House of the People
|17th Lok Sabha|
|Seats||545 (523 States + 20 Union Territories + 2 Nominated)|
|First past the post|
|11 April – 19 May 2019|
|Lok Sabha, Sansad Bhavan,|
Sansad Marg, New Delhi, India - 110 001
The Lok Sabha or House of the People is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by adult universal suffrage and a first-past-the-post system to represent their respective constituencies, and they hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advice of the council of ministers. The house meets in the Lok Sabha Chambers of the Sansad Bhavan in New Delhi.
The maximum strength of the House allotted by the Constitution of India is 552. Currently, the house has 545 seats which is made up by the election of up to 543 elected members and at a maximum, 2 nominated members of the Anglo-Indian Community by the President of India. A total of 131 seats (24.03%) are reserved for representatives of Scheduled Castes (84) and Scheduled Tribes (47). The quorum for the House is 10% of the total membership. The Lok Sabha, unless sooner dissolved, continues to operate for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting. However, while a proclamation of emergency is in operation, this period may be extended by Parliament by law.
An exercise to redraw Lok Sabha constituencies' boundaries is carried out by the Boundary Delimitation Commission of India every decade based on the Indian census, last of which was conducted in 2011. This exercise earlier also included redistribution of seats among states based on demographic changes but that provision of the mandate of the commission was suspended in 1976 following a constitutional amendment to incentivise the family planning programme which was being implemented. The 17th Lok Sabha was elected in May 2019 and is the latest to date.
A major portion of the Indian subcontinent was under British rule from 1858 to 1947. During this period, the office of the Secretary of State for India (along with the Council of India) was the authority through whom British Parliament exercised its rule in the Indian sub-continent, and the office of Viceroy of India was created, along with an Executive Council in India, consisting of high officials of the British government. The Indian Councils Act 1861 provided for a Legislative Council consisting of the members of the Executive Council and non-official members. The Indian Councils Act 1892 established legislatures in each of the provinces of British India and increased the powers of the Legislative Council. Although these Acts increased the representation of Indians in the government, their power still remained limited, and the electorate very small. The Indian Councils Act 1909 and the Government of India Act 1919 further expanded the participation of Indians in the administration. The Government of India Act 1935 introduced provincial autonomy and proposed a federal structure in India. The Indian Independence Act 1947, passed by the British parliament on 18 July 1947, divided British India (which did not include the Princely States) into two new independent countries, India and Pakistan, which were to be dominions under the Crown until they had each enacted a new constitution. The Constituent Assembly was divided into two for the separate nations, with each new Assembly having sovereign powers transferred to it for the respective dominion.
The Constitution of India was adopted on 26 November 1949 and came into effect on 26 January 1950, proclaiming India to be a sovereign, democratic republic. This contained the founding principles of the law of the land which would govern India in its new form, which now included all the princely states which had not acceded to Pakistan.
According to Article 79 (Part V-The Union.) of the Constitution of India, the Parliament of India consists of the President of India and the two Houses of Parliament known as the Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and the House of the People (Lok Sabha).
The Lok Sabha (House of the People) was duly constituted for the first time on 17 April 1952 after the first General Elections held from 25 October 1951 to 21 February 1952.
|First||13 May 1952|
|Sixteenth (Current)||May 2014|
Article 84 (under Part V. — The Union) of Indian Constitution sets qualifications for being a member of Lok Sabha, which are as follows:
However, a member can be disqualified of being a member of Parliament:
A seat in the Lok Sabha will become vacant in the following circumstances (during normal functioning of the House):
Furthermore, as per article 101 (Part V.—The Union) of the Indian Constitution, a person cannot be:
Members of the Lok Sabha are directly elected by the people of India, on the basis of Universal Suffrage. Elections are by the people directly to the Lok Sabha and each state is divided into territorial constituencies under two provisions of the Constitution:
The Lok Sabha has certain powers that make it more powerful than the Rajya Sabha.
In conclusion, it is clear that the Lok Sabha is more powerful than the Rajya Sabha in almost all matters. Even in those matters in which the Constitution has placed both Houses on an equal footing, the Lok Sabha has more influence due to its greater numerical strength. This is typical of any Parliamentary democracy, with the lower House always being more powerful than the upper.
The Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in Lok Sabha and Directions issued by the Speaker from time to time there under regulate the procedure in Lok Sabha. The items of business, notice of which is received from the Ministers/ Private Members and admitted by the Speaker, are included in the daily List of Business which is printed and circulated to members in advance..
