London Marathon

The London Marathon (currently known through sponsorship as the Virgin Money London Marathon) is a long-distance running event held in London, United Kingdom, part of the World Marathon Majors. The event was first run on 29 March 1981 and has been held in the spring of every year since.[1] Since 2010, the race has been sponsored by Virgin Money.

The most recent event was the 2018 London Marathon on 22 April 2018. The date of the next London Marathon is Sunday, 28 April 2019.[2]

London Marathon
Virgin Money London Marathon
DateApril
LocationLondon, United Kingdom
Event typeRoad
DistanceMarathon
Established29 March 1981
Course recordsMen's: 2:03:05 (2016)
Eliud Kipchoge
Women's: 2:15:25 (2003)
Paula Radcliffe
Official sitewww.virginmoneylondonmarathon.com

Overview

London Marathon
Course map.

The race was founded by the former Olympic champion and journalist Chris Brasher and athlete John Disley. It is organised by Hugh Brasher (son of Chris) as Race Director and Nick Bitel as Chief Executive. Set over a largely flat course around the River Thames, the race begins at three separate points around Blackheath and finishes in The Mall alongside St James's Park. Since the first marathon, the course has undergone very few route changes. In 1982, the finishing post was moved from Constitution Hill to Westminster Bridge due to construction works. It remained there for twelve years before moving to its present location at The Mall.

In addition to being one of the top six international marathons run over the distance of 26 mi 385 yd (42.195 km), the IAAF standard for the marathon established in 1921 and originally used for the 1908 London Olympics, the London Marathon is also a large, celebratory sporting festival, third in England only to the Great North Run in Newcastle upon Tyne and Great Manchester Run in Manchester in terms of the number of participants. The event has raised over £450 million for charity since 1981,[3][4] and holds the Guinness world record as the largest annual fund raising event in the world, with the 2009 participants raising over £47.2 million for charity.[5] In 2007, 78% of all runners raised money. In 2011 the official charity of the London Marathon was Oxfam.[6] In 2014, the official charity was Anthony Nolan, and in 2015, it was Cancer Research UK.

History

20060423 Felix Limo and Martin Lel
2006 winner Felix Limo (left) and 2005, 2007 & 2008 winner Martin Lel (right).

The London Marathon was not the first long-distance running event held in the city, which has a long history of marathon events. The Polytechnic Marathon (also known as the Poly) was first held in 1909.[7]

The current London Marathon was founded in 1981 by former Olympic champion and journalist Chris Brasher and athlete John Disley.[8] Shortly after completing the New York City Marathon in November 1979 Brasher wrote an article for The Observer newspaper which began:

To believe this story you must believe that the human race be one joyous family, working together, laughing together, achieving the impossible. Last Sunday, in one of the most trouble-stricken cities in the world, 11,532 men and women from 40 countries in the world, assisted by over a million black, white and yellow people, laughed, cheered and suffered during the greatest folk festival the world has seen.[9]

Inspired by the people of New York coming together for this occasion, he asked "whether London could stage such a festival?"[8] The following year Brasher and Disley made trips to America to study the organisation and finance of big city marathons (such as those in New York and Boston). Brasher signed a contract with Gillette for £50,000, established charitable status and outlined six main aims in the hope to mirror the scenes he witnessed in New York and establish the United Kingdom on the map as a country capable of arranging major events. The London Marathon was born.[10]

The first London Marathon was held on 29 March 1981, more than 20,000 applied to run. 6,747 were accepted and 6,255 crossed the finish line on Constitution Hill. The Marathon's popularity has steadily grown since then. As at 2009, 746,635 people have completed the race since its inception.[8] In 2010, 36,549 people crossed the line, the biggest field since the race began.[11] The first wheelchair marathon race was held in 1983 and the event was credited with reducing the stigma surrounding disabled athletes.[12] In 2013 the IPC Athletics Marathon World Cup was held within the London Marathon featuring athletes of both genders in the T42–T46 and T11–T13 categories.[13] In August 2013 it was announced that the event would be staged in London until 2017 and feature athletes in the T11-T12, T13, T42-T44, T43, T45-46, T51-52 and the T53-54 class.[14]

For many years the London and Polytechnic Marathons competed with each other until, in 1996, the latter folded in due to the popularity of the former.[7]

