Long-tailed weasel

The long-tailed weasel (Mustela frenata), also known as the bridled weasel or big stoat, is a species of mustelid distributed from southern Canada throughout all the United States and Mexico, southward through all of Central America and into northern South America. It is distinct from the short-tailed weasel, also known as a "stoat", a close relation which originated in Eurasia and crossed into North America some half million years ago.

Long-tailed weasel
Mustela frenata new
Scientific classification
M. frenata
Binomial name
Mustela frenata
Long-tailed Weasel area
Long-tailed weasel range


Skulls of a long-tailed weasel (top), a stoat (bottom left) and least weasel (bottom right), as illustrated in Merriam's Synopsis of the Weasels of North America

The long-tailed weasel is the product of a process begun 5–7 million years ago, when northern forests were replaced by open grassland, thus prompting an explosive evolution of small, burrowing rodents. The long-tailed weasel's ancestors were larger than the current form, and underwent a reduction in size to exploit the new food source. The long-tailed weasel arose in North America 2 million years ago, shortly before the stoat evolved as its mirror image in Eurasia. The species thrived during the Ice Age, as its small size and long body allowed it to easily operate beneath snow, as well as hunt in burrows. The long-tailed weasel and the stoat remained separated until half a million years ago, when falling sea levels exposed the Bering land bridge, thus allowing the stoat to cross into North America. However, unlike the latter species, the long-tailed weasel never crossed the land bridge, and did not spread into Eurasia.[2]

I Am Weasel (15483000477)
In winter coat


The long-tailed weasel is one of the larger members of the genus Mustela in North America. There is substantial disagreement both on the upper end of their size and difference in size by sex by source: one indicates a body length of 300–350 mm (12–14 in) and a tail comprising 40–70% of the head and body length. It adds that in most populations, females are 10–15% smaller than males,[3] thus making them about the same size as large male stoats, according to a second source.[4] A third states they range from 11 to 22 inches (280–560 mm) in length, with the tail measuring an additional 3 to 6 inches (80–150 mm). It maintains the long-tailed weasel weighs between 3 and 9 ounces (85-267 g) with males being about twice as large as the females.[5]

The eyes are black in daylight, but glow bright emerald green when caught in a spotlight at night.[6] The dorsal fur is brown in summer, while the underparts are whitish and tinged with yellowish or buffy brown from the chin to the inguinal region. The tail has a distinct black tip. Long-tailed weasels in Florida and the southwestern US may have facial markings of a white or yellowish colour. In northern areas in winter, the long-tailed weasel's fur becomes white, sometimes with yellow tints, but the tail retains its black tip.[3] The long-tailed weasel moults twice annually, once in autumn (October to mid-November) and once in spring (March–April). Each moult takes about 3–4 weeks and is governed by day length and mediated by the pituitary gland. Unlike the stoat, whose soles are thickly furred all year, the long-tailed weasel's soles are naked in summer.[4] The long-tailed weasel has well-developed anal scent glands, which produce a strong and musky odour. Unlike skunks, which spray their musk, the long-tailed weasel drags and rubs its body over surfaces in order to leave the scent,[7] to mark their territory and, when startled or threatened, to discourage predators.[8]


Reproduction and development

The long-tailed weasel mates in July–August, with implantation of the fertilized egg on the uterine wall being delayed until about March. The gestation period lasts 10 months, with actual embryonic development taking place only during the last four weeks of this period, an adaptation to timing births for spring, when small mammals are abundant. Litter size generally consists of 5–8 kits, which are born in April–May. The kits are born partially naked, blind and weighing 3 grams, about the same weight of a hummingbird. The long-tailed weasel's growth rate is rapid, as by the age of three weeks, the kits are well furred, can crawl outside the nest and eat meat. At this time, the kits weigh 21–27 grams. At five weeks of age, the kit's eyes open, and the young become physically active and vocal. Weaning begins at this stage, with the kits emerging from the nest and accompanying the mother in hunting trips a week later. The kits are fully grown by autumn, at which time the family disbands. The females are able to breed at 3–4 months of age, while males become sexually mature at 15–18 months.[7]

