Lok Sabha

Coordinates: 28°37′3″N 77°12′30″E / 28.61750°N 77.20833°E

Lok Sabha
House of the People
16th Lok Sabha
Emblem of India
Type
Type
Term limits
5 years
Leadership
Vacant, as none of the opposition parties has more than 10% of seats.[1]
Since 26 May 2014
Structure
Seats545 (543 elected + 2 Nominated from the Anglo-Indian Community by the President)[2]
Lok Sabha
Political groups
Government coalition (305)

Opposition (213)

Vacant (24)

Elections
First past the post
Last election
7 April – 12 May 2014
Next election
April – May 2019
Motto
धर्मचक्रपरिवर्तनाय
Meeting place
view of Sansad Bhavan, seat of the Parliament of India
Lok Sabha chamber, Sansad Bhavan,
Sansad Marg, New Delhi, India - 110 001
Website
loksabha.nic.in

The Lok Sabha (House of the People) is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by adult universal suffrage and a first-past-the-post system to represent their respective constituencies, and they hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advice of the council of ministers. The house meets in the Lok Sabha Chambers of the Sansad Bhavan in New Delhi.

The maximum strength of the House allotted by the Constitution of India is 552. Currently the house has 545 seats which is made up by election of up to 543 elected members and at a maximum, 2 nominated members of the Anglo-Indian Community by the President of India. A total of 131 seats (24.03%) are reserved for representatives of Scheduled Castes (84) and Scheduled Tribes (47). The quorum for the House is 10% of the total membership. The Lok Sabha, unless sooner dissolved, continues to operate for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting. However, while a proclamation of emergency is in operation, this period may be extended by Parliament by law.[3][4]

An exercise to redraw Lok Sabha constituencies' boundaries is carried out by the Boundary Delimitation Commission of India every decade based on the Indian census, last of which was conducted in 2011.[5] This exercise earlier also included redistribution of seats among states based on demographic changes but that provision of the mandate of the commission was suspended in 1976 following a constitutional amendment to incentivise the family planning programme which was being implemented.[6] The 16th Lok Sabha was elected in May 2014 and is the latest to date.

The Lok Sabha has its own television channel, Lok Sabha TV, headquartered within the premises of Parliament.[7]

History

A major portion of the Indian subcontinent was under British rule from 1858 to 1947.[8] During this period, the office of the Secretary of State for India (along with the Council of India) was the authority through whom British Parliament exercised its rule in the Indian sub-continent, and the office of Viceroy of India was created, along with an Executive Council in India, consisting of high officials of the British government. The Indian Councils Act 1861 provided for a Legislative Council consisting of the members of the Executive Council and non-official members. The Indian Councils Act 1892 established legislatures in each of the provinces of British India and increased the powers of the Legislative Council. Although these Acts increased the representation of Indians in the government, their power still remained limited, and the electorate very small. The Indian Councils Act 1909 and the Government of India Act 1919 further expanded the participation of Indians in the administration. The Government of India Act 1935 introduced provincial autonomy and proposed a federal structure in India.[9] The Indian Independence Act 1947, passed by the British parliament on 18 July 1947, divided British India (which did not include the Princely States) into two new independent countries, India and Pakistan, which were to be dominions under the Crown until they had each enacted a new constitution. The Constituent Assembly was divided into two for the separate nations, with each new Assembly having sovereign powers transferred to it for the respective dominion.

The Constitution of India was adopted on 26 November 1949 and came into effect on 26 January 1950, proclaiming India to be a sovereign, democratic republic. This contained the founding principles of the law of the land which would govern India in its new form, which now included all the princely states which had not acceded to Pakistan.

According to Article 79 (Part V-The Union.) of the Constitution of India, the Parliament of India consists of the President of India and the two Houses of Parliament known as the Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and the House of the People (Lok Sabha).[10]

The Lok Sabha (House of the Leaders) was duly constituted for the first time on 17 April 1952 after the first General Elections held from 25 October 1951 to 21 February 1952.