Three sessions of Lok Sabha take place in a year:
When in session, Lok Sabha holds its sittings usually from 11 A.M. to 1 P.M. and from 2 P.M. to 6 P.M. On some days the sittings are continuously held without observing lunch break and are also extended beyond 6 P.M. depending upon the business before the House. Lok Sabha does not ordinarily sit on Saturdays and Sundays and other closed holidays.
The first hour of every sitting is called Question Hour. Asking questions in Parliament is the free and unfettered right of members, and during Question Hour they may ask questions of ministers on different aspects of administration and government policy in the national and international spheres. Every minister whose turn it is to answer to questions has to stand up and answer for his department's acts of omission or commission.
Questions are of three types—Starred, Unstarred and Short Notice. A Starred Question is one to which a member desires an oral answer in the House and which is distinguished by an asterisk mark. An unstarred Question is one which is not called for oral answer in the house and on which no supplementary questions can consequently be asked. An answer to such a question is given in writing. Minimum period of notice for starred/ unstarred question is 10 clear days. If the questions given notice of are admitted by the Speaker, they are listed and printed for answer on the dates allotted to the Ministries to which the subject matter of the question pertains.
The normal period of notice does not apply to short notice questions which relate to matters of urgent public importance. However, a Short Notice Question may be answered only on short notice if so permitted by the Speaker and the Minister concerned is prepared to answer it at shorter notice. A short notice question is taken up for answer immediately after the Question Hour, popularly known as Zero Hour.
The time immediately following the Question Hour has come to be known as "Zero Hour". It starts at around 12 noon (hence the name) and members can, with prior notice to the Speaker, raise issues of importance during this time. Typically, discussions on important Bills, the Budget, and other issues of national importance take place from 2 pm onwards.
After the Question Hour, the House takes up miscellaneous items of work before proceeding to the main business of the day. These may consist of one or more of the following: Adjournment Motions, Questions involving breaches of Privileges, Papers to be laid on the Table, Communication of any messages from Rajya Sabha, Intimations regarding President's assent to Bills, Calling Attention Notices, Matters under Rule 377, Presentation of Reports of Parliamentary Committee, Presentation of Petitions, miscellaneous statements by Ministers, Motions regarding elections to Committees, Bills to be withdrawn or introduced.
The main business of the day may be consideration of a Bill or financial business or consideration of a resolution or a motion.
Legislative proposals in the form of a Bill can be brought forward either by a Minister or by a private member. In the former case it is known as Government Bill and in the latter case it is known as a Private Members' Bill. Every Bill passes through three stages—called three readings—before it is passed. To become law it must be passed by both the Houses of Parliament, Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha, and then assented to by the president.
The presentation, discussion of, and voting on the annual General and Railways budgets—followed by the passing of the Appropriations Bill and the Finance Bill—is a long, drawn-out process that takes up a major part of the time of the House during its Budget Session every year.
Among other kinds of business that come up before the House are resolutions and motions. Resolutions and motions may be brought forward by Government or by private members. Government may move a resolution or a motion for obtaining the sanction to a scheme or opinion of the House on an important matter of policy or on a grave situation. Similarly, a private member may move a resolution or motion in order to draw the attention of the House and of the Government to a particular problem. The last two and half hours of sitting on every Friday are generally allotted for transaction of private members' business. While private members' bills are taken up on one Friday, private members' resolutions are taken up on the succeeding Friday, and so on.
Most of the business of drafting a bill or amendments are initially discussed and debated in the parliamentary committees. Since the time for legislation is limited, work of all departments of the government and any special focus tasks is delegated to the committees, wherein the committees shall prepare the initial draft of the bill/amendment for the consideration by both the houses. They consist of members from both the houses.
There are primarily two kinds of parliamentary committees based on their nature –
A Half-an-Hour Discussion can be raised on a matter of sufficient public importance which has been the subject of a recent question in Lok Sabha irrespective of the fact whether the question was answered orally or the answer was laid on the Table of the House and the answer which needs elucidation on a matter of fact. Normally not more than half an hour is allowed for such a discussion. Usually, half-an-hour discussion is listed on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays only. In one session, a member is allowed to raise not more than two half-an-hour discussions. During the discussion, the member, who has given notice, makes a short statement and not more than four members, who have intimated earlier and have secured one of the four places in the ballot, are permitted to ask a question each for further elucidating any matter of fact. Thereafter, the Minister concerned replies. There is no formal motion before the House nor voting.
Members may raise discussions on matters of urgent public importance with the permission of the Speaker. Such discussions may take place on two days in a week. No formal motion is moved in the House nor is there any voting on such a discussion.
