Lolicon (ロリコン rorikon), also romanized as lolikon or rorikon, is Japanese discourse or media focusing on the attraction to young or prepubescent girls. The term lolicon is a portmanteau of the phrase "Lolita complex";[1] it describes an attraction to young or prepubescent girls, an individual with such an attraction, or lolicon manga or lolicon anime, a genre of manga and anime wherein childlike female characters are often depicted in an "erotic-cute" manner (also known as ero kawaii), in an art style reminiscent of the shōjo manga (girls' comics) style.[2][3][4][5]

Outside Japan, lolicon is in less common usage and usually refers to the genre. The term is a reference to Vladimir Nabokov's book Lolita, in which a middle-aged man becomes sexually obsessed with a twelve-year-old girl. It was first used in Japan in the 1970s and quickly became used to describe erotic dojinshi (amateur comics) portrayals of young girls.

Laws have been enacted in various countries, including in Japan, which regulate explicit content featuring children or childlike characters. Some countries, such as the United Kingdom, have made it illegal to possess lolicon.[6] Parent and citizens groups in Japan have organized to work toward stronger controls and stricter laws governing lolicon manga and other similar media. Studies of lolicon fans state that they are attracted to an aesthetic of cuteness rather than the age of the characters,[7] and that collecting lolicon represents a disconnect from society.[8][9][10]

Lolicon Sample
Lolicon art often blends childlike characteristics with erotic undertones.

Definition and scope

Generally, manga and anime featuring lolicon include sexual attraction to younger girls or to girls with youthful characteristics. Individuals in each group respond sexually to visual images of children and young people in distinct and narrow age ranges.[11] Manga and anime featuring lolicon contain images and narratives involving romantic and erotic interactions between typically an adult man and a girl in the age range desired by such men.[3]

Strictly speaking, Lolita complex in Japanese refers to the paraphilia itself, but the abbreviation lolicon can also refer to an individual who has the paraphilia.[4] Lolicon is widespread in Japan, where it is a frequent subject of scholarly articles and criticism.[12] Lolicon anime and manga are typically consumed by young men.[13] Many general bookstores and newsstands openly offer illustrated lolicon material, but there has also been police action against lolicon manga.[12]

The kawaii (cute) and ero kawaii (erotic-cute) style is extremely popular in Japan, where it is present in many of the manga/anime styles.[14] The school-age girl in a school uniform is also an erotic symbol in Japan.[15] Burusera shops cater to men with lolicon complexes by selling unwashed panties, men can make dates with teenagers through terekura (telephone clubs),[16] and some schoolgirls moonlight as prostitutes.[17] Sharon Kinsella observed an increase in unsubstantiated accounts of schoolgirl prostitution in the media in the late 1990s, and speculated that these unproven reports developed in counterpoint to the increased reporting on comfort women. She speculated that, "It may be that the image of happy girls selling themselves voluntarily cancels out the other guilty image".[18]

Genre characteristics and meaning outside Japan

Lolicon manga are usually short stories, published as dōjinshi (fan works) or in magazines specializing in the genre such as Lemon People,[19] Manga Burikko[20][21] and Comic LO (where "LO" is an abbreviation for "Lolita Only").[22] Common focuses of these stories include taboo relationships, such as between a teacher and student or brother and sister, while others feature sexual experimentation between children. Some lolicon manga cross over with other erotic genres, such as crossdressing and futanari.[12] Plot devices are often used to explain the young appearance for many of the characters.[23] Schoolgirls accidentally showing their underwear are common characters in the lolicon genre.[2]

Akira Akagi believes that during the 1980s, the lolicon genre changed from being tales of a young girl having sex with an older man to being about "girl-ness" and "cuteness".[19] Akagi identifies subgenres within lolicon of sadomasochism, "groping objects" (tentacles and robots in the role of the penis), "mecha fetishes" (a combination of a machine, usually a weapon, and a girl), parodies of mainstream anime and manga, and "simply indecent or perverted stuff". Additionally, lolicon can include themes of lesbianism and masturbation.[7]

Men began reading shōjo manga in the 1970s, including the works of the Year 24 Group and the "girly" works of Mutsu A-ko.[19] According to Dinah Zank, lolicon is "rooted in the glorification of girls culture in Japan", and therefore uses shōjo manga vocabulary.[24] The lolicon style borrows from shōjo manga designs and has also been influenced by women creating pornographic materials for men.[25]

According to Michael Darling, female manga artists who draw lolicon material include Chiho Aoshima (The red-eyed tribe billboard),[26] Aya Takano (Universe Dream wall painting).,[27] and Kaworu Watashiya (who created Kodomo no Jikan; was interpreted as a lolicon work by Jason DeAngelis.[28]) According to Darling, male artists include Henmaru Machino (untitled, aka Green Caterpillar's Girl), Hitoshi Tomizawa (Alien 9, Milk Closet), and Bome (sculptures).[2] Weekly Dearest My Brother is a manga and figurine series which, according to Takashi Murakami, women find cute and "an innocent fantasy", but which arouses "pedophiliac desires" among men.[29]

The meaning of lolicon has evolved much in the Western world, as have words like anime, otaku and hentai.[30] "Lolicon" is also used to refer directly to the products, anime or manga that contains explicitly sexual or erotic portrayals of prepubescent girls. However, there is disagreement if this definition also applies to childlike characters who are not clearly prepubescent and if it applies to material lacking explicit sexual content.[18][30][31]