Denning and sheltering behaviour

The long-tailed weasel dens in ground burrows, under stumps or beneath rock piles. It usually does not dig its own burrows, but commonly uses abandoned chipmunk holes. The 22–30 cm (8.7–11.8 in) diameter nest chamber is situated around 60 cm (24 in) from the burrow entrance, and is lined with straw and the fur of prey.[7]


PSM V54 D814 Weasel attacking bird
Long-tailed weasel in winter fur attacking a quail, as illustrated in Popular Science Monthly
Weasel - n - Vole (22475287884)
Long-tailed weasel with rodent prey in Box Elder County, Utah

The long-tailed weasel is a fearless and aggressive hunter which may attack animals far larger than itself. When stalking, it waves its head from side to side in order to pick up the scent of its prey. It hunts small prey, such as mice, by rushing at them and kills them with one bite to the head. With large prey, such as rabbits, the long-tailed weasel strikes quickly, taking its prey off guard. It grabs the nearest part of the animal and climbs upon its body, maintaining its hold with its feet. The long-tailed weasel then manoeuvres itself to inflict a lethal bite to the neck.[9]

The long-tailed weasel is an obligate carnivore which prefers its prey to be fresh or alive, eating only the carrion stored within its burrows. Rodents are almost exclusively taken when they are available. Its primary prey consists of mice, rats, squirrels, chipmunks, shrews, moles and rabbits. Occasionally, it may eat small birds, bird eggs, reptiles, amphibians, fish, earthworms and some insects. The species has also been observed to take bats from nursery colonies. It occasionally surplus kills, usually in spring when the kits are being fed, and again in autumn. Some of the surplus kills may be cached, but are usually left uneaten. Kits in captivity eat from ¼–½ of their body weight in 24 hours, while adults eat only one fifth to one third. After killing its prey, the long-tailed weasel laps up the blood, but does not suck it, as is popularly believed. With small prey, also the fur, feathers, flesh and bones are consumed, but only some flesh is eaten from large prey. When stealing eggs, the long-tailed weasel removes each egg from its nest one at a time, then carries it in its mouth to a safe location where it bites off the top and licks out the contents or if they have babies in the den they may hold it in their mouth all the way back to them.[9]


As of 2005,[10] 42 subspecies are recognised.



  1. ^ Reid, F. & Helgen, K. (2008). "Mustela frenata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2010. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of least concern
  2. ^ Macdonald 1992, p. 205
  3. ^ a b Feldhamer, Thompson & Chapman 2003, p. 651
  4. ^ a b Merritt & Metinko 1987, p. 280
  5. ^ LONG-TAILED WEASEL (Mustela frenata), Description; Northern State University, Aberdeen, South Dakota
  6. ^ Schwartz & Schwartz 2001, p. 303
  7. ^ a b c Merritt & Metinko 1987, p. 282
  8. ^ Long-tailed Weasel. Esf.edu. Retrieved on 2014-05-10.
  9. ^ a b Schwartz & Schwartz 2001, pp. 306–307
  10. ^ Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  11. ^ Merriam 1896, pp. 26–28
  12. ^ Merriam 1896, pp. 31–32
  13. ^ Merriam 1896, p. 24
  14. ^ Merriam 1896, pp. 22–24
  15. ^ Merriam 1896, pp. 28–29
  16. ^ Merriam 1896, pp. 29–30
  17. ^ Merriam 1896, pp. 20–21
  18. ^ Merriam 1896, pp. 16–18
  19. ^ a b Merriam 1896, pp. 25–26
  20. ^ Merriam 1896, p. 19
  21. ^ Merriam 1896, pp. 21–22
  22. ^ Merriam 1896, p. 21
  23. ^ Merriam 1896, pp. 30–31
  24. ^ Merriam 1896, pp. 18–19


External links

Media related to Mustela frenata at Wikimedia Commons

Data related to Mustela frenata at Wikispecies

Arapaho National Wildlife Refuge

The Arapaho National Wildlife Refuge is a United States National Wildlife Refuge located in north central Colorado. It is one of over 560 national wildlife refuges which manages and protects natural resources for future generations. The refuge is located in North Park in central Jackson County south of the town of Walden. The refuge was established in 1967 to furnish waterfowl with a suitable place to nest and rear their young. It was created in part to offset losses of nesting habitat in the prairie wetland region of the Midwest. It is located in the valley of the Illinois River, a tributary of the North Platte River. It is administered by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.