Sessions of Lok Sabha
Sessions Commenced Date
First 13 May 1952
Second April 1957
Third April 1962
Fourth March 1967
Fifth March 1971
Sixth March 1977
Seventh January 1980
Eighth December 1984
Ninth December 1989
Tenth June 1991
Eleventh May 1996
Twelfth March 1998
Thirteenth October 1999
Fourteenth May 2004
Fifteenth May 2009
Sixteenth (Current) May 2014

Qualifications

Article 84 (Part V.—The Union)[11] of Indian Constitution sets qualifications for being a member of Lok Sabha, which are as follows:

  1. He / She should be a citizen of India, and must subscribe before the Election Commission of India an oath or affirmation according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule of Indian Constitution.
  2. He / She should not be less than 25 years of age.
  3. He / She possesses such other qualifications as may be prescribed in that behalf by or under any law made by Parliament.
  4. He / She should not be proclaimed criminal i.e. they should not be a convict, a confirmed debtor or otherwise disqualified by law; and
  5. He / She should have his/her name in the electoral rolls in any part of the country.

However, a member can be disqualified of being a member of Parliament:

  1. If he / she holds office of profit;
  2. If he / she is of unsound mind and stands so declared by a competent court
  3. If he / she is an undischarged insolvent;
  4. If he / she is not a citizen of India, or has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of a foreign State, or is under any acknowledgment of allegiance or adherence to a foreign State;
  5. If he / she is violating party discipline (as per Tenth schedule of the constitution); disqualified under Representation of People Act.

A seat in the Lok Sabha will become vacant in the following circumstances (during normal functioning of the House):

  1. When the holder of the seat, by writing to the speaker, resigns.
  2. When the holder of the seat is absent from 60 consecutive days of proceedings of the House, without prior permission of the Speaker.
  3. When the holder of the seat is subject to any disqualifications mentioned in the Constitution or any law enacted by Parliament.
  4. A seat may also be vacated when the holder stands disqualified under the 'Anti-Defection Law'.

Furthermore, as per article 101 (Part V.—The Union)[12] of the Indian Constitution, a person cannot be:

  1. A member of both Houses of Parliament and provision shall be made by Parliament by law for the vacation by a person who is chosen a member of both Houses of his seat in one House or the other.
  2. A member both of Parliament and of a House of the Legislature of a State.

System of elections in Lok Sabha

Members of the Lok Sabha are directly elected by the people of India, on the basis of Universal Suffrage. For the purpose of holding direct elections to Lok Sabha; each state is divided into territorial constituencies. In this respect, the constitution of India makes the following two provisions:

  1. Each state is allotted a number of seats in the Lok Sabha in such a manner that the ratio between that number and its population is same for all the states of India. This provision does not apply for states having a population of less than 6 million (60 lakhs).
  2. Each state is divided into territorial constituencies in such a manner that the ratio between the population of each constituency and the number of seats allotted to it remain the same throughout the state.

Note:

  • The expression population while distributing seats among states refers to the population ascertained at the census of 1971.[13]
  • The expression population while distributing constituencies within a state refers to the population ascertained at the census of 2001.[14]

Powers

The Lok Sabha has certain powers that make it more powerful than the Rajya Sabha.