The phrase is a reference to Vladimir Nabokov's book Lolita, in which a middle-age man becomes sexually obsessed with a twelve-year-old girl.[32] The term "Lolita complex" was first used in the early 1970s with the translation of Russell Trainer's The Lolita Complex and may have entered Japanese nomenclature at that time.[23] Shinji Wada used the word in his Stumbling upon a Cabbage Field (キャベツ畑でつまずいて Kyabetsu-batake de Tsumazuite), an Alice in Wonderland manga parody in 1974.[33] The shortening of the term to "lolicon" came later.[23] Early lolicon idols were Clarisse from Lupin III: Castle of Cagliostro (1979) and the shōjo heroine Minky Momo (1982) as female characters in shōnen series at that point were largely mothers or older-sister characters.[23][34] Although Clarisse was depicted as 16, older than most "lolicon" images today, she inspired "fairytale-esque" or "girly" fanworks. Patrick Galbraith asserts that Minky Momo was an attempt to court lolicon fans. This is denied by Satō Toshihiko, who planned the original Minky Momo.[19] Helen McCarthy suggests that the roots of 'lolikon' anime lie in the magical girl genre, where the lines between young girls and adult women become blurred.[3]


The lolicon manga genre began in the 1980s with Hideo Azuma's works, such as The Machine Which Came from the Sea (海から来た機械 Umi kara Kita Kikai). In 1979, Azuma had previously published the first "blatantly lolicon" manga in his own self-published Dōjinishi magazine Cybele.[23][35] Azuma's works became popular among schoolboy readers because most of the pornographic manga up until then had featured mature women influenced by gekiga. Other dōjinshi magazines began featuring "underage or barely pubescent virgins" in erotic contexts and by the late 1980s this "fantasy genre" had spread to some mass market magazines.[36] Frederik L. Schodt and Dinah Zank both suggest that Japanese laws prohibiting the depiction of pubic hair may have encouraged the spread of "erotic manga with a rorikon flavor".[15][24] Throughout the 1980s, notable lolicon manga artists who published in these magazines include Miki Hayasaka, Kamui Fujiwara, Kyoko Okazaki, Narumi Kakinouchi, and Yoshiki Takaya peaking in the mid-1980s.[23][37]

Frederik L. Schodt has suggested that one reason lolicon manga is popular with some fans is because the female characters portrayed are "younger, slightly softer, [and] rarely possessing an in-your-face aggressive feminism" which is often found in female characters in American comics.[38]

Public attention was brought to bear on lolicon when Tsutomu Miyazaki kidnapped and murdered four girls between the ages of 4 and 7 in 1988 and 1989, committing acts of necrophilia with their corpses.[39] He was found to be a "withdrawn and obsessive" otaku and in particular he enjoyed lolicon. The Tokyo High Court ruled Miyazaki sane, stating that "the murders were premeditated and stemmed from Miyazaki's sexual fantasies"[40] and he was executed by hanging for his crimes on June 17, 2008.[41]

The case caused a moral panic about "harmful manga", and "sparked a crackdown by local authorities on retailers and publishers, including the larger companies, and the arrests of dojinshi creators".[36] In the aftermath, the Japanese non-profit organization CASPAR was founded with the goal of campaigning for regulation of lolicon.[23][42]

Public sentiment against sexual cartoon depictions of minors was revived in 2005 when a convicted sex offender, who was arrested for the murder of a seven-year-old girl in Nara, was suspected as a lolicon.[42] Despite media speculation, it was found that the murderer, Kaoru Kobayashi, seldom had interest in manga, games, or dolls.[43] He claimed, however, that he had become interested in small girls after watching an animated pornographic video as a high school student.[44] He was sentenced to death by hanging.


In February 2010, a proposal to amend the Tokyo law on what material could be sold to minors included a ban on sexualised depictions of "nonexistent youths" under the age of 18.[45][46] This proposal was criticised by many manga artists,[47] and opposed by the Democratic Party of Japan.[48] The bill was put on hold until June of that year,[49][50] where after some amendments, including changing the text for "nonexistent youths" to "depicted youths".[51][52] However, in spite of the changes, the bill was rejected by the Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly in June.[53]

A revised edition was presented in November that year to the Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly, which would require self-regulation of "'manga, anime and other images' ... that 'unjustifiably glorify or emphasize' certain sexual or pseudo sexual acts...depictions of 'sexual or pseudo sexual acts that would be illegal in real life'".[54] However, the bill no longer uses the term "nonexistent youth" and applies to all characters and to material that is not necessarily meant to be sexually stimulating.[55] It was approved in December and took full effect in July 2011;[56][57][58][59] however, the bill does not regulate mobile sites or downloaded content and is only intended for publications such as books and DVDs.[60] On April 14, 2011, the title Oku-sama wa Shōgakusei ("My Wife Is an Elementary Student") was listed as a title to be considered for restriction due to "child rape".[61] It was later published online by J-Comi.[62] On August 25, 2011, Japan's Liberal Democratic Party submitted a petition requesting stricter laws on child pornography, which included animated child pornography; however, no action took place as a result of the petition.[63][64] On May 27, 2013, a revised child pornography law was introduced by the Liberal Democratic Party, the New Komei Party and the Japan Restoration Party that would make possession of sexual images of individuals under 18 illegal with a fine of 1 million yen (about US$10,437) and less than a year in jail.[65] The Japanese Democratic Party,[66] along with several industry associations involved in anime and manga, had protested against the bill saying "while they appreciate that the bill protects children, it will also restrict freedom of expression".[67][68] Manga creator and artist Ken Akamatsu has gone on to say that "There is also no scientific evidence to prove that so-called 'harmful media' increases crime".[69] The bill was not rejected and remained in a stalemate situation until June 2014, when it went forward with the removal of lolicon anime/manga from the bill.[70][71] The law was put into full effect the following year banning real life child pornography.[72]