Following the Boston Marathon bombings, organisers of the 2013 London Marathon undertook a review of their security arrangements, despite no specific threats against the event.[15] A 30-second silence was held before the start of the marathon to show respect and support to those affected by the tragedy.[16]

Organisation

The race is currently organised by Hugh Brasher, son of Chris, as Race Director and Nick Bitel as Chief Executive. Previously David Bedford and Bitel had overseen a period of great change for the race, including amendments to the course in 2005 which saw the cobbled section by the Tower of London replaced with a flat stretch along the Highway.[17]

Dan Tunstall Pedoe was the medical director of the London Marathon for 25 years between the first one in 1981 until 2005. In 2003, Pedoe was shadowed by Sanjay Sharma from St George's Hospital (University of London) who took over the role in its entirety in 2006.[18] Medical cover is provided by 150 doctors. Also assisting were more than 1,500 volunteers of St. John Ambulance, who organise over 50 first aid posts along the route, and three field hospitals at the finish. St John Ambulance also provide a number of healthcare professions for the event, including nurses, paramedics, ambulances with crews..[19]

The BBC covers the event, devoting rolling coverage for most of the morning. The theme music associated with this coverage, and with the event itself, is called Main Titles to The Trap, composed by Ron Goodwin for the film The Trap.

London Marathon at Shooters Hill - wheelchairs - geograph.org.uk - 761541
Men's Wheelchair competitors at Shooter's Hill, 13 April 2008

There are three separate groups of starters: Elite Women, Wheelchair (Men and Women), and Elite Men followed by Mass Race.[20]

Course

Top Three Men at London Marathon 2009 crop
The top three men, Samuel Wanjiru, Tsegay Kebede, and Jaouad Gharib, near the end of the 2009 marathon

The marathon is run over a largely flat course around the River Thames, and spans 42.195 kilometres (26.219 mi). [21]

The route has markers at one mile intervals. Although the race publicity (athlete advice, timing charts and so on) is mile-oriented,[22] the individual timing splits that are available to competitors after the event are kilometre-oriented.[23]

The course begins at three separate points: the 'red start' in southern Greenwich Park on Charlton Way, the 'green start' in St John's Park, and the 'blue start' on Shooter's Hill Road.[24] From these points around Blackheath at 35 m (115 ft) above sea level, south of the River Thames, the route heads east through Charlton. The three courses converge after 4.5 km (2.8 miles) in Woolwich, close to the Royal Artillery Barracks.[24][25]

As the runners reach the 10 km mark (6.2-mile), they pass by the Old Royal Naval College and head towards Cutty Sark drydocked in Greenwich. Heading next into Deptford and Surrey Quays/Rotherhithe in the Docklands, and out towards Bermondsey, competitors race along Jamaica Road before reaching the half-way point as they cross Tower Bridge. Running east again along The Highway through Wapping, competitors head up towards Limehouse and into Mudchute in the Isle of Dogs via Westferry Road, before heading into Canary Wharf.[24][25]

As the route leads away from Canary Wharf into Poplar, competitors run west down Poplar High Street back towards Limehouse and on through Commercial Road. They then move back onto The Highway, onto Lower and Upper Thames Streets. Heading into the final leg of the race, competitors pass The Tower of London on Tower Hill. In the penultimate mile along The Embankment, the London Eye comes into view, before the athletes turn right into Birdcage Walk to complete the final 352 m (385 yards), catching the sights of Big Ben and Buckingham Palace, and finishing in The Mall alongside St. James's Palace.[24][25] This final section of the route formed part of the 2012 Olympic Marathon Course.

Since the first marathon, the course has undergone very few route changes. In the first race, the course took a diversion around Southwark Park before re-joining Jamaica Road on the way to Tower Bridge and was routed through St Katherine Docks past the Tower Hotel, en route to the Tower of London and the cobblestoned stretch of road that in later years was carpeted, to help runners prevent injury on the uneven surface. In 1982, the finishing post was moved from Constitution Hill to Westminster Bridge due to construction works. It remained there for twelve years before moving to its present location at The Mall. In 2005, the route around the Isle of Dogs between 22 and 34 kilometres (14 and 21 mi) was switched from a clockwise to an anti-clockwise direction, and at 35 km (22 miles) the route was diverted to avoid St Katherine Docks and the cobblestoned area near the Tower of London. In 2008, a suspected gas leak at a pub in Wapping diverted the course, but in 2009 the race followed the same path as in 2007.[26][27]