Bird egg

Bird eggs are laid by the females and incubated for a time that varies according to the species; a single young hatches from each egg. Average clutch sizes range from one (as in condors) to about 17 (the grey partridge). Clutch size may vary latitudinally within a species. Some birds lay eggs even when the eggs have not been fertilized; it is not uncommon for pet owners to find their lone bird nesting on a clutch of infertile eggs, which are sometimes called wind-eggs.

Junín National Reserve

Junín National Reserve is a protected area located in the region of Junín, Peru. One of its main purposes is to protect the ecosystem and biodiversity of Lake Junín and the surrounding Central Andean wet puna.

Laguna Coast Wilderness Park

Laguna Coast Wilderness Park is a 7,000-acre (2,800 ha) wilderness area in the San Joaquin Hills surrounding Laguna Beach, California. This park features coastal canyons, ridgeline views and the only natural lakes in Orange County, California. Trails are maintained for hiking and mountain biking with a wide range of difficulty, from beginner to expert. Most trails gain in height, reaching a maximum of 1,000 feet (300 m) in elevation. Several trails lead to downtown Laguna Beach.

Laguna Coast Wilderness Park has some of the last remaining undeveloped coastal canyons in Southern California. The park is dominated by coastal sage scrub, cactus and native grasses. Over 40 endangered and sensitive species call Laguna Coast home including California gnatcatcher, cactus wren and the endemic Dudleya stolonifera. Both Laguna Coast, Aliso and Wood Canyons Wilderness Park are also home to mule deer, long-tailed weasel, healthy bobcat populations, and raptors like red-tailed hawk and the ground-nesting northern harrier.

Lake Mason National Wildlife Refuge

Lake Mason National Wildlife Refuge is located in the center of the U.S. state of Montana. The refuge has numerous lakes and extensive marshlands along Willow Creek, which provide nesting habitat for over a hundred bird species. The refuge is managed from the Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and is normally unstaffed and has few visitor improvements. The refuge consists of three discontinuous areas; the Lake Mason area which has seasonal wetlands, the North section consisting primarily of uplands and the Willow Creek section which was set aside to protect habitat for the mountain plover.Animals that roam in this refuge include red-tailed hawk, raccoon, coyote, ferruginous hawk, beaver, Canada goose, ring-necked pheasant, red fox, northern harrier, porcupine, bald eagle, rough-legged hawk, long-tailed weasel, short-eared owl, golden eagle, mink, burrowing owl, mallard, muskrat, and badger.

List of fictional mustelids

The following list of fictional mustelids is subsidiary to the list of fictional animals. This list is limited solely to notable non-badger and non-raccoon characters that appear in works of fiction and that are in the musteloidea superfamily of mammals. This includes weasels, ferrets, minks, otters, martens, and skunks.

Fictional badgers are instead found within the list of fictional badgers.

Fictional raccoons are found in the list of fictional raccoons.

If a character appears in more than one medium, sort under the primary one. Thus, despite occasional appearances in licensed video games, Pepé Le Pew is listed under the list of fictional mustelids in animation.

List of mammals of Missouri

This is a list of known mammals in Missouri, United States.

List of mammals of South Carolina

This is a list of mammals that are or were in the past native to South Carolina.

BalaenopteridaeBowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus)

Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus)

Humpback whale (Megaptera novaengliae)

Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata)

Right whale (Eubalaena glacialis)

Sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis)BovidaeBison (Bison bison)CanidaeCoyote (Canis latrans)


Grey fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus)

Red fox (Vulpes vulpes)


Gray wolf (Canis lupus)

Red wolf (Canis rufus)CervidaeElk (Cervus elaphus)

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)DasypodidaeNine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus)DelphinidaeAntillean beaked whale (Mesoplodon europaeus)

Atlantic pilot whale (Globicephala melaena)

Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontails)

Common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)

Dense-beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris)

False killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens)

Grampus (Grampus griseus)

Pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata)

Rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanenis)

Saddleback dolphin (Delphinus delphis)

Short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrohyncha)

Spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris)

Striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba)

True's beaked whale (Mesoplodon mirus)DidelphimorphiaVirginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana)EquidaeHorse (Equus caballus)EschrichtiidaeGray whale (Eschrichtius robustus)FelidaeBobcat (Lynx rufus)

Mountain lion (Puma concolor)LeporidaeEastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus)

Marsh rabbit (Sylvilagus palustris)

New England cottontail (Sylvilagus transitionalis)

Swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus)MephitidaeSpotted skunk (Spilogal putorius)

Striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis)MolossidaeBrazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis)MuridaeBlack rat (Rattus rattus)

Cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus)

Deer mouse (Peromyscuc maniculatus)

Eastern harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys humulis)

Eastern woodrat (Neotoma Floridana)

Golden mouse (Ochrotomys nuttalli)

Hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus)

House mouse (Mus musculus)

Meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus)

Muskrat (Ondatra zibethiscus)

Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus)

Oldfield mouse (Peromyscus polionotus)

Pine vole (Microtus pinetorum)

Red-backed vole (Clethrionomys gapperi)

Rice rat (Oryzomys palustris)

White-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus)MustelidaeLeast weasel (Mustela nivalis)

Long-tailed weasel (Mustela frenata)

Mink (Mustela vison)

North American river otter (Lutra canadensis)PhocidaeHarbor seal (Phoca vitulina)

Hooded seal (Cystophora cristata)PhocoenidaeHarbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)PhyseteridaeDwarf sperm whale (Kogia simus)

Pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps)

Sperm whale (Physeter catodon)ProcyonidaeRaccoon (Procyon lotor)SciuridaeEastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus)

Grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis)

Least shrew (Cryptotis parva)

Masked shrew (Sorex cinereus)

Southern short-tailed shrew (Blarina carolinensis)SoricidaeAmerican pygmy shrew (Microsorex hoyi)

Red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus)

Short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda)

Smoky shrew (Sorex fumeus)

Southeastern shrew (Sorex longirostris)

Southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans)

Woodchuck (Marmota monax)SuidaeWild boar (Sus scrofa)TalpidaeEastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus)

Hairy-tailed mole (Parascalops breweri)

Star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata)TrichechidaeManatee (Trichechus manatus)UrsidaeBlack bear (Ursus americanus)VespertilionidaeBig brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus)

Eastern pipistrelle (Pipistrellus subflavus)

Eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis)

Eastern small-footed bat (Myotis leibii)

Evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis)

Hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus)

Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis)

Little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus)

Northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis)

Northern yellow bat (Lasiurus intermedius)

Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Plecotus rafinesqueii)

Seminole bat (Lasiurus seminolus)

Silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans)

Southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius)ZapodidaeMeadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius)

Woodland jumping mouse (Napaeozapus insignis)ZiphiidaeGoosebeaked whale (Ziphius carvirostris)


Lutrogale is a genus of otters, with only one extant species—the smooth-coated otter.


The Mustelidae (; from Latin mustela, weasel) are a family of carnivorous mammals, including weasels, badgers, otters, ferrets, martens, mink, and wolverines, among others. Mustelids are diverse and the largest family in the order Carnivora, suborder Caniformia. Mustelidae comprises about 56-60 species across eight subfamilies.


Mustelinae is a subfamily of family Mustelidae, which includes weasels, ferrets amd minks.It was formerly defined in a paraphyletic manner to also include wolverines, martens, and many other mustelids, to the exclusion of the otters (Lutrinae).


Musteloidea is a superfamily of carnivoran mammals united by shared characters of the skull and teeth. Musteloids share a common ancestor with the pinnipeds, the group which includes seals.The Musteloidea consists of the families Ailuridae (red pandas), Mustelidae (mustelids: weasels, otters,

martens, and badgers), Procyonidae (procyonids: raccoons, coatis, kinkajous, olingos, olinguitos, ringtails and cacomistles), and Mephitidae (skunks and stink badgers).