  • Motions of no confidence against the government can be introduced and passed in the Lok Sabha. If passed by a majority vote, the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers resign collectively. The Rajya Sabha has no power over such a motion, and hence has no real power over the executive. This is because the Constitution of India has only made the Union Council of ministers responsible to the Lok Sabha, not to the Rajya Sabha.
  • Money bills can only be introduced in the Lok Sabha, and upon being passed, are sent to the Rajya Sabha, where it can be deliberated on for up to 14 days. If not rejected by the Rajya Sabha, or 14 days lapse from the introduction of the bill in the Rajya Sabha without any action by the House, or recommendations made by the Rajya Sabha are not accepted by the Lok Sabha, the bill is considered passed. The budget is presented in the Lok Sabha by the Finance Minister in the name of the President of India.
  • In matters pertaining to non-financial (ordinary) bills, after the bill has been passed by the House where it was originally tabled (Lok Sabha or Rajya Sabha), it is sent to the other house, where it may be kept for a maximum period of 6 months. If the other House rejects the bill or a period of 6 months elapses without any action by that House, or the House that originally tabled the bill does not accept the recommendations made by the members of the other house, it results in a deadlock. This is resolved by a joint session of both Houses, presided over by the speaker of the Lok Sabha and decided by a simple majority. Though the Constitution has placed both houses on the same footing in this regard, in reality it is the Lok Sabha's opinions that mostly prevails—due to its bigger numerical strength.
  • Equal Powers with the Rajya Sabha in initiating and passing any Bill for Constitutional Amendment (by a majority of the total membership of the House and at least two-thirds majority of the members present and voting).
  • Equal Powers with the Rajya Sabha in initiating and passing a motion for the impeachment of the President (by two-thirds of the membership of the House).
  • Equal Powers with the Rajya Sabha in impeachment process (initiating and passing a motion for the removal) of the judges of the Supreme Court and the state High Courts (by a majority of the membership of the House and at least two-thirds majority of the members present and voting), who then can be removed by the President of India.
  • Equal Powers with the Rajya Sabha in initiating and passing a resolution declaring war or national emergency (by two-thirds majority) or constitutional emergency (by simple majority) in a state.
  • If the Lok Sabha is dissolved before or after the declaration of a National Emergency, the Rajya Sabha becomes the sole Parliament. It cannot be dissolved. This is a limitation on the Lok Sabha. But there is a possibility that president can exceed the term to not more than 1 year under the proclamation of emergency and the same would be lowered down to six-month if the said proclamation ceases to operate.

In conclusion, it is clear that the Lok Sabha is more powerful than the Rajya Sabha in almost all matters. Even in those matters in which the Constitution has placed both Houses on an equal footing, the Lok Sabha has more influence due to its greater numerical strength. This is typical of any Parliamentary democracy, with the lower House always being more powerful than the upper.

Procedure

Procedure in the House

The Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in Lok Sabha and Directions issued by the Speaker from time to time there under regulate the procedure in Lok Sabha. The items of business, notice of which is received from the Ministers/ Private Members and admitted by the Speaker, are included in the daily List of Business which is printed and circulated to members in advance. For various items of business to be taken up in the House the time is allotted by the House on the recommendations of the Business Advisory Committee. The Speaker presides over the sessions of the House and regulates procedure.

Sessions and Time of Sittings

Three sessions of Lok Sabha take place in a year:

  • Budget session: February to May.
  • Monsoon session: July to September.
  • Winter session: November to mid December.

When in session, Lok Sabha holds its sittings usually from 11 A.M. to 1 P.M. and from 2 P.M. to 6 P.M. On some days the sittings are continuously held without observing lunch break and are also extended beyond 6 P.M. depending upon the business before the House. Lok Sabha does not ordinarily sit on Saturdays and Sundays and other closed holidays.

Question Hour

The first hour of every sitting is called Question Hour. Asking questions in Parliament is the free and unfettered right of members, and during Question Hour they may ask questions of ministers on different aspects of administration and government policy in the national and international spheres. Every minister whose turn it is to answer to questions has to stand up and answer for his department's acts of omission or commission.

Questions are of three types—Starred, Unstarred and Short Notice. A Starred Question is one to which a member desires an oral answer in the House and which is distinguished by an asterisk mark. An unstarred Question is one which is not called for oral answer in the house and on which no supplementary questions can consequently be asked. An answer to such a question is given in writing. Minimum period of notice for starred/ unstarred question is 10 clear days. If the questions given notice of are admitted by the Speaker, they are listed and printed for answer on the dates allotted to the Ministries to which the subject matter of the question pertains.

The normal period of notice does not apply to short notice questions which relate to matters of urgent public importance. However, a Short Notice Question may be answered only on short notice if so permitted by the Speaker and the Minister concerned is prepared to answer it at shorter notice. A short notice question is taken up for answer immediately after the Question Hour, popularly known as Zero Hour.