Results

Paula Radcliffe London marathon 2005 crop
Paula Radcliffe, women's winner of the 2005 race

London is one of the top six world marathons that form the World Marathon Majors competition with a million prize purse.[28] The inaugural marathon had 7,741 entrants, 6,255 of whom completed the race.[29] The first Men's Elite Race in 1981 was tied between American Dick Beardsley and Norwegian Inge Simonsen, who crossed the finish line holding hands in 2 hours, 11 minutes, 48 seconds.[30] The first Women's Elite Race, also in 1981, was won by Briton Joyce Smith in 2:29:57.[30] In 1983, the first wheelchair races took place. Organized by the British Sports Association for the Disabled (BASD), 19 people competed and 17 finished. Gordon Perry of the United Kingdom won the Men's Wheelchair Race, coming in at 3:20:07, and Denise Smith, also of the UK, won the Women's Wheelchair Race in 4:29:03.[31]

World records for marathon running have been set several times. Khalid Khannouchi, representing the United States, set the men's world record in 2:05:38 in 2002. The following year, British runner Paula Radcliffe set the women's world record in 2:15:25 (later briefly downgraded to "world best" by the IAAF as it was achieved in a mixed race,[32] but restored to the title of "world Record" shortly thereafter); in 2017 Mary Keitany of Kenya set a world record of 2:17:01 for an all-women's marathon. Previous women's world records were set in 1983 and 1985 by Grete Waitz and Ingrid Kristiansen respectively, both of Norway. The current men's course record, which was the second fastest marathon in history at the time (and now third), is 2:03:05 set by Kenyan Eliud Kipchoge in 2016. Kurt Fearnley of Australia set the Men's Wheelchair Race course record at 1:28:57 in 2009, and the Women's equivalent was set by American athlete Tatyana McFadden in 2013, with 1:46:02.[33]

Amateur runners

2013 London Marathon at Victoria Embankment (1)
Amateur runners in the race running along Victoria Embankment

The race attracts amateur runners who make up the bulk of the thirty thousand or more participants; commonly running in fancy dress for charity causes. In 2002, Lloyd Scott completed the marathon wearing a deep sea diving suit that weighed a total of 110 lb (50 kg), with each shoe weighing 24 lb (11 kg); he also set a record for the slowest London Marathon time.[34] On 19 April 2003, former boxer Michael Watson, who had been told he would never be able to walk again after a fight with Chris Eubank, made headlines by finishing the marathon in six days. In 2006, Sir Steve Redgrave (winner of five consecutive Olympic gold medals) set a new Guinness World Record for money raised through a marathon by collecting £1.8 million in sponsorship. This broke the record set the previous year by the founder of the Oasis Trust, Steve Chalke MBE, who had collected over £1.25 million. Steve Chalke recovered the record in 2007, raising £1.86 million. In 2011 Chalke broke the record for a third time, raising £2.32 million.[35] The £500 that Claire Squires collected before the race increased to £920,000 after she died having collapsed during the 2012 race.[36]

A small number of runners, known as the "Ever Presents", have completed each of the London Marathons since 1981. After 2014 their number has shrunk to 14. At the running of the 2014 event the oldest runner was Kenneth Jones, 80 years old, whilst the youngest runner was 55-year-old Chris Finill. They are all male.[37]

Mini Marathon

The Virgin Money Giving Mini London Marathon is the sister of The London Marathon. The course is the last 3 mi (4.828 km) of the London Marathon and is aimed at ages 11–17 from all 33 London Boroughs along with 13 teams from ten English regions and three Home Countries: Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. There is also a Mini Wheelchair race on the day.[38]

BBC live coverage

Since 1981, the BBC has broadcast live coverage of the London Marathon.[39] The main presenters on BBC One have been Sue Barker, Jonathan Edwards and Gabby Logan. The highlight presenters on BBC Two have been Jonathan Edwards (2007–12), Sonali Shah (2013), and Helen Skelton (2014–15). The commentators between for the Marathon on the BBC were David Coleman, Ron Pickering, Brendan Foster, Paul Dickinson, Steve Cram, Stuart Storey, Paula Radcliffe, Dame Tanni Grey-Thompson, Liz McColgan and Rob Walker.