After the member who initiates discussion on an item of business has spoken, other members can speak on that item of business in such order as the Speaker may call upon them. Only one member can speak at a time and all speeches are directed to the Chair. A matter requiring the decision of the House is decided by means of a question put by the Speaker on a motion made by a member.
A division is one of the forms in which the decision of the House is ascertained. Normally, when a motion is put to the House members for and against it indicate their opinion by saying "Aye" or "No" from their seats. The Chair goes by the voices and declares that the motion is either accepted or rejected by the House. If a member challenges the decision, the Chair orders that the lobbies be cleared. Then the division bell is rung and an entire network of bells installed in the various parts and rooms in Parliament House and Parliament House Annexe rings continuously for three and a half minutes. Members and Ministers rush to the Chamber from all sides. After the bell stops, all the doors to the Chamber are closed and nobody can enter or leave the Chamber till the division is over. Then the Chair puts the question for second time and declares whether in its opinion the "Ayes" or the "Noes", have it. If the opinion so declared is again challenged, the Chair asks the votes to be recorded by operating the Automatic Vote Recording Equipment.
With the announcement of the Speaker for recording the votes, the Secretary-General of the Lok Sabha presses the button of a key board. Then a gong sounds, serving as a signal to members for casting their votes. To vote, each member present in the Chamber has to flip a switch and then operate one of the three push buttons fixed in their seat. The push switch must be kept pressed simultaneously until the gong sounds for the second time after 10 seconds. There are two indicator boards installed in the wall on either side of the Speaker's chair in the Chamber. Each vote cast by a member is flashed here. Immediately after the votes are cast, they are totalled mechanically and the details of the results are flashed on the Result Indicator Boards installed in the railings of the Speaker's and Diplomatic Galleries.
Divisions are normally held with the aid of the Automatic Vote Recording Equipment. Where so directed by the Speaker in terms of relevant provision in the Rules of Procedure etc. in Lok Sabha, divisions may be held either by distribution of 'Aye'/'No' and 'Abstention' slips to members in the House or by the members recording their votes by going into the lobbies. There is an Indicator Board in the machine room showing the name of each member. The result of Division and vote cast by each member with the aid of Automatic Vote Recording Equipment appear also on this Board and immediately a photograph of the Indicator Board is taken. Later the Photograph is enlarged and the names of members who voted 'Ayes' and for 'Noes' are determined with the help of the photograph and incorporated in Lok Sabha Debates.
Three versions of Lok Sabha Debates are prepared: the Hindi version, the English version and the Original version. Only the Hindi and English versions are printed. The Original version, in cyclostyled form, is kept in the Parliament Library for record and reference. The Hindi version contains proceedings (all Questions asked and Answers given thereto and speeches made) in Hindi, and verbatim Hindi translation of proceedings in English or in regional languages. The English version contains proceedings in English and the English translation of the proceedings which take place in Hindi or in any regional language. The Original version, however, contains proceedings in Hindi or in English as they actually took place in the House and also the English/Hindi translation of speeches made in regional languages.
If conflicting legislation is enacted by the two Houses, a joint sitting is held to resolve the differences. In such a session, the members of the Lok Sabha would generally prevail, since the Lok Sabha includes more than twice as many members as the Rajya Sabha.
Speaker and Deputy Speaker
As per Article 93 of Indian Constitution, the Lok Sabha has a Speaker and a Deputy Speaker. In the Lok Sabha, both presiding officers—the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker- are elected from among its members by a simple majority of members present and voting in the House. No specific qualifications are prescribed for being elected Speaker; the Constitution only requires that Speaker should be a member of the House. But an understanding of the Constitution and the laws of the country and the rules of procedure and conventions of Parliament is considered a major asset for the holder of the office of the Speaker. Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speaker and Deputy Speaker are mentioned under Article 94 of the Constitution of India. As per Article 94 of Indian Constitution, a Speaker or a Deputy Speaker should vacate his/her office, a) if he/she ceases to be a member of the House of the People, b) he/she resigns, or c) is removed from office by a resolution of the House passed by a majority.