Zero Hour

The time immediately following the Question Hour has come to be known as "Zero Hour". It starts at around 12 noon (hence the name) and members can, with prior notice to the Speaker, raise issues of importance during this time. Typically, discussions on important Bills, the Budget, and other issues of national importance take place from 2 pm onwards.

Business after Question Hour

After the Question Hour, the House takes up miscellaneous items of work before proceeding to the main business of the day. These may consist of one or more of the following: Adjournment Motions, Questions involving breaches of Privileges, Papers to be laid on the Table, Communication of any messages from Rajya Sabha, Intimations regarding President's assent to Bills, Calling Attention Notices, Matters under Rule 377, Presentation of Reports of Parliamentary Committee, Presentation of Petitions, miscellaneous statements by Ministers, Motions regarding elections to Committees, Bills to be withdrawn or introduced.

Main Business

The main business of the day may be consideration of a Bill or financial business or consideration of a resolution or a motion.

Legislative Business

Legislative proposals in the form of a Bill can be brought forward either by a Minister or by a private member. In the former case it is known as Government Bill and in the latter case it is known as a Private Members' Bill. Every Bill passes through three stages—called three readings—before it is passed. To become law it must be passed by both the Houses of Parliament, Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha, and then assented to by the president.

Financial Business

The presentation, discussion of, and voting on the annual General and Railways budgets—followed by the passing of the Appropriations Bill and the Finance Bill—is a long, drawn-out process that takes up a major part of the time of the House during its Budget Session every year.

Motions and Resolutions

Among other kinds of business that come up before the House are resolutions and motions. Resolutions and motions may be brought forward by Government or by private members. Government may move a resolution or a motion for obtaining the sanction to a scheme or opinion of the House on an important matter of policy or on a grave situation. Similarly, a private member may move a resolution or motion in order to draw the attention of the House and of the Government to a particular problem. The last two and half hours of sitting on every Friday are generally allotted for transaction of private members' business. While private members' bills are taken up on one Friday, private members' resolutions are taken up on the succeeding Friday, and so on.

Parliamentary Committees

Most of the business of drafting a bill or amendments are initially discussed and debated in the parliamentary committees. Since the time for legislation is limited, work of all departments of the government and any special focus tasks is delegated to the committees, wherein the committees shall prepare the initial draft of the bill/amendment for the consideration by both the houses. They consist of members from both the houses.

There are primarily two kinds of parliamentary committees based on their nature –

  • Parliament Standing Committees (PSC) – Permanent in nature, reconstituted time to time with every new election.
    • Department based
    • Others
  • Ad hoc Committees – Created for specific purpose and ceases to exist when that purpose is achieved.

Half-an-Hour Discussion

A Half-an-Hour Discussion can be raised on a matter of sufficient public importance which has been the subject of a recent question in Lok Sabha irrespective of the fact whether the question was answered orally or the answer was laid on the Table of the House and the answer which needs elucidation on a matter of fact. Normally not more than half an hour is allowed for such a discussion. Usually, half-an-hour discussion is listed on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays only. In one session, a member is allowed to raise not more than two half-an-hour discussions. During the discussion, the member, who has given notice, makes a short statement and not more than four members, who have intimated earlier and have secured one of the four places in the ballot, are permitted to ask a question each for further elucidating any matter of fact. Thereafter, the Minister concerned replies. There is no formal motion before the House nor voting.

Discussion on Matters of Urgent Public Importance

Members may raise discussions on matters of urgent public importance with the permission of the Speaker. Such discussions may take place on two days in a week. No formal motion is moved in the House nor is there any voting on such a discussion.

Debate in the House

After the member who initiates discussion on an item of business has spoken, other members can speak on that item of business in such order as the Speaker may call upon them. Only one member can speak at a time and all speeches are directed to the Chair. A matter requiring the decision of the House is decided by means of a question put by the Speaker on a motion made by a member.