Theme tune

The theme tune used by the BBC every year is from the film score of The Trap, a 1966 film about a Canadian fur trapper, starring Oliver Reed and Rita Tushingham. The music was written by Ron Goodwin and is performed by the Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra.[40][41]

Sponsorship and marketing

The original sponsors of the London Marathon were Gillette, who sponsored the event from 1981 to 1983. Subsequent sponsors have been Mars (1984–1988), ADT (1989–1992), NutraSweet (1993–1995), and Flora (1996–2009).[42][43] The current sponsors, Virgin Money, have sponsored the marathon since 2010, after signing a five-year £17m sponsorship deal in 2008. On 22 April 2013 the London Marathon renewed its sponsorship deal with Virgin Money for a further five years and the race changed its name to the Virgin Money London Marathon.[44][45]

A number of other companies and organisations also use the event for brand identification and marketing, including New Balance,[46], Lucozade Sport, Fuller's Brewery and Abbott Laboratories.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Runner's World, Vol. 42, No. 1". Rodale, Inc. Jan 2007: 82. ISSN 0897-1706. Retrieved 30 September 2010.
  2. ^ "Home - Virgin Money London Marathon".
  3. ^ "Virgin London Marathon". www.virginlondonmarathon.com. Retrieved 30 September 2010.
  4. ^ "Give it everything you've got". The Economist. 19 April 2007.
  5. ^ "BBC – Your London Marathon guide". news.bbc.co.uk. 25 April 2010. Retrieved 30 September 2010.
  6. ^ [1] Archived 24 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ a b Kingston Harriers, The Polytechnic Marathon, a short history Archived 9 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ a b c "Virgin London Marathon – Background". Retrieved 29 April 2009.
  9. ^ "The London Marathon story". BBC Online. 7 April 2004. Retrieved 14 May 2012.
  10. ^ "Flora London Marathon – Background". Archived from the original on 11 June 2008. Retrieved 6 November 2008.
  11. ^ "Record Numbers Finish Virgin London Marathon". Retrieved 30 April 2010.
  12. ^ London Marathon. Museum of London. Retrieved on 29 April 2009.
  13. ^ "IPC Athletics partners with London Marathon". Paralympic.org. 21 April 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2017.
  14. ^ "British Athletics Official Website | New event added to 2014 IPC Athletics Marathon World Cup". Britishathletics.org.uk. 19 November 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2017.
  15. ^ "London to review marathon security". 3 News NZ. 16 April 2013.
  16. ^ "London Marathon: 30 seconds of silence for Boston". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
  17. ^ "Flora London Marathon website: Marathon History: Course History". Retrieved 1 February 2007.
  18. ^ Amby Burfoot (Dec 2008). "Runner's World, Vol. 43, No. 12". Rodale, Inc.: 116. ISSN 0897-1706. Retrieved 1 October 2010.
  19. ^ "london marathon". www.pponline.co.uk. Retrieved 1 October 2010.
  20. ^ [2] Archived 7 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  21. ^ Steve Cram (presenter) (26 April 2009). "The 2009 London Marathon Highlights". British Broadcasting Corporation. BBC Two. Missing or empty |series= (help)
  22. ^ "2011 Race information – Mile markers". Virgin London Marathon. Retrieved 28 January 2011.
  23. ^ "Race results and reports". Virgin London Marathon. Retrieved 28 January 2011.
  24. ^ a b c d "Interactive Marathon Map". BBC News. 23 April 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2009.
  25. ^ a b c Storey, Peter; Onanuga, Tola; Murphy, Sam; Ashdown, John (23 April 2009). "London Marathon 2009: Mile-by-mile route map". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 May 2009.
  26. ^ Gliddon, Abigail; Onanuga, Tola (24 April 2009). "London Marathon: A brief history". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 May 2009.
  27. ^ "History of the London Marathon – Course History". London Marathon. Retrieved 13 May 2009.
  28. ^ "World Marathon Majors". worldmarathonmajors.com. Retrieved 30 September 2010.
  29. ^ "History of the London Marathon – In the Beginning". London Marathon. Archived from the original on 6 May 2009. Retrieved 12 May 2009.
  30. ^ a b "1981 Race Report". London Marathon. Retrieved 12 May 2009.
  31. ^ "1983 Race Report". London Marathon. Retrieved 12 May 2009.
  32. ^ "Radcliffe to lose records. Marathon queen unhappy at losing world record mark". Sky Sports. 25 October 2011. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
  33. ^ "London Marathon 2013: American Tatyana McFadden claims victory as Shelly Woods finishes fifth". East London Advertiser. 21 April 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
  34. ^ "BBC News | UK | Marathon man erodes lead boots". BBC News. London: BBC. 17 April 2002. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
  35. ^ "Oasis Trust". Oasisuk.org. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
  36. ^ Faulkner, Katherine; Brown, Larisa; Smith, Graham; Evans, Rebecca (25 April 2012). "'Don't stop giving, it's what she would have wanted': Family of 'inspirational' woman who died running London Marathon urge wave of generosity to continue as charity donations rocket past £780,000". Daily Mail (online). Retrieved 25 April 2012.
  37. ^ Mike Peel. "Ever Present Home Page". Everpresent.org.uk. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  38. ^ "Virgin Mini London Marathon – Home". www.minimarathon.co.uk. Archived from the original on 3 September 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2010.
  39. ^ "London Marathon to stay on BBC". Sport on the Box. Sport on the Box. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  40. ^ "The Trap - The London Marathon Theme". BBC Music. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  41. ^ "Ron Goodwin: The Trap". Classic fm. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  42. ^ "Virgin London Marathon". www.virginlondonmarathon.com. Archived from the original on 24 September 2010. Retrieved 30 September 2010.
  43. ^ Advertising – Google Books. books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 30 September 2010.
  44. ^ "Sir Richard Branson signs £17million sponsorship deal for London Marathon". Daily Mail. 16 May 2008. Retrieved 30 September 2010.
  45. ^ "London Marathon and Virgin Money announce new sponsorship deal" (PDF). Virgin London Marathon. 22 April 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 April 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
  46. ^ https://www.virginmoneylondonmarathon.com