The Speaker of Lok Sabha is both a member of the House and its Presiding Officer. The Speaker conducts the business in the House. He/she decides whether a bill is a money bill or not. He/she maintains discipline and decorum in the house and can punish a member for their unruly behaviour by suspending them. He/she permits the moving of various kinds of motions and resolutions like the motion of no confidence, motion of adjournment, motion of censure and calling attention notice as per the rules. The Speaker decides on the agenda to be taken up for discussion during the meeting. It is the Speaker of the Lok Sabha who presides over joint sittings called in the event of disagreement between the two Houses on a legislative measure. Following the 52nd Constitution amendment, the Speaker is vested with the power relating to the disqualification of a member of the Lok Sabha on grounds of defection. The Speaker makes obituary references in the House, formal references to important national and international events and the valedictory address at the conclusion of every Session of the Lok Sabha and also when the term of the House expires. Though a member of the House, the Speaker does not vote in the House except on those rare occasions when there is a tie at the end of a decision. Till date, the Speaker of the Lok Sabha has not been called upon to exercise this unique casting vote. While the office of Speaker is vacant due to absence/resignation/removal, the duties of the office are performed by the Deputy Speaker or, if the office of Deputy Speaker is also vacant, by such member of the House of the People as the President may appoint for the purpose. The Lok Sabha has also a separate non-elected Secretariat staff.
Shri G. V. Mavalankar was the first Speaker of Lok Sabha (15 May 1952 – 27 February 1956) and Shri M. Ananthasayanam Ayyangar was the first Deputy Speaker (30 May 1952 – 7 March 1956). In the 16th Lok Sabha, Sumitra Mahajan is the Speaker and M. Thambidurai is the Deputy Speaker.
The Secretariat of Lok Sabha was set up pursuant to the provisions contained in Article 98 of the Constitution. The said Article, which provides for a separate secretarial staff for each House of Parliament, reads as follows:- 98. Secretariat of Parliament – Each House of Parliament shall have a separate secretarial staff: Provided that nothing in this clause shall be construed as preventing the creation of posts common to both Houses of Parliament. (2) Parliament may by law regulate the recruitment and the conditions of service of persons appointed to the secretarial staff of either House of Parliament.
The Lok Sabha Secretariat functions under the overall guidance and control of the Speaker. The main activities of the Secretariat inter alia include the following :
(i) providing secretarial assistance and support to the effective functioning of the House of the People (Lok Sabha) possible to Members of Lok Sabha; (ii) providing amenities as admissible to Members of Lok Sabha; (iii) servicing the various Parliamentary Committees; (v) preparing research and reference material and bringing out various publications; (vi) recruitment of manpower in the Lok Sabha Secretariat and attending to personnel matters; & (vii) preparing and publishing a record of the day-to-day proceedings of the Lok Sabha and bringing out such other publications, as may be required concerning the functioning of the Lok Sabha and its Committees, among other things.
In the discharge of his constitutional and statutory responsibilities, the Speaker of the Lok Sabha is assisted by the Secretary-General, who holds the rank equivalent to the Cabinet Secretary to the Government of India. The Secretary-General, in turn, is assisted by senior functionaries at the level of Secretary, Additional Secretary, Joint Secretary and other officers and staff of the Secretariat. Present Secretary-General is Snehlata Shrivastava, IAS.
Lok Sabha is constituted after the general election as follows:
|Lok Sabha||General Election|
|1st Lok Sabha||1951–52 Indian general election|
|2nd Lok Sabha||1957 Indian general election|
|3rd Lok Sabha||1962 Indian general election|
|4th Lok Sabha||1967 Indian general election|
|5th Lok Sabha||1971 Indian general election|
|6th Lok Sabha||1977 Indian general election|
|7th Lok Sabha||1980 Indian general election|
|8th Lok Sabha||1984 Indian general election|
|9th Lok Sabha||1989 Indian general election|
|10th Lok Sabha||1991 Indian general election|
|11th Lok Sabha||1996 Indian general election|
|12th Lok Sabha||1998 Indian general election|
|13th Lok Sabha||1999 Indian general election|
|14th Lok Sabha||2004 Indian general election|
|15th Lok Sabha||2009 Indian general election|
|16th Lok Sabha||2014 Indian general election|
|17th Lok Sabha||2019 Indian general election|
|State/Union Territory||Type||No. of constituencies|
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Union Territory||1|
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli||Union Territory||1|
|Daman and Diu||Union Territory||1|
|National Capital Territory of Delhi||Union Territory||7|
|Jammu and Kashmir||State||6|
Members of 17th Lok Sabha by their political party (As of 24 May 2019):
|National Democratic Alliance
|Bharatiya Janata Party||303|
|Janata Dal (United)||16|
|Lok Janshakti Party||6|