Division

A division is one of the forms in which the decision of the House is ascertained. Normally, when a motion is put to the House members for and against it indicate their opinion by saying "Aye" or "No" from their seats. The Chair goes by the voices and declares that the motion is either accepted or rejected by the House. If a member challenges the decision, the Chair orders that the lobbies be cleared. Then the division bell is rung and an entire network of bells installed in the various parts and rooms in Parliament House and Parliament House Annexe rings continuously for three and a half minutes. Members and Ministers rush to the Chamber from all sides. After the bell stops, all the doors to the Chamber are closed and nobody can enter or leave the Chamber till the division is over. Then the Chair puts the question for second time and declares whether in its opinion the "Ayes" or the "Noes", have it. If the opinion so declared is again challenged, the Chair asks the votes to be recorded by operating the Automatic Vote Recording Equipment.

Automatic Vote Recording System

With the announcement of the Speaker for recording the votes, the Secretary-General of the Lok Sabha presses the button of a key board. Then a gong sounds, serving as a signal to members for casting their votes. To vote, each member present in the Chamber has to flip a switch and then operate one of the three push buttons fixed in their seat. The push switch must be kept pressed simultaneously until the gong sounds for the second time after 10 seconds. There are two indicator boards installed in the wall on either side of the Speaker's chair in the Chamber. Each vote cast by a member is flashed here. Immediately after the votes are cast, they are totalled mechanically and the details of the results are flashed on the Result Indicator Boards installed in the railings of the Speaker's and Diplomatic Galleries.

Divisions are normally held with the aid of the Automatic Vote Recording Equipment. Where so directed by the Speaker in terms of relevant provision in the Rules of Procedure etc. in Lok Sabha, divisions may be held either by distribution of 'Aye'/'No' and 'Abstention' slips to members in the House or by the members recording their votes by going into the lobbies. There is an Indicator Board in the machine room showing the name of each member. The result of Division and vote cast by each member with the aid of Automatic Vote Recording Equipment appear also on this Board and immediately a photograph of the Indicator Board is taken. Later the Photograph is enlarged and the names of members who voted 'Ayes' and for 'Noes' are determined with the help of the photograph and incorporated in Lok Sabha Debates.

Publication of Debates

Three versions of Lok Sabha Debates are prepared: the Hindi version, the English version and the Original version. Only the Hindi and English versions are printed. The Original version, in cyclostyled form, is kept in the Parliament Library for record and reference. The Hindi version contains proceedings (all Questions asked and Answers given thereto and speeches made) in Hindi, and verbatim Hindi translation of proceedings in English or in regional languages. The English version contains proceedings in English and the English translation of the proceedings which take place in Hindi or in any regional language. The Original version, however, contains proceedings in Hindi or in English as they actually took place in the House and also the English/Hindi translation of speeches made in regional languages.

If conflicting legislation is enacted by the two Houses, a joint sitting is held to resolve the differences. In such a session, the members of the Lok Sabha would generally prevail, since the Lok Sabha includes more than twice as many members as the Rajya Sabha.

Officers of Lok Sabha

Speaker and Deputy Speaker

As per Article 93 of Indian Constitution, the Lok Sabha has a Speaker and a Deputy Speaker. In the Lok Sabha, both presiding officers—the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker- are elected from among its members by a simple majority of members present and voting in the House. No specific qualifications are prescribed for being elected Speaker; the Constitution only requires that Speaker should be a member of the House. But an understanding of the Constitution and the laws of the country and the rules of procedure and conventions of Parliament is considered a major asset for the holder of the office of the Speaker. Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speaker and Deputy Speaker are mentioned under Article 94 of the Constitution of India. As per Article 94 of Indian Constitution, a Speaker or a Deputy Speaker should vacate his/her office, a) if he/she ceases to be a member of the House of the People, b) he/she resigns, or c) is removed from office by a resolution of the House passed by a majority.