External links

2010 London Marathon

The 2010 London Marathon took place on Sunday, 25 April 2010. Up to 36,000 people are thought to have taken part, a record for the event.

Abel Antón

Abel Antón Rodrigo (born 24 October 1962 in Ojuel, Soria) is a Spanish long-distance runner. He won gold medals in the marathon at the 1997 and the 1999 World Championships in Athletics. In 1998 Antón became the first Spanish runner to win the London Marathon. He also won the 10.000 m title at the 1994 European Championships in Athletics.

In 2006 Abel Anton was implicated by Spanish professional cyclist and whistleblower Jesus Manzano in the doping ring that was the focus of the Operacion Puerto doping investigation by the Spanish Guardia Civil. Manzano alleged that Abel Anton together with former 5,000-metre champion Alberto García and Spanish 1,500-metre athlete Reyes Estévez were in a hotel where Eufemiano Fuentes, the Spanish sports doctor at the centre of the alleged doping ring, was claimed to have been offering consultations. Manzano went on to declare, in an interview with Italian online cycling journal Tuttobiciweb, that these athletes were all "with Fuentes". Alberto Garcia later served a two-year ban after having tested positive for EPO in 2003.

António Pinto (athlete)

António Coelho Pinto (born 22 March 1966 in Vila Garcia, Amarante) is a retired Portuguese long-distance runner.

Pinto won the London Marathon in 1992, 1997 and 2000, as well as the 10,000 metres final at the 1998 European Championships in Athletics in Budapest, Hungary. Pinto's best time in the marathon is 2:06:36. He competed in four consecutive Summer Olympics for his native country, beginning in 1988. He also won the Lisbon Half Marathon 1998. He retired in 2002.

Dionicio Cerón

Dionicio Cerón Pizarro (born October 9, 1965 in Toluca) is a former marathon runner from Mexico, whose personal best in the classic distance was 2:08:30. He represented his native country two times at the Summer Olympics: in 1992 and 1996. He also won the London Marathon three consecutive times between 1994 and 1996, the only athlete to have ever achieved this feat. Eluid Kipchoge and António Pinto are the only other athletes to have won it 3 times, however not in consecutive years.

Edna Kiplagat

Edna Ngeringwony Kiplagat (born 15 September 1979) is a Kenyan long-distance runner. She is the 2011 and 2013 IAAF World Champion in the marathon. She established herself as an elite marathon runner with wins at the Los Angeles and New York City Marathons in 2010. Her personal best for the distance is 2:19:50 hours, set at the London Marathon in 2012. At age 37, Kiplagat won the 2017 Boston Marathon in a time of 2:21:52 hours.

