of countries that compete in it. The IOC's requirements also reflect participation in the Olympic Games – more stringent conditions are applied to men's sports/disciplines (as men are represented at the Games in higher numbers than women) and to summer sports/disciplines (as more nations compete in the Summer Olympics than in the Winter Olympics).

Previous Olympic Games included sports that are no longer included in the current program, such as polo and tug of war. Known as "discontinued sports", these have been removed due to either a lack of interest or the absence of an appropriate governing body for the sport. Some sports that were competed at the early Games and later dropped by the IOC, have managed to return to the Olympic program, for example Archery, which made a comeback in 1972, and tennis, which was reintroduced in 1988. The Olympics have often included one or more demonstration sports, normally to promote a local sport from the host country or to gauge interest in an entirely new sport. Some such sports, like baseball and curling, were added to the official Olympic program (in 1992 and 1998, respectively). Baseball was discontinued after the 2008 Olympics in Beijing, only to be revived again for the forthcoming 2020 Olympics in Tokyo, which will see the introduction of new disciplines within a number of existing Summer Olympics sports as well as several new sports, such as karate and skateboarding, making their Olympic debuts.

Picardy

Picardy (; French: Picardie, French pronunciation: ​[pikaʁdi]) is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France. Since 1 January 2016, it has been part of the new region of Hauts-de-France. It is located in the northern part of France.

Valencian pilota

Valencian pilota (Valencian: pilota valenciana [piˈlɔta valensiˈana] "Valencian ball") is a traditional handball sport played in the Valencian Country. Its origins are not known.

Rules variations within the generic Pilota Valenciana category are frequent from area to area but the common trait is that the ball is struck with a bare, or almost bare, hand (only minimal protection is applied in some versions of the sport). The general rule involves two teams made from two up to five players each (the numbers depend on the particular version played). Exceptionally, individual matches are also played (mostly in Escala i corda and Raspall) between the most renowned players.

The second characteristic is that it is not played against a wall. Instead, similar to modern tennis, two individuals or teams are placed face to face separated either by a line on the ground or a net in all of modern modalities except for the frontó.

A distinctive trait of Valencian pilota is that the spectators are often seated or standing very close to the court which means that they may be hit by the ball and thus become an (unwilling) part of the game.

Édouard Fournier

Édouard Fournier (15 June 1819, Orléans – 10 May 1880, Paris) was a 19th-century French homme de lettres, playwright, historian, bibliographer and librarian.

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