The Speaker of Lok Sabha is both a member of the House and its Presiding Officer. The Speaker conducts the business in the House. He/she decides whether a bill is a money bill or not. He/she maintains discipline and decorum in the house and can punish a member for their unruly behaviour by suspending them. He/she permits the moving of various kinds of motions and resolutions like the motion of no confidence, motion of adjournment, motion of censure and calling attention notice as per the rules. The Speaker decides on the agenda to be taken up for discussion during the meeting. It is the Speaker of the Lok Sabha who presides over joint sittings called in the event of disagreement between the two Houses on a legislative measure. Following the 52nd Constitution amendment, the Speaker is vested with the power relating to the disqualification of a member of the Lok Sabha on grounds of defection. The Speaker makes obituary references in the House, formal references to important national and international events and the valedictory address at the conclusion of every Session of the Lok Sabha and also when the term of the House expires. Though a member of the House, the Speaker does not vote in the House except on those rare occasions when there is a tie at the end of a decision. Till date, the Speaker of the Lok Sabha has not been called upon to exercise this unique casting vote. While the office of Speaker is vacant due to absence/resignation/removal, the duties of the office are performed by the Deputy Speaker or, if the office of Deputy Speaker is also vacant, by such member of the House of the People as the President may appoint for the purpose. The Lok Sabha has also a separate non-elected Secretariat staff.[15]

Shri G. V. Mavalankar was the first Speaker of Lok Sabha (15 May 1952 – 27 February 1956) and Shri M. Ananthasayanam Ayyangar was the first Deputy Speaker (30 May 1952 – 7 March 1956). In the 16th Lok Sabha, Sumitra Mahajan is the Speaker and M. Thambidurai is the Deputy Speaker.

Lok Sabha general elections

Lok Sabha is constituted after the general election as follows:

Lok Sabha General Election
1st Lok Sabha 1951–52 Indian general election
2nd Lok Sabha 1957 Indian general election
3rd Lok Sabha 1962 Indian general election
4th Lok Sabha 1967 Indian general election
5th Lok Sabha 1971 Indian general election
6th Lok Sabha 1977 Indian general election
7th Lok Sabha 1980 Indian general election
8th Lok Sabha 1984 Indian general election
9th Lok Sabha 1989 Indian general election
10th Lok Sabha 1991 Indian general election
11th Lok Sabha 1996 Indian general election
12th Lok Sabha 1998 Indian general election
13th Lok Sabha 1999 Indian general election
14th Lok Sabha 2004 Indian general election
15th Lok Sabha 2009 Indian general election
16th Lok Sabha 2014 Indian general election

Composition

State/Union Territory Type No. of constituencies[16]
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Union Territory 1
Andhra Pradesh State 25
Arunachal Pradesh State 2
Assam State 14
Bihar State 40
Chandigarh Union Territory 1
Chhattisgarh State 11
Dadra and Nagar Haveli Union Territory 1
Daman and Diu Union Territory 1
National Capital Territory of Delhi Union Territory 7
Goa State 2
Gujarat State 26
Haryana State 10
Himachal Pradesh State 4
Jammu and Kashmir State 6
Jharkhand State 14
Karnataka State 28
Kerala State 20
Lakshadweep Union Territory 1
Madhya Pradesh State 29
Maharashtra State 48
Manipur State 2
Meghalaya State 2
Mizoram State 1
Nagaland State 1
Odisha State 21
Puducherry Union Territory 1
Punjab State 13
Rajasthan State 25
Sikkim State 1
Tamil Nadu State 39
Telangana State 17
Tripura State 2
Uttarakhand State 5
Uttar Pradesh State 80
West Bengal State 42
Nominated Anglo-Indian 2
Total 545

Membership by party

Members of 16th Lok Sabha by their political party (As of 1 January 2019):[17]