In North America, ursoids and musteloids first appear in the Chadronian (late Eocene). In Europe, ursoids and musteloids first appear in the early Oligocene immediately following the Grande Coupure.

The cladogram is based on molecular phylogeny of six genes in Flynn (2005), with the musteloids updated following the multigene analysis of Law et al (2018).


Papallacta is a small village in Napo Province, Ecuador located at an altitude of 3,300 m in the Andes just off the Eastern Cordilleras on the road from Quito which leads into the Amazon jungle. The scenic drive from Quito to Papallacta passes through several towns and small villages before ascending to a peak of over 4,000 m, from where mountains and glaciers are visible. Descending from the peak to Papallacta, the ecosystems transform from alpine to tropical jungle.

Several hot springs and spas are located in Papallacta. Many of the local restaurants are known for their steamed trout. For lodging, there are several hotels and a resort.

Lake Papallacta and its surrounding watershed previously provided much of the drinking water for Quito, but because of frequent landslides in the region and the fact that the water pipeline and oil pipeline from the Amazon jungle pass in close proximity, a 2003 oil spill contaminated the lake, affecting recreational uses as well as clean water.The mammals of Papallacta have been studied in detail. The following species have been recorded in the vicinity of the village:

Order Paucituberculata (shrew opossums)

Caenolestes fuliginosus

Order Didelphimorphia (opossums)

Didelphis pernigra

Order Eulipotyphla (insectivores)

Cryptotis cf. montivagus

Order Carnivora (carnivorans)

Culpeo (Pseudalopex culpaeus)

Pampas cat (Leopardus pajeros)

Conepatus cf. semistriatus

Long-tailed weasel (Mustela frenata)

Spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus)

Order Cetartiodactyla (even-toed ungulates and whales)

Hippocamelus antisensis

Odocoileus peruvianus

Northern pudu (Pudu mephistophiles)

Order Perissodactyla (odd-toed ungulates)

Mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque)

Order Rodentia (rodents)

Akodon latebricola

Akodon mollis

Anotomys leander

Chilomys instans

Microryzomys altissimus

Microryzomys minutus

Neusticomys monticolus

Phyllotis haggardi

Reithrodontomys mexicanus

Thomasomys aureus

Thomasomys baeops

Thomasomys cinnameus

Thomasomys erro

Thomasomys paramorum

Thomasomys rhoadsi

Thomasomys silvestris

Thomasomys ucucha

Coendou quichua

Mountain paca (Cuniculus taczanowskii)

Order Lagomorpha (hares, rabbits, and pikas)

Tapeti (Sylvilagus brasiliensis)

Rio Grande Nature Center State Park

The Rio Grande Nature Center State Park is a New Mexico State Park located adjacent to the Rio Grande in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. The Rio Grande Nature Center is a 38 acre urban wildlife preserve established in 1982. About two thirds of the grounds of the Park are set aside as habitat for wildlife. The remaining acreage contains a visitors center, two gardens, several wildlife viewing areas, an education building and a building housing the non-profit Wildlife Rescue, Inc. There are four constructed ponds which provide habitat for birds and other wildlife and which mimic wetland features of the historical flood plain of the Rio Grande.

Visitors to the Rio Grande Nature Center may watch wildlife from viewing blinds overlooking two of the ponds as well as from feeding stations in the gardens and along the trails through the grounds of the Park. Visitors also use the Park as a stepping off point for visiting the Rio Grande and surrounding riparian forest, or bosque, as it's locally known. A round-trip walk to the river and back on either of the loop trails associated with the Rio Grande Nature Center is about one-half mile from the parking lot. Visitors may also walk through the bosque north and south from the Park along most of its 20-mile length.