Eliud Kipchoge

Eliud Kipchoge (born 5 November 1984) is a Kenyan long-distance runner who competes the marathon and formerly 5000 metres race. He won the Olympic marathon in 2016 and is the current marathon world record holder with a time of 2 hours 1 minute 39 seconds. Kipchoge's world record run at the 2018 Berlin Marathon, broke the previous record by 1 minute, 18 seconds, the greatest improvement since 1967.

Kipchoge won his first individual world championship title in 2003 by winning the junior race at the IAAF World Cross Country Championships and setting a world junior record over 5000 m on the track. At the age of eighteen, he became the senior 5000 m world champion at the 2003 World Championships in Athletics with a championships record, then followed with an Olympic bronze for Kenya in 2004 and a bronze at the 2006 IAAF World Indoor Championships. A five-time World Championship 5000 m finalist, Kipchoge took silver medals at the 2007 World Championships, 2008 Summer Olympics and 2010 Commonwealth Games.

He switched to road running in 2012 and made the second-fastest ever half marathon debut with 59:25 minutes. On his marathon debut he won the 2013 Hamburg Marathon in a course record time. His first victory at a World Marathon Major came at the Chicago Marathon in 2014. He was a three-time winner at both the London Marathon and Berlin Marathon between 2015 and 2018. Described as "the greatest marathoner of the modern era", Kipchoge has won 11 of the 12 marathons he has entered, his only loss being to Wilson Kipsang Kiprotich at the 2013 Berlin Marathon (Kipchoge placed second), where Kipsang broke the world record. In January 11 2019, Eliud Kipchoge won the Sportsman of the Year award at the 2019 Sports Personality of the Year (SOYA) awards in Kenya.

Emmanuel Kipchirchir Mutai

Emmanuel Kipchirchir Mutai (born 12 October 1984) is a long distance runner from Kenya, who specialises in marathons. He is now the joint 4th fastest man ever over the 42.195 km distance.

Initially running in half marathons, he made his debut over the full distance in 2007 and won his first race later that year at the Amsterdam Marathon. He was fourth at both the 2008 and 2009 London Marathons, but managed to reach the podium at the 2009 World Championships, claiming the silver medal. His 2010 racing saw him finish as runner-up twice at the London and New York City Marathons. At the 2011 London Marathon he won on his fourth attempt with a course record and personal best time of 2:04:40.

En route to his second-place finish at the 2014 Berlin Marathon (2:03:13), Mutai set a world record at the 30K distance (1:27:37).

Evans Rutto

Evans Rutto (born 8 April 1978 in Marakwet District) is a Kenyan long-distance runner, who specialises in road running events. He made the fastest-ever marathon debut by winning the 2003 Chicago Marathon in a time of 2:05:50. He won the London Marathon and a second title in Chicago the following year.

After 2004, Rutto's form dipped considerably and in 2006 he took time away from marathoning due to injury. He has not yet returned to competition, although his personal best still keeps him within the top-20 fastest runners of all time.

Joyce Chepchumba

Joyce Chepchumba (born 6 November 1970 in Kericho) is a long distance athlete from Kenya.

Khalid Khannouchi

Khalid Khannouchi (Arabic: خالد خنّوشي‎) (born September 12, 1971) is a Moroccan American marathoner. He was born in Meknes, Morocco. He is the former world record holder for the marathon and held the former road world best for the 20 km distance. He is one of only five men to break the marathon world record more than once, and one of only four to break their own marathon world record. (The others are Jim Peters, Derek Clayton, and Haile Gebrselassie.)

Khalid fell out with the Moroccan athletics federation over training expenses and moved to Brooklyn, New York City in 1992 with three of his friends. He married American Sandra Inoa in 1996 who now coaches him and acts as his agent. They set up home in Ossining, New York. He became a naturalized citizen of the United States on May 2, 2000.

As of 2019, Khalid holds the American record for the marathon, with a time of 2:05.38 at the London Marathon in 2002.

Khannouchi officially retired on March 27, 2012 due to recurring foot injuries since 2003. Khannouchi stated "It was really my feet that betrayed me. Every time I go and try to push hard, I get the pain and soreness again. I can't train hard and if you can't train at a certain level where you can be competitive it's not worth it to keep wasting time."