Alliance Party Seats
National Democratic Alliance
Seats: 305
Bharatiya Janata Party 266
Shiv Sena 18
Lok Janshakti Party 6
Shiromani Akali Dal 4
Apna Dal 2
Janata Dal (United) 2
All India N.R. Congress 1
Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party 1
Pattali Makkal Katchi 1
Sikkim Democratic Front 1
Speaker of the House, BJP 1
Nominated Anglo-Indians, BJP 2
United Progressive Alliance
Seats: 64[18][19][20]
Indian National Congress 44
Nationalist Congress Party 6
Rashtriya Janata Dal 4
Rashtriya Lok Samta Party 3
Indian Union Muslim League 2
Janata Dal (Secular) 2
Rashtriya Lok Dal 1
Revolutionary Socialist Party 1
Swabhimani Paksha 1
Other Parties
Seats: 147[21][22]
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 37
All India Trinamool Congress 34
Biju Janata Dal 19
Telugu Desam Party 15
Communist Party of India (Marxist) 9
Telangana Rashtra Samithi 9
Samajwadi Party 7
Aam Aadmi Party 4
YSR Congress Party 4
All India United Democratic Front 3
Indian National Lok Dal 2
Jharkhand Mukti Morcha 2
All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen 1
Communist Party of India 1
Jammu & Kashmir National Conference 1
Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party 1
Others
Seats: 3
Independents 3
Vacant Seats Anantnag, Ongole, Kadapa, Nellore, Tirupati, Rajampet, Kottayam, Kendrapara, Tura, Katihar, Begusarai, Bangalore South, Wayanad, Kishanganj, Ladakh, Malkajgiri, Chevella, Peddapalle, Chhindwara, Durg, Khajuraho, Dewas, Ajmer and Dausa. 24
Total 545

See also

References

  1. ^ "No LoP post for Congress". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 27 August 2017. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
  2. ^ "Lok Sabha". parliamentofindia.nic.in. Archived from the original on 9 August 2011. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
  3. ^ "Parliament of India: Lok Sabha". Archived from the original on 1 June 2015.
  4. ^ Part V—The Union. Article 83. p. 40 Archived 24 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ "A decade from now, three states will contribute a third of Lok Sabha MPs". Archived from the original on 8 May 2016.
  6. ^ Election Commission India Archived 5 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ "Welcome to LokSabha Website". Archived from the original on 16 January 2014.
  8. ^ "Indian Freedom Struggle (1857–1947) – Culture and Heritage – Know India: National Portal of India". Archived from the original on 22 July 2013.
  9. ^ "Government of India Act of 1935 - Dictionary definition of Government of India Act of 1935 - Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
  10. ^ Part V—The Union. Article 79. p. 38 Archived 24 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  11. ^ Part V—The Union. Article 81. p. 41 Archived 24 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ Part V—The Union. Article 81. pp. 46, 47 Archived 24 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  13. ^ https://www.india.gov.in/sites/upload_files/npi/files/coi_part_full.pdf article 81
  14. ^ //www.india.gov.in/sites/upload_files/npi/files/coi_part_full.pdf article 81
  15. ^ "Lok Sabha". Lok Sabha. Archived from the original on 30 May 2013.
  16. ^ "Lok Sabha Introduction". National Informatics Centre, Government of India. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 22 September 2008.
  17. ^ "Sixteenth Lok Sabha : All Members Party-wise List". Lok Sabha. 24 December 2018. Archived from the original on 28 November 2016.
  18. ^ "Congress-NCP seal seat sharing agreement except for 6 Lok Sabha seats in Maharashtra". https://www.hindustantimes.com/. 2018-12-22. Retrieved 2019-01-14. External link in |website= (help)
  19. ^ "Lok Sabha polls 2019: Bihar Opposition-led Gand Alliance of RJD, Congress, RLSP, LJD to hold meeting on seat sharing at Tejashwi's house today". NewsX. 2019-01-07. Retrieved 2019-01-14.
  20. ^ Mohan, Archis (2018-12-20). "Kushwaha joins UPA at Congress HQ, welcoming party is of ex-Congress rivals". Business Standard India. Retrieved 2019-01-14.
  21. ^ talharashid (2019-01-12). "TDP-Congress likely to go on their own for Andhra Pradesh, amid Grand Alliance speculations". The Indian Wire. Retrieved 2019-01-14.
  22. ^ Newsd (2019-01-08). "Jharkhand: Hemant Soren likely to ditch Congress and go all alone". News and Analysis from India. A Refreshing approach to news. Retrieved 2019-01-14.

