The Long Trail is a hiking trail located in Vermont, running the length of the state. It is the oldest long-distance trail in the United States, constructed between 1910 and 1930 by the Green Mountain Club. The club remains the primary organization responsible for the trail, and is recognized by the state legislature as "the founder, sponsor, defender, and protector" of the Long Trail System.
Camel's Hump from the Long Trail
|Length||273 mi (439 km)|
|Location||Vermont, United States|
|Highest point||Mount Mansfield|
|Lowest point||Winooski River at Jonesville|
|Season||Late spring through late fall|
The Long Trail was conceived in 1909 by James P. Taylor who was at the time the Assistant Headmaster of Vermont Academy in Saxtons River, Vermont. Taylor lobbied other Vermont residents who shared his dream of a mission to "make the Vermont mountains play a larger part in the life of the people by protecting and maintaining the Long Trail system and fostering, through education, the stewardship of Vermont's hiking trails and mountains". In 1910, work began on the construction of America's first long-distance hiking path. The GMC completed the Long Trail in 1930.
The Long Trail runs 273 miles (439 km) through the state of Vermont. It starts at the Massachusetts state line (near Williamstown, Massachusetts), and runs north to the Canada–US border (near North Troy, Vermont). It runs along the main ridge of the Green Mountains, coinciding with the Appalachian Trail (for which it served as the inspiration) for roughly 100 miles (160 km) in the southern third of the state. Additionally, over 175 miles (282 km) of side trails complete the Long Trail System.
The Long Trail traverses almost all of the Green Mountains' major summits, including (from south to north) Glastenbury Mountain, Stratton Mountain, Killington Peak, Mount Abraham, Mount Ellen, Camel's Hump, Mount Mansfield, and Jay Peak.
The Long Trail is maintained primarily by the Green Mountain Club and its volunteers. Twelve club sections maintain assigned sections of the Long Trail – two other club sections maintain the trails in Vermont's Northeast Kingdom and the Appalachian Trail from Maine Junction in Killington to the Connecticut River. Although roughly 1,000 volunteers perform most of the club's trail work, the club also employs a staff to handle day-to-day operations and a seasonal staff of summit caretakers and the Long Trail Patrol which works on heavy duty projects on the trail. The Green Mountain Club also receives assistance from the Vermont Department of Forests, Parks and Recreation, U.S. Forest Service, National Park Service, Appalachian Trail Conservancy, and private landowners. During the mud season in late Spring, some sections of the trail are closed to hikers, to protect the trail from both erosion and to protect nearby flora from being damaged (especially the higher peaks that possess fragile alpine tundra).
The section of the Long Trail between Woodford (on Vermont State Route 9 just east of Bennington, Vt) and Glastenbury Mountain some 10 miles (16 km) farther north has gained notoriety because six people vanished in that area between 1945 and 1950. Only one body was found and the fates of the other missing persons remain a mystery.
The case that perhaps gained the most media attention at the time was the disappearance of 18-year-old Bennington College sophomore Paula Jean Welden, of Stamford, Connecticut, (elder daughter of industrial designer William Archibald Welden of the Revere Copper and Brass Company). On the afternoon of Sunday, December 1, 1946, she set out on a hike by herself on the Long Trail from Woodford Hollow heading northbound in the direction of Glastenbury Mountain. Despite repeated and extensive searches of the area by local police, the National Guard and many volunteers, nothing was ever found. Foul play is suspected in her disappearance.
The 28th Division was an infantry division of the British Army raised for service in World War I.British Expeditionary Force (World War I)
The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the British Army sent to the Western Front during the First World War. Planning for a British Expeditionary Force began with the Haldane reforms of the British Army carried out by the Secretary of State for War Richard Haldane following the Second Boer War (1899–1902).The term "British Expeditionary Force" is often used to refer only to the forces present in France prior to the end of the First Battle of Ypres on 22 November 1914. By the end of 1914—after the battles of Mons, Le Cateau, the Aisne and Ypres—the old Regular Army had been wiped out, although it managed to help stop the German advance. An alternative endpoint of the BEF was 26 December 1914, when it was divided into the First and Second Armies (a Third, Fourth and Fifth being created later in the war). B.E.F. remained the official name of the British armies in France and Flanders throughout the First World War.
Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany, who was famously dismissive of the BEF, allegedly issued an order on 19 August 1914 to "exterminate ... the treacherous English and walk over General French's contemptible little army". Hence, in later years, the survivors of the regular army dubbed themselves "The Old Contemptibles". No evidence of any such order being issued by the Kaiser has ever been found.British infantry brigades of the First World War
During the First World War, 259 infantry brigades were raised by the British Army, two by the Royal Navy, and one from the Royal Marines. Of these brigades, fifty-three were held in reserve or only used for training, while another nine only served in British India.
The pre war regular army only had eighteen infantry brigades, with another forty-five serving with the reserve Territorial Force (TF). Once war was declared, the regular army was expanded first by volunteers and then conscripts for what became known as Kitchener's Army. At the same time, volunteers for the TF formed second line formations.
Three infantry brigades served with a division, mostly the same one throughout the war, but some did serve for short periods with another division. At the start of the war, four infantry battalions along with a small headquarters formed a brigade; but, by 1918, with the number of casualties mounting, the brigade was reduced to three battalions. During the same time, the firepower of a brigade was increased by the assignment of more machine guns. Eventually, as the war progressed, a brigade had its own machine gun company and a trench mortar battery assigned.Camel's Hump
Camel's Hump (alternatively Camels Hump) is Vermont's third-highest mountain and, at 4085 feet (1245 meters), the highest undeveloped peak. Because of its distinctive profile, it is perhaps the state's most recognized mountain, featured on the state quarter. It is part of the Green Mountain range. With its neighbor to the north, Mount Mansfield, it borders the notch that the Winooski River has carved through the ridgeline of the Green Mountains over eons. The hiking trails on Camel's Hump were among the first cut in the Long Trail system, and Camel's Hump remains a popular summit for through- and day-hiking. The mountain is part of Camel's Hump State Park.Camels Hump State Forest
Camels Hump State Forest covers a total of 2,323 acres (9.40 km2) in two blocks in Vermont. Steven's Block comprises 1,680 acres (6.8 km2) in Fayston, Buels Gore and Starksboro in Chittenden and Washington Counties. It is managed for wildlife habitat and timber resources, and the Long Trail runs through this area. Howe Block is 643 acres (2.60 km2) in Fayston, and Waitsfield in Chittenden and Washington counties and is popular for mountain biking. The forest is managed by the Vermont Department of Forests, Parks, and Recreation.Crescent Falls
Crescent Falls are a series of two waterfalls located on the Bighorn River in west-central Alberta, Canada. They were originally called the Bighorn Falls, after the river they are located on.The falls are located a few kilometres upstream of the river's confluence with the North Saskatchewan River. A 4.5-kilometre (2.8 mi) - long trail leads north from David Thompson Highway (between Abraham Lake and Nordegg) to the falls. The Crescent Falls Provincial Recreation Area is established immediately up-river from the falls.The waterfall is two-tiered and has a height of 25 metres (82 ft). Visitors are allowed at the waterfalls year-round. Nearby to the waterfalls is a campsite run by Westward Bound Campgrounds. It is un-serviced.Dawson Butte
Dawson Butte, elevation 7,474 ft (2,278 m), is a flat-topped mountain in Douglas County, Colorado. Adjacent to the mountain is the Dawson Butte Open Space, owned by Douglas County and managed by the County's Division of Open Space and Natural Resources.
The mountain and open space are located about five miles south of Castle Rock.The publicly accessible portion of the open space covers 828 acres. A five-mile-long trail loops around the open space property. The trail is open to hikers, horseback riders, snowshoers, and mountain bikers. Dogs are allowed provided they are leashed. An old bridle path remains on the property, and some of the jumps are still set up.There is no public access to the top of the butte.Glastenbury Mountain
Glastenbury Mountain is a mountain located in Bennington County, Vermont, in the Green Mountain National Forest.
The mountain is part of the Green Mountains.
The northeast side of Glastenbury Mountain drains into Deer Lick Brook, thence into the Glastenbury River, the Deerfield River, the Connecticut River, and into Long Island Sound in Connecticut.
The southeast side of Glastenbury Mtn. drains into Deer Cabin Brook, and thence into the Glastenbury River.
The southwest end of Glastenbury Mtn. drains into Bolles Brook, thence into the Roaring Branch of the Walloomsac River, the Hoosic River, the Hudson River, and into New York Bay in New York.