List of Sierra Leonean records in athletics

The following are the national records in athletics in Sierra Leone maintained by its national athletics federation: Sierra Leone Amateur Athletic Association (SLAAA).

List of winners of the London Marathon

The London Marathon, one of the six World Marathon Majors, has been contested by men and women annually since 29 March 1981. Set over a largely flat course around the River Thames, the marathon is 26.2 miles (42.2 km) in length and generally regarded as a competitive and unpredictable event, and conducive to fast times.The inaugural marathon had 7,741 entrants, 6,255 of whom completed the race. The first Men's Elite Race was tied between American Dick Beardsley and Norwegian Inge Simonsen, who crossed the finish line holding hands in 2 hours, 11 minutes, 48 seconds. The first Women's Elite Race was won by Briton Joyce Smith in 2:29:57. In 1983, the first wheelchair races took place. Organized by the British Sports Association for the Disabled (BASD), 19 people competed and 17 finished. Gordon Perry of the United Kingdom won the Men's Wheelchair Race, coming in at 3:20:07, and Denise Smith, also of the UK, won the Women's Wheelchair Race in 4:29:03.Twenty athletes representing the United Kingdom have won the London Marathon a total of forty times. The most recent win by a British athlete was in the 2012 London Marathon, by David Weir in the Men's Wheelchair Race. It was his sixth win in London. Kenya has the second largest number of winning athletes. Seven Kenyan men and seven Kenyan women have been victorious a total of eighteen times, all in the able-bodied category. Eleven men, including those from the wheelchair races, have won the marathon more than once, Weir's six wins being the record. Sixteen women have been winners more than once; Tanni Grey-Thompson won the women's wheelchair race six times between 1992 and 2002.

Course records for the London Marathon have been set ten times in the men's race, seven times in the women's race, fifteen times in the men's wheelchair race, and thirteen times in the women's wheelchair race. World records for marathon running have been set six times considering marks for men and women in mixed sex and women-only races. Khalid Khannouchi, representing the United States, set the men's world record in 2:05:38 in 2002. The following year, British runner Paula Radcliffe set the women's world record in 2:15:25, which also stands as the current course record in the Women's Elite Race. In 2017 Kenyan Mary Keitany ran a women-only race world record of 2:17:01. Eliud Kipchoge of Kenya set the course record at 2:03:05 in 2016 in the Men's Elite Race. Kurt Fearnley set the Men's Wheelchair Race course record at 1:28:57 in 2009. The course record for the Women's Wheelchair Race was set by Swiss athlete Manuela Schar in 2017, with 1:39:57.

Liz McColgan

Elizabeth McColgan-Nuttall (née Lynch; born 24 May 1964) is a British former middle-distance and long-distance track and road-running athlete. She won the gold medal for the 10,000 metres at the 1991 World Championships, and a silver medal over the same distance at the 1988 Olympic Games. She was also a two-time gold medallist over the distance at the Commonwealth Games, as well as winning the 1992 World Half Marathon Championships, 1991 New York City Marathon, 1992 Tokyo Marathon and 1996 London Marathon. Her 10,000 metres best of 30:57.07 set in 1991, made her only the third woman in history to run the distance in under 31 minutes. Both that time and her marathon best of 2:26:52 in 1997, still stand as Scottish records (as of 2018).

Martin Lel

Martin Kiptolo Lel (born 29 October 1978) is a Kenyan long distance and marathon runner. He won the London Marathon in 2005, 2007, and 2008, the New York City Marathon in 2003 and 2007 and the Great North Run in 2007 and 2009. His personal best time, as of April 2008, is 2:05:15, which he ran in the 2008 London Marathon setting a course record. Lel is coached by Claudio Berardelli and lives in the Rift Valley region of Kenya.

Lel ran his first marathons in 2002: he failed to finish at the Prague Marathon, but in his first finish he managed to claim second in the Venice Marathon. He won Lisbon Half Marathon in 2003, 2006 and 2009, was the gold medalist at the 2003 IAAF World Half Marathon Championships, and won the Portugal Half Marathon in 2005. He made his Olympic debut for Kenya at the 2008 Beijing Olympics and came fifth in the marathon.