The legal status of lolicon manga and anime that portray children involved erotically with adults has changed with time and is currently under intensive debate in Japan.[12][73] A Japanese non-profit organization called CASPAR has claimed that lolicon and other anime magazines and games encourage sex crimes.[42] According to Galbraith, Yasushi Takatsuki has noted that sexual abuse of minors in Japan has declined since the 1960s and 1970s, which "roughly coincides with the increasing presence of fictional lolicon". Galbraith feels that this is not an argument that lolicon "compensates for or relieves real desires", but instead that lolicon imagery does not "reflect the desires" of readers, or inspire them to commit crimes.[19] It has been suggested that restricting sexual expression in drawings or animated games and videos might actually increase the rate of sexual crime by eliminating a harmless outlet for desires that could motivate crime.[74]

Cultural critic Hiroki Azuma said that very few readers of lolicon manga commit crimes. He states that in the otaku culture, lolicon is the "most convenient [form of rebellion]" against society. Azuma says that some otaku feel so "excluded from society" that they "feel as if they are the sort of 'no good' person who should be attracted to little girls".[18] Sarah Goode describes the accumulation of lolicon materials as being "a medium through which disaffected men may choose to express their sense of anomie and disconnection with society". When questioning the relationship of lolicon to "finding children in real life sexually attractive", Goode presents the argument of a lolicon fan "that even if I could be classified as a kind of anime lolicon, it'd NEVER translate into RL pedophilia. This is predicated on the belief that the anime lolis I like DO NOT EXIST in RL".[10]

Setsu Shigematsu believes that lolicon manga should not be equated to photographic or adult video lolicon materials which involve real children; instead she argues that lolicon represents an artificial sexuality, turning away from "three dimensional reality" and redirecting sexual energies towards "two dimensional figures of desire".[9] Akira Akagi writes that in lolicon manga, the girl represents cuteness, and that it is not her age which makes her attractive,[7] and furthermore, that lolicon fans project themselves onto lolicon characters, identifying themselves with the girl.[19]

Lolicon manga has been and is marketed to both boys and men.[25] Sharon Kinsella wrote that lolicon manga was a late 1980s outgrowth of girls' manga,[32] which included yaoi and parodies of boys' and adult manga.[75] This occurred as more men attended amateur manga conventions and as new boys' amateur manga genres appeared at Comiket. Kinsella distinguished between the attitudes toward gender of amateur lolicon manga and that of male fans of girls' manga.[32] While parody manga created by women ridicule male stereotypes and appeal to both male and female fans, lolicon manga "usually features a girl heroine with large eyes and a body that is both voluptuous and child-like, scantily clad in an outfit that approximates a cross between a 1970s bikini and a space-age suit of armour".[32] Kinsella noted dominant British and American genres and imports of animation video in the 1990s derived from lolicon manga, suggesting women, and therefore also men, in all of these countries have gone through similar social and cultural experiences.[76]

Ito characterises otaku as having more affection towards the anime and manga world than for a realistic world, saying that to the otaku, the two-dimensional world portrayed becomes "more real". Ito views the preference for young girls as sex objects in manga and anime to be due to a change in Japanese society in the 1970s and 1980s. Ito says that at that time, boys felt that girls were "surpassing them in terms of willpower and action". However, as the boys believed girls to be the weaker sex, the boys began focusing on young girls "who were 'easy to control'". Additionally, the young girls of lolicon exist in the media, which Ito points out is a place where one can control things however they want.[8]

Responding to the portrayal of Clarisse from Lupin III: Castle of Cagliostro, Hayao Miyazaki criticized the lolicon artists and fans who idolize her in what he considers a demeaning manner. He differentiates his female protagonists, labeling those the aforementioned idolized, according to The Otaku Encyclopedia, "as pets".[23]