|Shiromani Akali Dal||2|
|All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||1|
|Rashtriya Loktantrik Party||1|
|Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party||1|
|All Jharkhand Students Union||1|
|Sikkim Krantikari Morcha||1|
|National Peoples Party||1|
|Mizo National Front||1|
|United Progressive Alliance
|Indian National Congress||52|
|Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||23|
|Nationalist Congress Party||5|
|Jammu & Kashmir National Conference||3|
|Indian Union Muslim League||3|
|Jharkhand Mukti Morcha||1|
|Janata Dal (Secular)||1|
|Viduthalai Chiruthaigal Katchi||1|
|All India Trinamool Congress||22|
|YSR Congress Party||22|
|Biju Janata Dal||12|
|Bahujan Samaj Party||10|
|Telangana Rashtra Samithi||9|
|Communist Party of India (Marxist)||3|
|Telugu Desam Party||3|
|All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen||2|
|Communist Party of India||2|
|Aam Aadmi Party||1|
|All India United Democratic Front||1|
|Naga People's Front||1|
The 14th Lok Sabha (17 May 2004 – 18 May 2009) was convened after the Indian general election, 2004 held in four phases during 20 April – 10 May 2004, which led to the formation of first Manmohan Singh ministry (2004–2009). Indian National Congress lead United Progressive Alliance won 62 more seats than previous 13th Lok Sabha. The Lok Sabha (House of the People) is the lower house in the Parliament of India. 8 sitting members from Rajya Sabha, the Upper House of Indian Parliament, were elected to 14th Lok Sabha after the Indian general election, 2004. The next 15th Lok Sabha was convened after Indian general election, 2009.15th Lok Sabha
Members of the 15th Lok Sabha were elected during the 2009 general election in India. It was dissolved on 18 May 2014 by President Pranab Mukherjee.Indian National Congress led United Progressive Alliance won 44 more seats than previous 14th Lok Sabha. The next 16th Lok Sabha was convened after Indian general election, 2014.
The Second Manmohan Singh ministry introduced a total of 222 Bills (apart from Finance and Appropriations Bills) in the 15th Lok Sabha. A total of 165 Bills were by passed by the House, including bills introduced in previous Lok Sabhas.14 sitting members from Rajya Sabha, the Upper House of Indian Parliament, were elected to 15th Lok Sabha after the Indian general election, 2009.16th Lok Sabha
Members of the 16th Lok Sabha were elected during the 2014 Indian general election. The elections were conducted in 9 phases from 7 April 2014 to 12 May 2014 by the Election Commission of India. The results of the election were declared on 16 May 2014. The Bharatiya Janata Party (of the NDA) achieved an absolute majority with 282 seats out of 543, 166 more than previous 15th Lok Sabha. Its PM candidate Narendra Modi took office on 26 May 2014 as the 14th prime minister of independent India. The first session was scheduled to be convened from June 4 to June 11, 2014.There is no leader of the opposition in the 16th Lok Sabha as the Indian Parliament rules state that a party in the Lok Sabha must have at least 10% (55) of the total seats (545) in order to be considered the opposition party. The Indian National Congress (of the UPA) could only manage 44 seats while the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam party from Tamil Nadu came a close third with 37 seats. Mallikarjun Kharge has been declared the leader of the Indian National Congress in the Lok Sabha.5 sitting members from Rajya Sabha, the Upper House of Indian Parliament, were elected to 16th Lok Sabha after the 2014 Indian general election.2004 Indian general election
General elections were held in India in four phases between 20 April and 10 May 2004. Over 670 million people were eligible to vote, electing 543 members of the 14th Lok Sabha. The Lok Sabha, or "House of the People," is the directly elected lower house of the Parliament of India.
On 13 May, the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and its alliance National Democratic Alliance conceded defeat. The Indian National Congress, which had governed India for all but five years from independence until 1996, returned to power after a record eight years out of office. It was able to put together a comfortable majority of more than 335 members out of 543 with the help of its allies. The 335 members included both the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance, the governing coalition formed after the election, as well as external support from the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), Samajwadi Party (SP), Kerala Congress (KC) and the Left Front. (External support is support from parties that are not part of the governing coalition).
Congress President Sonia Gandhi surprised observers by declining to become the new prime minister, instead asking former Finance Minister Manmohan Singh, a respected economist, to head the new government. Singh had previously served in the Congress government of Prime Minister Narasimha Rao in the early 1990s, where he was seen as one of the architects of India's first economic liberalisation plan, which staved off an impending national monetary crisis. Despite the fact that Singh had never won a Lok Sabha seat, his considerable goodwill and Sonia Gandhi's nomination won him the support of the UPA allies and the Left Front.