He beat Samuel Wanjiru to win the inaugural edition of the Rock ‘n’ Roll Mardi Gras Marathon in 2010. In August 2010 he ran at the Falmouth Road Race and took third place. After almost 3 years without running a marathon, he participated in the 2011 London Marathon as a replacement for Samuel Wanjiru, who was originally invited to run, but he still placed second with a time of 2:05:45, out-sprinting Patrick Makau at the finish line. He ran the 15K Saint Silvester Road Race at the end of the year, but was beaten into fourth place. Lel entered two races the year after: he was runner-up again at the 2012 London Marathon (finishing in 2:06:51) and was victorious at the Portugal Half Marathon with a time of 61:28 minutes.In 2011 the American Charity, Shoe4Africa, funded and opened the Shoe4Africa Martin Lel school in Lel's home village, Kimn'geru, to honor the athlete.

His brother, Cyprian Kimurgor Kotut, followed in his footsteps as a marathon runner and won the 2016 Paris Marathon.

Mary Jepkosgei Keitany

Mary Jepkosgei Keitany (born 18 January 1982) is a Kenyan long distance runner. She is the world record holder in a women-only marathon, having won the 2017 London Marathon in a time of 2:17:01.

Her half marathon personal best of 1:05:50 is a former women's world record. She also has held the world record at 10 miles (50:05 minutes), 20 kilometres (1:02:36), and 25 kilometres (1:19:53), all of which were set in road races. In August 2018 she was honored by the Shoe4Africa foundation and she opened the Mary Keitany Shoe4Africa school in Torokwonin, Baringo County, Kenya.

Rosa Mota

Rosa Maria Correia dos Santos Mota, GCIH, GCM (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈʁɔzɐ ˈmɔtɐ]; born June 29, 1958) is a Portuguese former marathon runner, one of her country's foremost athletes, being the first sportswoman from Portugal to win Olympic gold. Mota was the first woman to win multiple Olympic marathon medals as well as being the only woman to be the reigning European, World, and Olympic champion at the same time. On the 30th Anniversary Gala of the Association of International Marathons and Distance Races (AIMS) she was distinguished as the greatest female marathon runner of all time.

Tsegaye Kebede

Tsegaye Kebede Wordofa (Amharic: ፀጋየ ከበደ ዎርዶፋ; born 15 January 1987) is an Ethiopian long-distance runner who competes in road running events, including marathons. He quickly rose to become a prominent distance runner after his international debut at the Amsterdam Marathon in 2007. In his second year of professional running, he won the Paris Marathon, the Fukuoka Marathon and won the marathon bronze medal at the 2008 Beijing Olympics.

In the 2009 season he established himself as one of Ethiopia's top athletes: he came second in the London Marathon and at his first World Championships in Athletics he took the bronze medal in the marathon. He retained his Fukuoka Marathon title at the end of 2009, running the fastest ever marathon race in Japan. He won the 2010 London Marathon – his first World Marathon Major – and the 2013 London Marathon.

Wanda Panfil

Wanda Marianna Panfil-González (born 26 January 1959 in Tomaszów Mazowiecki) is a former long-distance runner from Poland, who won the world title in the women's marathon at the 1991 World Championships in Athletics in Tokyo, Japan. She is married to Mexican long-distance runner Mauricio González.

Panfil twice competed for her native country at the Summer Olympics; in 1988 when she finished 22nd with a 2:34:35, and in 1992 when she finished in 22nd position with a 2:47:27 in the women's marathon. During her career she won the London Marathon, the Boston Marathon, the New York City Marathon and the Nagoya Marathon. In 1990 and 1991 she was named Polish Sportswoman of the Year. Panfil is a four-time national champion in the women's 5.000 metres.

Wilson Kipsang Kiprotich

Wilson Kipsang Kiprotich (born 15 March 1982) is a Kenyan athlete who specialises in long-distance running, competing in events ranging from 10 km to the marathon. He was the bronze medallist in the marathon at the 2012 Summer Olympics. He is the former world record holder in the marathon with a time of 2:03:23, which he set at the 2013 Berlin Marathon. He has run under 2 hours 4 minutes for the marathon on four separate occasions.

Kipsang is a two-time winner of the Frankfurt Marathon (2010 and 2011) and has also won the London Marathon (2012 and 2014), New York Marathon (2014), and Tokyo Marathon (2017). He holds the twelfth best time over the half marathon distance (58:59 minutes).

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