See also

Japanese culture

Legal aspects



  1. ^ ロリコン (in Japanese). SPACE ALC. Retrieved January 7, 2008.
  2. ^ a b c Darling, p.82
  3. ^ a b c McCarthy, Helen and Jonathan Clements (1999). The Erotic Anime Movie Guide. Woodstock, NY: Overlook Press. See pp. 43, on lolikon anime.
  4. ^ a b Feitelberg, Rosemary (June 22, 2007). "On the drawing board. (Lehmann Maupin gallery)". Women's Wear Daily. p. 13. Retrieved July 30, 2012. His paintings include a garter-wearing prepubescent maid and a knock-kneed girl in a panty-exposing pose—apparent references to his Lolita complex, or what manga and anime followers refer to as being a 'lolicon.'
  5. ^ Connolly, Julian (2009). A reader's guide to Nabokov's "Lolita". Studies in Russian and Slavic literatures, cultures and history (annotated ed.). Academic Studies Press. p. 169. ISBN 1-934843-65-2.
  6. ^ Lightfoot, Gareth (2014-10-19). "Middlesbrough man creates legal history after being convicted of possessing illegal images of cartoon children". gazettelive. Retrieved 2018-07-25.
  7. ^ a b c Shigematsu, Setsu (1999). "Dimensions of Desire: Sex, Fantasy and Fetish in Japanese Comics". In Lent, J.A. (ed.). Themes and Issues in Asian Cartooning: Cute, Cheap, Mad and Sexy. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press. pp. 129–130. ISBN 978-0-87972-779-6.
  8. ^ a b Ito, K. (1992). "Cultural Change and Gender Identity Trends in the 1970s and 1980s". International Journal of Japanese Sociology. 1: 79–98. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6781.1992.tb00008.x.
  9. ^ a b Shigematsu, Setsu (1999). "Dimensions of Desire: Sex, Fantasy and Fetish in Japanese Comics". In Lent, J.A. (ed.). Themes and Issues in Asian Cartooning: Cute, Cheap, Mad and Sexy. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-87972-779-6.
  10. ^ a b Goode, Sarah D. (2009). "Paedophiles online". Understanding and addressing adult sexual attraction to children: a study of paedophiles in contemporary society. Taylor & Francis. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-415-44625-9. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
  11. ^ Blanchard, R.; Kuban, M. E.; Blak, T.; Klassen, P. E.; Dickey, R.; Cantor, J. M. (2010). "Sexual Attraction to Others: A Comparison of Two Models of Alloerotic Responding in Men". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 41 (1): 13–29. doi:10.1007/s10508-010-9675-3. PMC 3310141. PMID 20848175.
  12. ^ a b c d Kinsella, Sharon (2000). Adult Manga. University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 0-8248-2318-4.
  13. ^ Hinton, H. R., "The Cultural Context and the Interpretation of Japanese 'Lolita Complex' Style Anime" Intercultural Communication Studies 2014, vol. 23, no.2.
  14. ^ "The Darker Side of Cuteness," The Economist, May 8, 1999.
  15. ^ a b Schodt, Frederik L. (1996). "Modern Manga at the End of the Millennium". Dreamland Japan: Writings on Modern Manga. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. pp. 54–55. ISBN 1-880656-23-X.
  16. ^ Hills, Ben; Kanamori, Mayu (6 October 1995). "Breaking the mould". The Sydney Morning Herald. p. Spectrum, p.9. Retrieved 13 February 2011.
  17. ^ Willis Witter (April 6, 1997). "Teen prostitutes sell favors after school in Tokyo" (fee required). The Washington Times. Retrieved January 13, 2008.
  18. ^ a b c Tony McNicol (April 27, 2004). "Does comic relief hurt kids?". The Japan Times. Archived from the original on August 11, 2011. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
  19. ^ a b c d e f Galbraith, Patrick W. (2011) Lolicon: The Reality of 'Virtual Child Pornography' in Japan Image & Narrative 12 1 83-119.
  20. ^ Shinpo, Nobunaga, ed. (February 14, 2000). "すべてはエロから始まった" [It all started with erotica]. 消えたマンガ雑誌 [Vanished Manga Magazines] (in Japanese). Tokyo, Japan: Media Factory. pp. 30–37. ISBN 4-8401-0006-3.
  21. ^ Bouissou, Jean-Marie. (2010). Manga: Historire et Univers de la Bande Dessinée Japonaise. Arles, France: Editions Philippe Picquier. p. 289. The term "burikko" derives from buri = "style, manner" and ko, from kodomo = "child;" Bouissou, p. 289.
  22. ^ "COMIC LO エルオー最新刊". Akane Shinsha. Archived from the original on July 18, 2008. Retrieved March 12, 2010.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h Galbraith, Patrick W. (2009). The Otaku Encyclopedia: An Insider's guide to the subculture of Cool Japan. Foreword by Schodt, Frederik L. and Photography by Katsuhide, Asuki (First ed.). Tokyo, Japan: Kodansha International. pp. 128–129. ISBN 978-4-7700-3101-3.
  24. ^ a b c Zank, Dinah (2010). Kawaii vs. rorikon: The reinvention of the term Lolita in modern Japanese manga. In Comics as a Nexus of Cultures (Jefferson, NC: McFarland). pp.215-216
  25. ^ a b Shigematsu, Setsu (1999). "Dimensions of Desire: Sex, Fantasy and Fetish in Japanese Comics". In Lent, J.A. (ed.). Themes and Issues in Asian Cartooning: Cute, Cheap, Mad and Sexy. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-87972-779-6.
  26. ^ Darling, 85–6.
  27. ^ Darling, 86.
  28. ^ Jason DeAngelis (May 29, 2007). "Seven Seas Entertainment Talks about Nymphet". Anime News Network. Retrieved January 18, 2008. ...those who are speaking out against Nymphet seem to be disturbed by the relationship between two characters in the story, namely an elementary school student and her adult teacher.
  29. ^ Murakami, Takashi (editor). Little Boy: The Arts of Japan's Exploding Subculture. New York: Japan Society, 2005. pp.54-55 ISBN 0-300-10285-2
  30. ^ a b "Glossary Entry: Lolicon". Anime Meta-Review. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved January 6, 2008.
  31. ^ Finnegan, Eric (June 14, 2010). "Shelf Life: Teatrino for Two". Anime News Network. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
  32. ^ a b c d Kinsella, 305.
  33. ^ Shinji Wada, "Kyabetsu-batake de Tsumazuite" in Bessatsu Margaret, June, 1974, p.121
  34. ^ Lam, Fan-Yi. 2010. Comic market: How the world's biggest amateur comic fair shaped Japanese dōjinshi culture. Mechademia: An Annual Forum for Anime, Manga, and the Fan Arts, Volume 5, pp. 236, 247.