Seven states also held assembly elections to elect state governments along with the parliamentary elections2014 Indian general election
The Indian general election, 2014 was held to constitute the 16th Lok Sabha, electing members of parliament for all 543 parliamentary constituencies. Running in nine phases from 7 April to 12 May 2014, it lasted 36 days. According to the Election Commission of India, 814.5 million people were eligible to vote, with an increase of 100 million voters since the last general election in 2009, making it the largest ever election in the world. Around 23.1 million or 2.7% of the total eligible voters were aged 18–19 years. A total of 8,251 candidates contested for the 543 Lok Sabha seats. The average election turnout over all nine phases was around 66.40%, the highest ever in the history of Indian general elections.The results were declared on 16 May 2014, 15 days before the 15th Lok Sabha completed its constitutional mandate on 31 May 2014. The counting exercise was held at 989 counting centres. The National Democratic Alliance won a sweeping victory, taking 336 seats. The BJP won 31.0% votes, which is the lowest share for a party to form a majority government in India since independence, while NDA's combined vote share was 38.5%. BJP and its allies won the right to form the largest majority government since the 1984 general election, and it was the first time since that election that a party has won enough seats to govern without the support of other parties. The United Progressive Alliance, led by the Indian National Congress, won 59 seats, 44 (8.1%) of which were won by the Congress, that won 19.3% of all votes. It was the Congress party's worst defeat in a general election. In order to become the official opposition party in India, a party must gain 10% of the seats (55 seats) in the Lok Sabha; however, the Indian National Congress was unable to attain this number. Due to this fact, India remains without an official opposition party.Elections in India
India is a federation with a parliamentary system governed under the Constitution of India, which defines the power distribution between the union, or central, government and the states.
The President of India is the ceremonial head of state, who is elected indirectly for a five-year term by an electoral college comprising members of national and state legislatures.The Prime Minister of India is the head of government and exercises most executive power. Appointed by the president, the prime minister is by convention supported by the party or political alliance having a majority of seats in the Lok Sabha or lower house of parliament.L. K. Advani
Lal Krishna Advani (born 8 November 1927) is an Indian politician who served as the 7th Deputy Prime Minister of India from 2002 to 2004 under Atal Bihari Vajpayee. He is one of the co-founders and a senior leader of the Bharatiya Janata Party. Advani also served as Minister of Home Affairs in the BJP-led National Democratic Alliance government from 1998 to 2004. He was the Leader of the Opposition in the 10th Lok Sabha and 14th Lok Sabha. He was the National Democratic Alliance prime ministerial candidate in the 2009 general elections.
Advani began his political career as a volunteer of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, a right-wing nationalist organisation to serve his nation. In
2015 he was awarded the Padma Vibhushan, India's second highest civilian honor.List of constituencies of the Lok Sabha
The Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Parliament of India, is made up of Members of Parliament (MPs). Each MP, represents a single geographic constituency. There are currently 543 constituencies.
The maximum size of the Lok Sabha as outlined in the Constitution of India is 552 members made up of upto 530 members representing people of the states of India and upto 20 members representing people from the Union Territories on the basis of their population and 2 Anglo-Indians are nominated by President.List of members of the 16th Lok Sabha
This is a List of Members of the 16th Lok Sabha arranged by state-wise and union territory-wise representation in Lok sabha. These members of the Lower house of the Indian Parliament were elected in the 2014 Indian general election held from 7 April to 12 May, 2014.Mamata Banerjee
Mamata Banerjee (Bengali: [mɔmota bɔndoˈpaddʱˈae̯] born 5 January 1955) is an Indian politician who has served as the 8th and current Chief Minister of West Bengal since 2011 being the first woman to hold the office. She founded the party All India Trinamool Congress (AITC or TMC) in 1998 after separating from the Indian National Congress, and became its chairperson. She is often referred to as Didi (meaning: elder sister in Hindi and Bengali).Banerjee has previously served twice as the Minister of Railways, the first woman to do so. She is also the first female Minister of Coal, and Minister of State for Human Resource Development, Youth Affairs, Sports, Women and Child Development in the cabinet of the Indian government. She rose to prominence after opposing the erstwhile land acquisition policies for industrialisation of the Communist government in West Bengal for Special Economic Zones at the cost of agriculturalists and farmers at Singur. In 2011 Banerjee pulled off a landslide victory for the TMC Congress alliance in West Bengal, defeating the 34-year-old Communist Party of India (Marxist)- led Left Front government, the world's longest-serving democratically elected communist government in the process.In 2012, Time magazine named her as one of the 100 Most Influential People in the World. Bloomberg Markets magazine listed her among the 50 most influential people in the world of finance in September 2012. In 2018, she was conferred the Skoch Chief Minister of the Year Award.Maneka Gandhi