The northwest side of Glastenbury drains into the Fayville Branch of Warm Brook, thence into Batten Kill and the Hudson River.
The Long Trail, a 272-mile (438-km) hiking trail running the length of Vermont, passes over the summit of Glastonbury Mountain. The summit of the mountain has a lean-to shelter and an observation tower maintained by GMC.
The Appalachian Trail, a 2,170-mile (3,500-km) National Scenic Trail from Georgia to Maine, coincides with this section of the Long Trail.Hazen's Notch State Park
Hazen's Notch State Park is a 307-acre state park in the town of Westfield, Vermont, in Orleans County. The park features the height of land of Hazen's Notch, a mountain pass in the northern Green Mountains of Vermont. It is located on Vermont Route 58.
Activities in the undeveloped park include hunting, hiking, bird watching, and snowshoeing. The Long Trail passes through sections of the park.
The park includes the 273-acre Hazen’s Notch Natural Area, which features cliffs of serpentine rock that support rare alpine and serpentine-adapted plant species. Peregrine falcons have also nested here historically. The Long Trail passes through the Natural Area.Jay State Forest
Jay State Forest covers 7,951 acres (32.18 km2) in two tracts in Jay, Richford, Montgomery and Westfield in Franklin and Orleans counties in Vermont. The forest is managed by the Vermont Department of Forests, Parks, and Recreation.
The forest is divided into two tracts, Black Falls (3,764 acres (15.23 km2)) and Big Jay (1,573 acres (6.37 km2)), which features Jay Peak and Jay Peak Resort.
Activities include hiking on the Long Trail and skiing at Jay Peak Resort.Kitchener's Army
The New Army, often referred to as Kitchener's Army or, disparagingly, as Kitchener's Mob,
was an (initially) all-volunteer army of the British Army formed in the United Kingdom from 1914 onwards following the outbreak of hostilities in the First World War in late July 1914. It originated on the recommendation of Herbert Kitchener, then the Secretary of State for War to raise 500,000 volunteers. Kitchener's original intention was that it would be formed and ready to be put into action in mid-1916, but circumstances dictated its use before then. The first use in a major action came at the Battle of Loos (September–October 1915).Long Trail State Forest
Long Trail State Forest protects 9,529 acres (38.56 km2) around a portion of the Long Trail, a 271 mi (436 km) hiking trail in Vermont. The forest runs through Belvidere, Eden, Lowell, Johnson, Montgomery, Waterville and Westfield in Franklin, Lamoille and Orleans counties. The forest is managed by the Vermont Department of Forests, Parks, and Recreation in partnership with the Green Mountain Club.Messier 86
Messier 86 (also known as M86 or NGC 4406) is an elliptical or lenticular galaxy in the constellation Virgo. It was discovered by Charles Messier in 1781. M86 lies in the heart of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies and forms a most conspicuous group with another large galaxy known as Messier 84. It displays the highest blue shift of all Messier objects, as it is approaching the Milky Way at 244 km/s. This is due to its falling towards the center of the Virgo cluster from the opposite side, which causes it to move in the direction of the Milky Way.Messier 86 is linked by several filaments of ionized gas to the severely disrupted spiral galaxy NGC 4438 and shows some gas and interstellar dust that may have been stripped of it like the one present in those filaments. It is also suffering ram-pressure stripping as it moves at high speed through Virgo's intracluster medium, losing its interstellar medium and leaving behind a very long trail of X ray-emitting hot gas that has been detected with the help of the Chandra space telescope.Messier 86 has a rich system of globular clusters, with a total number of around 3,800. Its halo also has a number of stellar streams interpreted as remnants of dwarf galaxies that have been disrupted and absorbed by this galaxy.Mount Abraham (Vermont)
Mount Abraham (Mount Abe to locals) is the fifth tallest peak in the U.S. state of Vermont. The summit supports a small amount of alpine vegetation and offers a view of the Champlain Valley and Adirondack Mountains to the west. Mount Abraham is on the Long Trail, a 272-mile (438 km) hiking trail running the length of Vermont. The mountain summit can be reached from the south (Lincoln Gap) or from the north (Lincoln Peak, Mount Ellen, Monroe Skyline). There is no camping permitted at the summit, but Battell Shelter is located roughly one mile from the summit south on the Long Trail.