  35. ^ (in Japanese) Maruta Hara and Kazuo Shimizu, "The Lolicon Dōjinshi Reviews" (ロリコン同人誌レビュー Rorikon Dōjinshi Rebyū)[1] in Apple Pie, March, 1982, p.116
  36. ^ a b Gravett, Paul (2004). "Personal Agendas". Manga: Sixty Years of Japanese Comics. London, England: Laurence King Publishing. p. 136. ISBN 1-85669-391-0.
  37. ^ 伝説の美少女コミック雑誌 (in Japanese). 漫画ブリッコの世界. Retrieved 2007-07-10.
  38. ^ Schodt, Frederik L. (1996). "Modern Manga at the End of the Millennium". Dreamland Japan: Writings on Modern Manga. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. p. 336. ISBN 1-880656-23-X.
  39. ^ "Serial killer Miyazaki must hang: Supreme Court". The Japan Times. January 18, 2006. Archived from the original on October 18, 2012. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
  40. ^ "Court rules serial killer Miyazaki sane", The Japan Times, 06/29/01. Retrieved June 7, 2007.
  41. ^ "Reports: Japan executes man convicted of killing and mutilating young girls in 1980s". International Herald Tribune. June 17, 2008. Retrieved June 17, 2008.
  42. ^ a b c "Lolicon Backlash in Japan". Anime News Network. January 13, 2005. Retrieved June 7, 2007.
  43. ^ "Otaku harassed as sex-crime fears mount". The Japan Times. February 6, 2005. Archived from the original on December 16, 2007. Retrieved January 6, 2008.
  44. ^ "Child porn, if animated, eludes regulators", by Akemi Nakamura, The Japan Times. 05/18/2005. Retrieved June 7, 2007. Archived October 9, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  45. ^ "Tokyo Bill on 'Virtual' Child Porn Set for March Vote (Update 3)". Anime News Network. 2010-11-24. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  46. ^ "Tokyo Reps: 'Nonexistent Youth' Bill May Still Pass in June". Anime News Network. 2010-11-24. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  47. ^ "Creators Decry Tokyo's Proposed 'Virtual' Child Porn Ban (Update 7)". Anime News Network. 2010-11-24. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  48. ^ "Tokyo's 'Nonexistent Youth' Bill Faces Defeat in June". Anime News Network. 2010-11-24. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  49. ^ "Asahi: Tokyo's 'Virtual' Child Porn Bill Put on Hold". Anime News Network. 2010-11-24. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  50. ^ "Tokyo's 'Nonexistent Youth' Bill Officially on Hold (Updated)". Anime News Network. 2010-11-24. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  51. ^ "Tokyo Governor: 'Nonexistent Youth' Bill Needs Changes". Anime News Network. 2010-11-24. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  52. ^ "Tokyo's Nonexistent Youth Bill Voted Down in Committee (Updated)". Anime News Network. 2010-11-24. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  53. ^ "Tokyo's 'Nonexistent Youth' Bill Rejected by Assembly". Anime News Network. 2010-11-24. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  54. ^ "Tokyo to Resubmit Bill on Sexual Depictions of Youths". Anime News Network. 2010-11-15. Retrieved 2010-12-16.
  55. ^ "Tokyo's Revised Youth Ordinance Amendment Bill Posted". Anime News Network. 2010-11-22. Retrieved 2010-12-16.
  56. ^ "Full Tokyo Assembly Passes Youth Ordinance Bill". Anime News Network. 2010-12-15. Retrieved 2010-12-16.
  57. ^ "Tokyo introduces manga restrictions". BBC. 2010-12-15. Retrieved 2010-12-16.
  58. ^ "Ordinance passed against manga 'extreme sex'". The Japan Times. 2010-12-16. Archived from the original on October 11, 2012. Retrieved 2015-11-10.
  59. ^ Hall, Kenji (2010-12-16). "Tokyo bans sales of sexually explicit comics to minors". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-12-16.
  60. ^ "News: Tokyo: Mobile Sites, Downloads Not Subject to Youth Bill". Anime News Network. 2010-12-21. Retrieved 2011-02-06.
  61. ^ "1st Manga to Be Restricted by Revised Tokyo Law Listed (Updated) - News". Anime News Network. 2013-05-10. Retrieved 2013-05-14.
  62. ^ "Akamatsu's J-Comi Site Posts Adult Manga Restricted by Tokyo Law - News". Anime News Network. 2013-05-10. Retrieved 2013-05-14.
  63. ^ Artefact (2011-09-29). "LDP Seeks New Ban: "Manga & Anime = Virtual Child Abuse"". Sankaku Complex. Retrieved 2013-05-14.
  64. ^ "請願:参議院ホームページ". Retrieved 2013-05-14.
  65. ^ "Japan's Ruling Party to Reintroduce Child Pornography Law Revision". Retrieved 2013-06-17.
  66. ^ "JDP formally opposes the 2013 child pornography law" (PDF). (in Japanese). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-07-03. Retrieved 2013-06-17.
  67. ^ "Anime and manga associations protest proposed revision to child pornography bill". Archived from the original on 2017-03-22. Retrieved 2013-06-17.
  68. ^ "Opposition slams ruling bloc on jobs deregulation". Retrieved 2013-07-04.
  69. ^ "Controversy raging over revisions to child pornography law". 2013-07-27. Archived from the original on 2013-09-02. Retrieved 2013-07-28.
  70. ^ "Loli Ban Not Rejected". 2013-06-27. Retrieved 2014-01-15.
  71. ^ Tom Porter (2014-06-07). "Japan to Ban Child Pornography". Retrieved 2014-06-09.
  72. ^ "Japan finally bans possession of child porn". 2015-07-16. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  73. ^ Gelder, Ken. The Subcultures Reader, 2nd ed. Oxon: Routledge, 2005. p. 547. ISBN 0-415-34415-8
  74. ^ 「ホットライン運用ガイドライン案」等に対する意見の募集結果について (in Japanese). Internet Association Japan. May 31, 2006. Retrieved January 10, 2008.
  75. ^ Kinsella, 304.
  76. ^ Kinsella, 307.
  77. ^ Hongo, Jun (May 3, 2007). "Photos of preteen girls in thongs now big business". The Japan Times Online. The Japan Times. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
  78. ^ Goode, Sarah D. (2009). "Paedophiles online". Understanding and addressing adult sexual attraction to children: a study of paedophiles in contemporary society. Taylor & Francis. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-415-44625-9. Retrieved 14 December 2011.
  79. ^ a b Sanger, Larry (April 7, 2010). "Re: Wikipedia (was Re: Let teachers override the filters)". Humanities & Social Sciences Online. Retrieved March 15, 2011.
  80. ^ Metz, Cade (April 9, 2010). "Wikifounder reports Wikiparent to FBI over 'child porn': No real people pictured". San Francisco: The Register. Retrieved March 15, 2011.