Maneka Sanjay Gandhi (also spelled Menaka) (née Anand; born 26 August 1956) is the Indian Union Cabinet Minister for Women & Child Development in the Government of PM Narendra Modi. She is also an animal rights activist, environmentalist, and widow of the Indian politician Sanjay Gandhi. She has been a minister in four governments, and has authored a number of books in the areas of etymology, law and animal welfare.Member of parliament, Lok Sabha
A member of parliament in Lok Sabha (abbreviated: MP) is the representative of the Indian people in the Lok Sabha; the lower house of the Parliament of India. Members of parliament of Lok Sabha are chosen by direct elections on the basis of the adult suffrage. Parliament of India is bicameral with two houses; Rajya Sabha (upper house i.e. Council of States) and the Lok Sabha (lower house i.e. House of the People). The maximum permitted strength of members of parliament in the Lok Sabha is 552. This includes maximum 530 members to represent the constituencies and states, up to 20 members to represent the union territories (both chosen by direct elections) and not more than two members of the Anglo-Indian community to be nominated by the President of India. The party—or coalition of parties—having a majority in the Lok Sabha chooses the Prime Minister of India.Murli Manohar Joshi
Dr. Murli Manohar Joshi (born 5 January 1934) is an Indian politician, a leading politician of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) of which he was the President between 1991 and 1993, and the current Member of Parliament for Kanpur. He later became the Union Human Resources Development minister in the National Democratic Alliance government. Joshi was awarded Padma Vibhushan, the second-highest civilian award, in 2017 by the Government of India.Parliament of India
The Parliament of India is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of India. It is a bicameral legislature composed of the President of India and the two houses: the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the Lok Sabha (House of the People). The President in his role as head of legislature has full powers to summon and prorogue either house of Parliament or to dissolve Lok Sabha. The president can exercise these powers only upon the advice of the Prime Minister and his Union Council of Ministers.
Those elected or nominated (by the President) to either house of Parliament are referred to as Members of Parliament (MP). The Members of Parliament, Lok Sabha are directly elected by the Indian public voting in Single-member districts and the Members of Parliament, Rajya Sabha are elected by the members of all State Legislative Assembly by proportional representation. The Parliament has a sanctioned strength of 545 in Lok Sabha including the 2 nominees from the Anglo-Indian Community by the President, and 245 in Rajya Sabha including the 12 nominees from the expertise of different fields of science, culture, art and history. The Parliament meets at Sansad Bhavan in New Delhi.Rahul Gandhi
Rahul Gandhi pronunciation [ˈraːɦʊl ˈɡaːnd̪ʱiː] (born 19 June 1970) is an Indian politician. He hails from a long line of politicians, known as the Nehru-Gandhi family, which has occupied a prominent place in the politics of India ever since the country gained independence in 1947. His great-grandfather was Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of India and also the longest serving Prime Minister of India having served for a total of seventeen years. Gandhi's grandmother, Indira, was the first female Prime Minister of India and his father, Rajiv, was the youngest prime minister of India to be sworn in to office. The son of Sonia and Rajiv, he is the president of the Indian National Congress and serves such additional offices as the chairperson of the Indian Youth Congress and the National Students Union of India. A member of the Indian Parliament, Gandhi represents the constituency of Wayanad, Kerala in the 17th Lok Sabha.Rahul Gandhi stayed away from the public sphere for much of his childhood and early youth; he attained primary education in New Delhi and Dehradun but was later homeschooled because of security concerns. He later attended Rollins College under a pseudonym, his identity being known only to a select few individuals, which included certain university officials and security agencies. After obtaining degrees in International Relations and Development Studies at the universities of Rollins and Cambridge, Gandhi worked at the Monitor Group, a management consulting firm in London. He established the Mumbai-based technology outsourcing firm, Backops Services Private Ltd.
Rahul Gandhi entered politics in 2004 and successfully contested the general elections held that year from Amethi, a seat that was earlier held by his father; he won again from the constituency in 2009 and 2014. Amidst calls from Congress party veterans for his greater involvement in party politics and national government, Gandhi was elected Congress Vice-President in 2013, having served as the General Secretary previously. Rahul Gandhi led the INC's campaign in the 2014 Indian general elections; the party suffered its worst electoral result in its history, winning only 44 seats compared to 206 seats won previously in the 2009 general election.