Regular programming at the park includes: guided bird and nature walks, lectures, workshops, kids classes and three annual festivals. Thousands of students from around New Mexico visit the Park on field trips each year. Visitors from all over the world seek out the Park each year as both a birding hotspot and to experience the unique visitors center, designed by architect, Antoine Predock. The visitor center:

"...acts as a unobtrusive ‘blind’ affording visitors discrete panoramic views of the wildfowl areas. Seen from the main approach, the berms and bunker-like perimeter structure of rough-formed concrete blend into the wooded environment.

There is an element of ‘river-edge vernacular’ to the building; an 8-foot diameter, corrugated drainage culvert forms and frames the tunnel entry into the center. Upon entering, visitors become aware of the salient feature of both the preserve and the building: vertical, 8-foot-high, water-filled tubes encircle a sunken, ramped exhibit and viewing area. Light shimmers through these tubes from skylights to create an underwater effect. The ramp descends physically and symbolically to allow views of the vast forage areas, the marshlands and a reverse-periscope underwater image of the pond. At each stage along the ramp, interpretive displays augment the views; similarly, the exhibits complement interpretive trails which lace the refuge."Features of the visitors center include the library/observation room overlooking one of the Park's ponds; exhibits which familiarize visitors with the Middle Rio Grande bosque ecosystem; the Discovery Room, full of educational and entertaining activities for kids; the Nature Shop, operated by the Friends of the Rio Grande Nature Center to benefit the Park; and the Park's headquarters.

The Park is home to many species of flora and fauna including, most prominently, the Rio Grande Cottonwood. Animals observed at the park include: over 300 species of birds; mammals including desert cottontail, rock squirrel, North American porcupine, muskrat, coyote, Botta's pocket gopher, American beaver, raccoon, skunk, long-tailed weasel and many species of small mammals; reptiles and amphibians such as painted turtles (aquatic), box turtles (terrestrial), Woodhouse toads, whiptail lizards and coachwhip snakes; lastly about 40 species of dragonflies and many other fascinating invertebrates. Friends of the Rio Grande Nature Center volunteers are engaged in several different projects: restoration and gardening for wildlife, monitoring for aquatic insect and bird species, monthly water quality monitoring, and educational work about the bosque ecosystem.

Rydell National Wildlife Refuge

The Rydell National Wildlife Refuge is an 2,120-acre (9 km2) National Wildlife Refuge in northwestern Minnesota, located in Woodside Township, Polk County, just west of Erskine in northwestern Minnesota. It was established in 1992, and receives more than 7,800 visitors each year. The refuge is a combination of maple/basswood/oak forest, wetlands, tallgrass prairie and bogs.

Wildlife comes first on national wildlife refuges; all human activities must be compatible with the needs of wildlife. Six activities are encouraged when appropriate: hunting, fishing, wildlife observation, photography, environmental education and interpretation. Rydell Refuge offers all of these, and more!

The refuge visitor center provides information about refuge wildlife and serves as the starting point for the 7-mile (11 km), paved and gravel, trail system. Five trails are open to hiking, bicycling, snowshoeing, and crosscountry skiing. Observation blinds and gazebos on the trails offer opportunities to watch and photograph wildlife. Transportation for people with disabilities is available by prior arrangement.

Rydell’s diverse habitats support a variety of wildlife species. Waterfowl, including ducks, geese, and swans, rely on the wetlands and the surrounding grasslands and woodlands for feeding and nesting. Trumpeter swans, on Minnesota’s threatened species list, were re-introduced to the area prior to its becoming a refuge and now nest here each year. Bald eagles and osprey hunt on the refuge, and gray wolves are occasionally seen. Resident species include white-tailed deer, black bear, ruffed grouse, barred owl, pileated woodpecker, long-tailed weasel, red fox, river otter, and beaver.

Tours provided by the Friends of Rydell Refuge Association on electric golf carts are available by prior arrangement. Rydell NWR provides an annual deer hunt for people with disabilities which accommodates nearly 20 hunters.