  • Darling, Michael (Autumn 2001). "Plumbing the Depths of Superflatness". Art Journal. Art Journal, Vol. 60, No. 3. 60 (3): 76–89. doi:10.2307/778139. ISSN 0004-3249. JSTOR 778139. Lolicon imagery is well-documented in Superflat, and relies on the angelic stare of the young girl for its erotic charge. ... Kinsella writes, 'The little girl heroines of Lolicon manga simultaneously reflect an awareness of the increasing power and centrality of young women ...'
  • Kinsella, Sharon (Summer 1998). "Japanese Subculture in the 1990s: Otaku and the Amateur Manga Movement". Journal of Japanese Studies. The Society for Japanese Studies. 24 (2): 289–316. doi:10.2307/133236. JSTOR 133236. Titled "Amateur Manga Subculture and the Otaku Panic" by Kinsella on her website. Retrieved on January 14, 2008.
  • Shigematsu, Setsu (1999). "Dimensions of Desire: Sex, Fantasy and Fetish in Japanese Comics". In Lent, J.A. (ed.). Themes and Issues in Asian Cartooning: Cute, Cheap, Mad and Sexy. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press. pp. 127–163. ISBN 978-0-87972-779-6.

Further reading

External links

  • Media related to Lolicon at Wikimedia Commons

Burusera (ブルセラ) is a paraphilia, specifically a sexualized attraction to the underwear or school uniforms of girls or young women. It is a word of Japanese origin, coined by combining burumā (ブルマー), meaning bloomers, as in the bottoms of gym suits, and sērā-fuku (セーラー服), meaning sailor suit, the traditional Japanese school uniforms for schoolgirls; notably kogal. Burusera shops sell girls' used school uniforms, panties and other fetish items.

Child pornography laws in Japan

Child pornography laws in Japan outlaw child pornography. The production, sale, distribution, and commercialization of child pornography is illegal under Article 7 of the Act on Punishment of Activities Relating to Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, and the Protection of Children and is punishable by a maximum penalty of five years in prison and/or a fine of ¥5,000,000. Possession of child pornography with any intent of distribution and sale is also illegal.Manga artists and anime directors have argued that it is dangerous to try to define child pornography when it comes to artwork, drawings, and animation when regarding hentai due to it being highly ambiguous, and have cited freedom of expression to prevent it from being abused. For example, they argued that even in the anime and manga series Doraemon, the scene of the schoolgirl Shizuka Minamoto taking a bath might be mis-construed as "child pornography". Arts depicting underage characters (lolicon and shotacon) and photography of underage models (junior idol) remain controversial in Japan.

Comic LO

Comic LO (コミックエルオー, Komikku Eru Ō) is a Japanese erotic manga magazine featuring fictional prepubescent, early pubescent and highly juvenile-looking girls. The magazine has been published by Akane Shinsha since October 2002. It was published irregularly until May 2004, when it became a monthly magazine. The "LO" stands for "lolita only". The cover illustrations are by Takamichi. Volume 143 was published on December 21, 2015.

Enjo kōsai

Enjo-kōsai (援助交際, compensated dating, shortened form enkō 援交) is a type of transactional relationship. It is the Japanese language term for the practice of older men giving money and/or luxury gifts to attractive young women for their companionship or possibly for sexual favors. The female participants range from school girls (aka JK business) to housewives. Enjo-kōsai does not always involve some form of sexual activity.

The opposite case of women paying men, gyaku enjo kōsai (逆援助交際, reverse compensated dating), is not a documented social phenomenon, but fraudulent solicitations from fictive women offering to pay for sex is a common tactic in phishing emails.


Outside of Japan, hentai (変態 or へんたい; listen English: ; lit. "pervert") is anime and manga pornography. In the Japanese language, however, "hentai" is not a genre of media but any type of perverse or bizarre sexual desire or act. For example, outside of Japan a work depicting lesbian sex might be described as "yuri hentai", but in Japan it would just be described as "yuri".

The word is short for hentai seiyoku (変態性欲), a perverse sexual desire. The original meaning of hentai in the Japanese language is a transformation or metamorphosis. The implication of perversion or paraphilia was derived from there. Both meanings can be distinguished in context easily.

Hideo Azuma

Hideo Azuma (吾妻 ひでお, Azuma Hideo, real name 吾妻 日出夫, pronounced the same) (born February 6, 1950 in Urahoro, Hokkaidō, Japan) is Japanese manga artist. Azuma made his professional debut in 1969 in the Akita Shoten manga magazine Manga Ō. He is most well known for his science fiction lolicon-themed works appearing in magazines such as Weekly Shōnen Champion, as well as children's comedy series such as Nanako SOS and Little Pollon (which both became anime television series in the early 1980s). He has been called the "father of lolicon".In 2005 he published an autobiographical manga titled Disappearance Diary that has won several awards including the Tezuka Osamu Cultural Prize.

His name is also sometimes romanized Hideo Aduma.