Rahul Gandhi took over as the president of the Congress in December 2017. He is also a trustee of Rajiv Gandhi Foundation and Rajiv Gandhi Charitable Trust.Rajya Sabha
The Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of India. It currently has a maximum membership of 245, of which 233 are elected by the legislatures of the states and union territories using single transferable votes through Open Ballot while the President can appoint 12 members for their contributions to art, literature, science, and social services. Members sit for staggered terms lasting six years, with elections every year but almost a third of the 233 designates up for election every two years, specifically in even-numbered years. The Rajya Sabha meets in continuous sessions, and unlike the Lok Sabha, the lower house of Parliament, is not subject to dissolution. However, the Rajya Sabha, like the Lok Sabha can be prorogued by the President.
The Rajya Sabha has equal footing in legislation with the Lok Sabha, except in the area of supply, where the latter has overriding powers. In the case of conflicting legislation, a joint sitting of the two houses can be held, where the Lok Sabha would hold greater influence because of its larger membership. The Vice President of India (currently, Venkaiah Naidu) is the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha, who presides over its sessions. The Deputy Chairman, who is elected from amongst the house's members, takes care of the day-to-day matters of the house in the absence of the Chairman. The Rajya Sabha held its first sitting on 13 May 1952.Rajya Sabha meets in Rajya Sabha chamber in Parliament House in New Delhi. Since 18 July 2018, the Rajya Sabha has facility for simultaneous interpretation in all the 22 official languages of India.Sonia Gandhi
Sonia Gandhi pronunciation (née Maino; born 9 December 1946) is an Indian politician. She is a former president of the Indian National Congress, the secular and left-of-centre political party, which governed India for most of its post-independence history. She took over as the party leader in 1998, seven years after the assassination of her husband, Rajiv Gandhi, a former prime minister of India, and remained in office for nineteen years.Born in a small village near Vicenza, Italy, Gandhi was raised in a Roman Catholic family. After completing her primary education at local schools, she moved for her higher education to Cambridge, England, where she met Rajiv Gandhi, and later married him in 1968. She took up Indian citizenship and began living with her mother-in-law, the then-Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi, at the latter's New Delhi residence. Sonia Gandhi, however, kept away from the public sphere, even during the years of her husband's premiership.
Following her husband's assassination, Gandhi was invited by Congress leaders to lead the party, but she declined. She agreed to join politics in 1997 after much pleading from the party; the following year, she was nominated for party president, and elected over Jitendra Prasada. Under her leadership, the Congress went on to form the government post the 2004 elections in coalition with other centre-left political parties. Gandhi has since been credited for being instrumental in formulating the United Progressive Alliance (UPA), which was re-elected to power in 2009. Gandhi declined the premiership following the 2004 victory; she instead led the ruling alliance and the National Advisory Council.Over the course of her career, Gandhi presided over the advisory councils credited for the formation and subsequent implementation of such rights-based development and welfare schemes as the Right to information, Food security bill, and MNREGA, as she drew criticism related to the Bofors scandal and the National Herald Case. Her foreign birth has also been a subject of much debate and controversy. Gandhi's active participation in politics began to reduce during the latter half of the UPA government's second term owing to health concerns. She stepped down as the Congress president in December 2017, but continues to lead the party's Parliamentary committee. Although she never held any public office in the government of India, Gandhi has been widely described as one of the most powerful politicians in the country, and is often listed among the most powerful women in the world.Speaker of the Lok Sabha
The Speaker of the Lok Sabha is the presiding officer of the Lok Sabha (House of the People), the lower house of the Parliament of India. The speaker is elected generally in the very first meeting of the Lok Sabha following general elections. Serving for a term of five years, the speaker chosen from sitting members of the Lok Sabha (House of the People), and is by convention a member of the ruling party or alliance.
The current speaker is Sumitra Mahajan of the Bharatiya Janata Party, who presides over the 16th Lok Sabha. She is the second woman to hold the office, after her immediate predecessor Meira Kumar.Yogi Adityanath
Mahant Yogi Adityanath (born Ajay Mohan Bisht on 5 June 1972) is an Indian monk and Hindu nationalist politician who is the current Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, in office since 19 March 2017.He was appointed as the Chief Minister on 26 March 2017 after the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) won the 2017 State Assembly elections, in which he was a prominent campaigner. He has been the Member of Parliament from the Gorakhpur constituency, Uttar Pradesh, for five consecutive terms since 1998.Adityanath is also the Mahant or head priest of the Gorakhnath Math, a Hindu temple in Gorakhpur, a position he has held since the death of his spiritual "father", Mahant Avaidyanath, in September 2014. He is also the founder of the Hindu Yuva Vahini, a youth organization that has been involved in communal violence. He has an image as a right-wing populist Hindutva firebrand.
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