Rydell National Wildlife Refuge's objectives include:

Provide nesting, feeding and resting habitat for waterfowl and other migratory woodland and grassland birds

Serve as a regional destination for environmental education opportunities

Provide woodland and prairie habitat for resident wildlife

Provide opportunities for wildlife observation and outdoor recreation


The stoat (Mustela erminea), also known as the short-tailed weasel or simply the weasel in Ireland where the least weasel does not live, is a mammal of the genus Mustela of the family Mustelidae native to Eurasia and North America, distinguished from the least weasel by its larger size and longer tail with a prominent black tip. Originally from Eurasia, it crossed into North America some 500,000 years ago, where it naturalized and joined the notably larger, closely related native long-tailed weasel.

The name ermine is used for any species in the genus Mustela, especially the stoat, in its pure white winter coat, or the fur thereof. In the late 19th century, stoats were introduced into New Zealand to control rabbits, where they have had a devastating effect on native bird populations.

The stoat is classed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as least concern, due to its wide circumpolar distribution, and because it does not face any significant threat to its survival. It was nominated as one of the world's top 100 "worst invaders".Ermine luxury fur was used in the 15th century by Catholic monarchs, who sometimes used it as the mozzetta cape. It was also used in capes on images such as the Infant Jesus of Prague.

Temascaltepec de González

Temascaltepec (formally: Temascaltepec de González, for Plutarco González) is a city and seat of the municipality of Temascaltepec located in south of the State of Mexico in Mexico. It is 66 km (41 mi) southeast of Toluca and 140 km (87 mi), from Mexico City. Temascaltepec comes from the Náhuatl "temazcalli," which means "steam bath," and "tepetl," which means "hill." The Matlatzincas named the area "Cocalostoc," which means 'cave of crows'.


A weasel is a mammal of the genus Mustela of the family Mustelidae. The genus Mustela includes the least weasels, polecats, stoats, ferrets and minks. Members of this genus are small, active predators, with long and slender bodies and short legs. The family Mustelidae (which also includes badgers, otters, and wolverines) is often referred to as the "weasel family". In the UK, the term "weasel" usually refers to the smallest species, the least weasel (M. nivalis).Weasels vary in length from 173 to 217 mm (6.8 to 8.5 in), females being smaller than the males, and usually have red or brown upper coats and white bellies; some populations of some species moult to a wholly white coat in winter. They have long, slender bodies, which enable them to follow their prey into burrows. Their tails may be from 34 to 52 mm (1.3 to 2.0 in) long.Weasels feed on small mammals and have from time to time been considered vermin because some species took poultry from farms or rabbits from commercial warrens. They do, on the other hand, eat large numbers of rodents. They can be found all across the world except for Antarctica, Australia, and neighbouring islands.

Whiplash (video game)

Whiplash is a platform video game for the PlayStation 2 and Xbox where a long-tailed weasel named Spanx and a rabbit called Redmond finds themselves chained to one another and follows their adventures as the pair endeavor to find a way out of the warehouse of the product testing corporation known as Genron. The game is a 3D platformer, with Spanx being controlled by the player for the majority of the game, and Redmond used more in combat or as a means of traversing the world.

The game was featured on the cover of Official U.S. PlayStation Magazine. There was also some controversy over the game with animal cruelty.

Subspecies Trinomial authority Description Range Synonyms
Bridled weasel
Mustela f. frenata

(Nominate subspecies)

Lichtenstein, 1831 A large subspecies with a long tail, relatively short black tip and has a black head with conspicuous white markings[11] Mexico aequatorialis (Coues, 1877)

brasiliensis (Sevastianoff, 1813)
mexicanus (Coues, 1877)

Mustela f. affinis Gray, 1874 A large, very dark subspecies with very little white marking on the face[12] costaricensis (J. A. Allen, 1916)

macrurus (J. A. Allen, 1912)
meridana (Hollister, 1914)

Mustela f. agilis Tschudi, 1844 macrura (J. A. Allen 1916)
Black Hills weasel
Mustela f. alleni
Merriam, 1896 Similar to arizonensis in size and general characters, but with yellower upper parts[13] Black Hills, South Dakota
Mustela f. altifrontalis Hall, 1936 saturata (Miller, 1912)
Arizona weasel
Mustela f. arizonensis
Mearns, 1891 Similar to longicauda, but smaller in size[14] Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountain systems, reaching British Columbia in the Rocky Mountain region
Mustela f. arthuri Hall, 1927
Mustela e. celenda Hall, 1944
Mustela f. aureoventris Gray, 1864 affinis (Lönnberg, 1913)

jelskii (Taczanowski, 1881)
macrura (Taczanowski, 1874)