Mount Abraham is the highest point in Addison County. The mountain — named after Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States — is part of the Green Mountains' Presidential Range. In 1881 the mountain was known as Potato Hill and this name is stamped on the benchmark at the summit which was reset in 1978.On June 28, 1973, a pilot flying from Twin Mountain, Vermont to Newburgh, New York was navigating through thick clouds and hit some trees (approx. 3,000 feet elevation) on Mount Abraham. He survived the plane crash. However, parts of the plane (a Cessna 182N, Registration Number N92431) are still on the mountain today.Mount Abraham stands within the watershed of Lake Champlain, which drains into the Richelieu River in Québec, then eventually into the Saint Lawrence River, and into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. The southeast face of Mt. Abraham drains into Lincoln Brook, then into the Mad River, the Winooski River, and into Lake Champlain. The southwest face of Abraham drains into the New Haven River, Otter Creek, and into Lake Champlain. The northwest face of Abraham drains into Beaver Meadow Brook, then into the New Haven River.Mount Carmel State Forest
Mount Carmel State Forest covers 263 acres (1.06 km2) in Chittenden, Vermont in Rutland County. Located in the Green Mountains, the forest's elevation ranges from 2380 to 3365 feet at the summit of Mount Carmel.
There is no road access to the forest, which can only be accessed by the New Boston Trail, a side trail to the Long Trail. The Long Trail bisects the forest from north to south, and the New Boston Trail accesses the Long Trail from adjacent U.S. Forest Service land in Green Mountain National Forest. The Green Mountain Club maintains the trail. A snowmobile corridor trail is maintained by the Vermont Association of Snow Travelers.
The forest was a gift to the State of Vermont in 1956 from Governor Redfield Proctor. It is managed by the Vermont Department of Forests, Parks, and Recreation.Mount Ellen (Vermont)
Mount Ellen is a 4,083-foot (1,244 m) high mountain in Vermont. It is located in the Green Mountains in Washington County.
Mount Ellen is flanked to the south by Cutts Peak (4,020 ft / 1,225 m), and to the north by Stark Mountain (3,662 ft / 1,116 m).
The area is often referred to as the Mad River Valley. Mount Ellen, together with Lincoln Peak, are home to the slopes of Sugarbush Resort. Located nearby is Mad River Glen ski area, famous for its historic single chairlift and focus on skiing.
The Long Trail, a 272-mile (438-km) hiking trail running the length of Vermont, traverses the summit ridge of Mount Ellen.Scouting in Vermont
Scouting in Vermont has a long history, from the 1907 to the present day, serving thousands of youth in programs that suit the environment in which they live.Second line yeomanry regiments of the British Army
Yeomanry are part of the reserve for the British Army. At the start of First World War there were fifty-four yeomanry regiments in the British Army. Soon after the declaration of war, it was decided to increase the number of these volunteer mounted regiments. The new regiments were mirror formations of the existing first line regiments, with the same name and served initially in the same brigades. However they were all classed as second line units. The first line regiments, were numbered the 1/1st while the second line became the 2/1st (regimental name) or in cases where there were more regiments with the same name, or already numbered, the 2/2nd or 2/3rd.
Territorial Force mounted brigades were known by their district name until August 1915, when they became numbered. For most of their existence the second line regiments and brigades were used as a coastal defence force. Most of the second line regiments were converted to cyclist battalions in 1916, and never served in a recognised theatre of war. Several were disbanded and its men transferred to other regiments and one served as an army corps cavalry regiment on the Western Front.There's a Long Long Trail A-Winding
"There's a Long, Long Trail" is a popular song of World War I. The lyrics were by Stoddard King (1889–1933) and the music by Alonzo "Zo" Elliott, both seniors at Yale.
It was published in London in 1914, but a December, 1913 copyright (which, like all American works made before 1923, has since expired) for the music is claimed by Zo Elliott.
In Elliott's own words to Marc Drogin shortly before his death in 1964, he created the music as an idle pursuit one day in his dorm room at Yale in 1913. King walked in, liked the music and suggested a first line. Elliott sang out the second, and so they went through the lyrics. And they performed it—with trepidation—before the fraternity that evening. The interview was published as an article in the New Haven Register and later reprinted in Yankee Magazine. It then appeared on page 103 of "The Best of Yankee Magazine" ISBN 0-89909-079-6 In the interview, he recalled the day and the odd circumstances that led to the creation of this historic song.