JK business

In Japanese culture, the JK business is the practice of compensated dating with adolescent girls. The abbreviation JK stands for joshi kōsei 女子高生 and means "high school female student". Typical scenario of a JK encounter: a girl gives out leaflets inviting for a "JK walk" (JKお散歩 JK osanpo) or "walking date". Earlier the offered service was known as a "refresh business". When police began investigations into the practice of "JK"; the "sanpo business" arose. This is when a girl is paid for social activities such as walking and talking, and is also sometimes referred to as "fortune telling". Another activity is reflexology ("rifure"). Many of the girls work in Akihabara in Tokyo.The U.S. State Department reported in 2017 that the Government of Japan "does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking," and "continues to facilitate the prostitution of Japanese children." However, in the 2018 report it upgraded Japan to Tier 1 and highlighted that Japan meets the standards for the elimination of Human Trafficking.Yumeno Nito, a strong critic of government inaction on the problem, has formed a charity to assist girls in Tokyo. Cultural anthropologists have described Japan as having a shame culture, creating a barrier for teenage runaways to be reunited with their families, making them vulnerable to recruiting into the underage sex industry.

Legal status of drawn pornography depicting minors

The legal status of drawn pornography depicting minors varies from country to country and concerns simulated pornography and child pornography.

Some analysts have argued whether cartoon pornography depicting minors is a "victimless crime". Laws have been enacted to criminalize "obscene images of children, no matter how they are made", for inciting abuse. An argument is the claim that obscene fictional images portray children as sex objects, thereby contributing to child sexual abuse. This argument has been disputed by the fact that there is no scientific basis for that connection as of 1999, and that restricting sexual expression in drawings or animated games and videos might actually increase the rate of sexual crime by eliminating a non-criminal outlet for desires that could motivate crime.Currently, countries that have made it illegal to possess (as well as create and distribute) sexual images of fictional characters who are described as or appear to be under eighteen years old include Australia, Canada, the Philippines, South Africa, South Korea and the United Kingdom. At the upper edge, this encapsulates pornographic depictions of even seventeen-year-olds together, or adults where the predominant impression conveyed is of a person under the age of 18 (such as small-breasted women).

Lemon People

Lemon People (レモンピープル, Remon Pīpuru) was a sexploitation hentai manga magazine published by Kubo Shoten from February 1982 to November 1998 in Japan. The first issue had some gravure idol photographs, but the format of the magazine quickly switched to all manga by the eighth issue.

Lemon People was the longest-running lolita manga magazine in Japan. The magazine genre including science fiction, cyberpunk, space opera, fantasy, and horror that was common worldwide, While the stories were serious, they often were described as humor and parody. Lemon People received competition from other magazines such as Manga Burikko, Manga Hot Milk, Melon Comic, and Monthly Halflita, though none of them achieved the same success.

Before Lemon People, adult comics tended to be more dramatic and serious. Lemon People changed the genre by introducing a more cute style of manga, often with less realistic storylines. Lemon People was considered the beginning of the "new wave" of lolicon manga. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, there was a growing movement in Japan to censor magazines such as Lemon People because some viewed them as harmful to young people.

By the mid-1990s, the sales of Lemon People began to drop, and the magazine changed its format to the B5 paper size and reduced its cover price. This strategy was not effective, however, and the November 1998 issue was the last one, ending a run of sixteen years and nine months.

List of erotic video games

This is a list of erotic video games.


Loli may refer to:

Lolita (term) (ロリ, rori), a Japanese slang term for a young girl who has not reached the age to sexual consent. The word is contracted from "lolita" (ロリータ, rorita), which originates from the novel Lolita by Vladimir Nabokov

An abbreviation of lolicon (ロリコン, rorikon), which is a portmanteau word contracted from the phrase "Lolita complex" (ロリータ・コンプレックス, rorita konpurekkusu)

LOLI Database (list of lists), an international chemical regulatory database

Lolita (term)

Lolita and loli are terms used to portray young girls as "precociously seductive." The term derives from Vladimir Nabokov's novel Lolita, which describes the narrator's sexual obsession with and subsequent rape of a 12-year-old child named Dolores, whose nickname was Lolita.Justifying his attraction to Lolita, Humbert Humbert claims that it was a natural response to the "demoniac" nature of children who attract him:

Now I wish to introduce the following idea. Between the age limits of nine and fourteen there occur maidens who, to certain bewitched travelers, twice or many times older than they, reveal their true nature which is not human, but nymphic (that is, demoniac); and these chosen creatures I propose to designate as 'nymphets.'

In the marketing of pornography, "lolita" is used to refer to the sexualized presentation of a young girl, frequently one who has only recently reached the age of consent, appears to be younger than the age of consent, or child exploitation material depicting the sexual abuse of children.

Lolita Anime

Lolita Anime (ロリータアニメ, Rorita Anime) is a collection of adult OVAs produced by Wonder Kids. It contains many notable firsts, as the first erotic original video animation (OVA), depicting hentai scenes which include yuri, BDSM and lolicon characters. It ran from February 1984 to May 1985 and consisted of six episodes. An alternative name for this anime is Wonder Magazine Series and it was based on a manga by Fumio Nakajima, which was serialized in the lolicon magazine Lemon People.

Manga Burikko

Manga Burikko (漫画ブリッコ) was a lolicon hentai manga magazine published by Byakuya Shobo from 1982 to 1986 in Japan. The magazine was launched as a competitor to Lemon People, but it only lasted three years. The manga in the magazine were generally bishōjo and lolita manga which were mostly science fiction, parody, shōjo manga-style, anime-related, idol star related, and anything otaku related. In response to reader demand, Manga Burikko removed nude photographs of girls and explicit sex from its contents.Other competing adult manga magazines include Manga Hot Milk, Melon Comic, and Monthly Halflita.Most of the editors and contributors to the Petit Apple Pie manga anthology series also worked on (or published in) Manga Burikko. However, unlike the content in Manga Burikko, the Petit Apple Pie stories do not contain any erotic or pornographic material.