Mustela f. boliviensis Hall, 1938
Mustela f. costaricensis Goldman, 1912 brasiliensis (Gray, 1874)
Mustela f. effera Hall, 1936
Chiapas weasel
Mustela f. goldmani
Merriam, 1896 Similar to frenata in size and general characters, but with a longer tail and hind feet, darker fur and more restricted white markings[15] Mountains of southeastern Chiapas
Mustela f. gracilis Brown, 1908
Mustela f. helleri Hall, 1935
Mustela f. inyoensis Hall, 1936
Mustela f. latirostra Hall, 1896 arizonensis (Grinnell and Swarth, 1913)
Mustela f. leucoparia Merriam, 1896 Similar to frenata, but slightly larger and with more extensive white markings[16]
Common long-tailed weasel
Mustela f. longicauda


Bonaparte, 1838 A large subspecies with a very long tail and short black tip. The upper parts are pale yellowish brown or pale raw amber brown, while the underparts vary in colour from strong buffy yellow to ochraceous orange[17] Great Plains from Kansas northward
Mustela f. macrophonius Elliot, 1905
Mustela f. munda Bangs, 1899
Mustela f. neomexicanus Barber and Cockerell, 1898
Mustela f. nevadensis Hall, 1936 longicauda (Coues, 1891)
Mustela f. nicaraguae J. A. Allen, 1916
Mustela f. nigriauris Hall, 1936 xanthogenys (Gray, 1874)

Mustela f. notius

Bangs, 1899
New York weasel
Mustela f. noveboracensis


Emmons, 1840 A large subspecies, with a shorter tail than longicauda. The upper parts are rich, dark chocolate brown, while the underparts and upper lip are white and washed with yellowish.[18] Eastern United States from southern Maine to North Carolina and west to Illinois fusca (DeKay, 1842)

richardsonii (Baird, 1858)

Mustela f. occisor Bangs, 1899
Mustela f. olivacea Howell, 1913
Oregon weasel
Mustela f. oregonensis
Merriam, 1896 Similar to xanthogenys, but larger, darker in colour and has more restricted facial markings[19] Rogue River Valley, Oregon
Mustela f. oribasus Bangs, 1899
Mustela f. panamensis Hall, 1932
Florida weasel
Mustela f. peninsulae


Rhoads, 1894 Equal in size to noveboracensis, but with a skull more similar to that of longicauda. The upper parts are dull chocolate brown, while the underparts are yellowish[20] Florida Peninsula
Mustela f. perda Merriam, 1902
Mustela f. perotae Hall, 1936
Mustela f. primulina Jackson, 1913
Mustela f. pulchra Hall, 1936
Cascade Mountains weasel
Mustela f. saturata
Merriam, 1896 Similar to arizonensis, but larger and darker, with an ochraceous belly and distinct spots behind the corners of the mouth[21]
Mustela f. spadix Bangs, 1896 Similar to longicauda, but much darker[22]
Mustela f. texensis Hall, 1936
Tropical weasel
Mustela f. tropicalis


Merriam, 1896 Similar to frenata, but much smaller and darker, with less extensive white facial marking and an orange underbelly[23] Tropical coast belt of southern Mexico and Guatemala from Vera Cruz southward frenatus (Coues, 1877)

noveboracensis (DeKay, 1840)
perdus (Merriam, 1902)
richardsoni (Bonaparte, 1838)

Washington weasel
Mustela f. washingtoni
Merriam, 1896 Similar to noveboracensis in size, but with a longer tail and shorter black tip[24] Washington state
California weasel
Mustela f. xanthogenys
Gray, 1843 A medium-sized subspecies with a long tail, a face marked with whitish and ochraceous underparts[19] Sonoran and Transition faunas of California, on both sides of the Sierra Nevada
Extant Carnivora species

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