Petit Apple Pie

Petit Apple Pie (Japanese: プチアップル・パイ, Hepburn: Puchi Appuru Pai) is an 18-volume bishōjo lolicon manga anthology series published by Animage Comics from November 10, 1982 to March 10, 1987. The first volume was released under the name Bishōjo Manga Best Anthology (美少女まんがベスト集成, Bishōjo Manga Besuto Shūsei), before the series was renamed to Petit Apple Pie with the original title as a subtitle.

The series primarily featured works from editors and contributors to the erotic lolicon magazine Manga Burikko, but did not itself include any erotic or pornographic stories.

Pornography in Japan

Pornography in Japan is a large and intertwined business of adult entertainment with unique characteristics that readily distinguish it from Western pornography. Reflecting Japan's views on sexuality and culture, Japanese pornography delves into a wide spectrum of heterosexual, homosexual, and transgender sexual acts in addition to unique fetishes and paraphilias.

Starting with erotic stories and wood block prints from before the 20th century, Japanese pornography evolved into distinct subcategories. In addition to pornographic videos and magazines featuring live actors, there are categories of pornographic manga (within Japanese comics), pornographic computer games (for both PC and game consoles), and pornographic anime (animated depictions of sexual activity).

By Japanese law, any lawfully produced pornography must censor the genitals of actors and actresses and up until the mid-1990s so was the depiction of pubic hair. Anuses are only censored at contact or penetration. This type of censoring also extends to hentai comics, video games, and anime. In the attempts to circumvent this type of censoring (and to cater to particular fetishes), actors and producers have featured subject matter unseen or rarely depicted in western pornography. Bukkake, gokkun, omorashi, and tentacle erotica are a few uniquely Japanese genres known to western viewers. Lolicon and its contribution to the controversy regarding the regulation of pornography depicting minors has been a major issue concerning free speech both inside and outside Japan.

Reporting of child pornography images on Wikimedia Commons

On April 7, 2010, Larry Sanger, co-founder of Wikipedia, sent a letter to the FBI stating that Wikimedia Commons was hosting child pornography under Title 18 of the United States Code. His accusations focused on images in the Lolicon and pedophilia categories, the latter of which contained explicit drawings of sexual acts between adults and children by French artist Martin van Maele (1863–1926).Shortly after Sanger posted the letter in public, criticism came in from multiple sources. This ranged from assertions that he had mislabeled lolicon as child pornography to the contention that his actions were an attack on the Wikimedia Foundation, caused by his history with Wikipedia and his own competing online encyclopedia, Citizendium. Sanger denied that the letter was an attempt to undermine Wikipedia, but did confirm it was an attempt to force a policy change for labeling or eliminating "adult" content on Wikipedia.

Things escalated when Fox News began reporting on the issue. In response Jimmy Wales, co-founder of Wikipedia, and other administrators began deleting images en masse, with Fox News reporting that a new policy change was underway. Days later Wales voluntarily relinquished his administrative powers on Commons under heavy criticism from the Wikimedia community. Fox News also received criticism for its handling of the reporting, especially for misrepresenting the situation regarding the self removal of administrative powers by Wales as leaving the Foundation without clear leadership.


Shotacon (ショタコン, shotakon), short for Shōtarō complex (正太郎コンプレックス, shōtarō konpurekkusu), is Japanese slang describing an attraction to young boys. It refers to a genre of manga and anime wherein pre-pubescent or pubescent male characters are depicted in a suggestive or erotic manner, whether in the obvious role of object of attraction, or the less apparent role of "subject" (the character the reader is designed to associate with). In some stories, the young male character is paired with a male, usually in a homoerotic manner. In others, he is paired with a female, which the general community would call straight shota. It can also apply to postpubescent (adolescent or adult) characters with neotenic features that would make them appear to be younger than they are. The phrase is a reference to the young male character Shōtarō (正太郎) from Tetsujin 28-go (reworked in English as Gigantor). The equivalent term for attraction to (or art pertaining to erotic portrayal of) young girls is lolicon.

The usage of the term in both Western and Japanese fan cultures includes works ranging from explicitly pornographic to mildly suggestive, romantic or in rare cases, entirely nonsexual, in which case it is not usually classified as "true" shotacon. As with lolicon, shotacon is related to the concepts of kawaii (cuteness) and moe (in which characters are presented as young, cute or helpless in order to increase reader identification and inspire protective feelings). As such, shotacon themes and characters are used in a variety of children's media. Elements of shotacon, like yaoi, are comparatively common in shōjo manga, such as the popular translated manga Loveless, which features an eroticized but unconsummated relationship between the 12-year-old male protagonist and a twenty-year-old male, or the young-appearing character Honey in Ouran High School Host Club. seinen manga, primarily aimed at otaku, which also occasionally presents eroticized adolescent males in a non-pornographic context, such as the cross-dressing 16-year-old boy in Yubisaki Milk Tea.

Some critics claim that the shotacon genre contributes to actual sexual abuse of children, while others claim that there is no evidence for this, or that there is evidence to the contrary.


Superflat is a postmodern art movement, founded by the artist Takashi Murakami, which is influenced by manga and anime. It is also the name of a 2001 art exhibition, curated by Murakami, that toured West Hollywood, Minneapolis and Seattle.

Japanese erotic cinema
Adult Video Studios
Pink Film Studios
Related articles
Lolita's perspective
Anime programming blocks
Related topics
By style
By theme
By movement
or period
By demographic groups
By format,
or production

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.