External links

14th Lok Sabha

The 14th Lok Sabha (17 May 2004 – 18 May 2009) was convened after the Indian general election, 2004 held in four phases during 20 April – 10 May 2004, which led to the formation of first Manmohan Singh ministry (2004–2009). Indian National Congress lead United Progressive Alliance won 62 more seats than previous 13th Lok Sabha. The Lok Sabha (House of the People) is the lower house in the Parliament of India. 8 sitting members from Rajya Sabha, the Upper House of Indian Parliament, were elected to 14th Lok Sabha after the Indian general election, 2004. The next 15th Lok Sabha was convened after Indian general election, 2009.

15th Lok Sabha

Members of the 15th Lok Sabha were elected during the 2009 general election in India. It was dissolved on 18 May 2014 by President Pranab Mukherjee.Indian National Congress led United Progressive Alliance won 44 more seats than previous 14th Lok Sabha. The next 16th Lok Sabha was convened after Indian general election, 2014.

The Second Manmohan Singh ministry introduced a total of 222 Bills (apart from Finance and Appropriations Bills) in the 15th Lok Sabha. A total of 165 Bills were by passed by the House, including bills introduced in previous Lok Sabhas.14 sitting members from Rajya Sabha, the Upper House of Indian Parliament, were elected to 15th Lok Sabha after the Indian general election, 2009.

16th Lok Sabha

Members of the 16th Lok Sabha were elected during the 2014 Indian general election. The elections were conducted in 9 phases from 7 April 2014 to 12 May 2014 by the Election Commission of India. The results of the election were declared on 16 May 2014. The Bharatiya Janata Party (of the NDA) achieved an absolute majority with 282 seats out of 543, 166 more than previous 15th Lok Sabha. Its PM candidate Narendra Modi took office on 26 May 2014 as the 14th prime minister of independent India. The first session was scheduled to be convened from June 4 to June 11, 2014.There is no leader of the opposition in the 16th Lok Sabha as the Indian Parliament rules state that a party in the Lok Sabha must have at least 10% of total seats (545) in order to be considered the opposition party. The Indian National Congress (of the UPA) could only manage 44 seats while the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam party from Tamil Nadu came a close third with 37 seats. Mallikarjun Kharge has been declared the leader of the Indian National Congress in the Lok Sabha.5 sitting members from Rajya Sabha, the Upper House of Indian Parliament, were elected to 16th Lok Sabha after the Indian general elections, 2014.

Atal Bihari Vajpayee

Atal Bihari Vajpayee (Hindustani pronunciation: [əʈəl bɪhaːɾiː ʋaːdʒpai]; 25 December 1924 – 16 August 2018) was an Indian politician who served three terms as the Prime Minister of India: first for a term of 13 days in 1996, then for a period of 13 months from 1998 to 1999, and finally, for a full term from 1999 to 2004. A member of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), he was the first Indian prime minister who was not a member of the Indian National Congress party to have served a full five-year term in office.

He was a member of the Indian Parliament for over four decades, having been elected to the Lok Sabha, the lower house, ten times, and twice to the Rajya Sabha, the upper house. He served as the Member of Parliament for Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh until 2009 when he retired from active politics due to health concerns. Vajpayee was among the founding members of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh (BJS), of which he was the president from 1968 to 1972. The BJS merged with several other parties to form the Janata Party, which won the 1977 general election. Vajpayee became the Minister of External Affairs in the cabinet of Prime Minister Morarji Desai. He resigned in 1979, and the Janata alliance collapsed soon after. The erstwhile members of the BJS formed the BJP in 1980, with Vajpayee as its first president.

During his tenure as prime minister, India carried out the Pokhran-II nuclear tests in 1998. Vajpayee sought to improve diplomatic relations with Pakistan, travelling to Lahore by bus to meet with Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif. After the 1999 Kargil War with Pakistan, he sought to restore relations through engaging with President Pervez Musharraf, inviting him to India for a summit at Agra.

He was conferred India's highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna, by the President of India, Pranab Mukherjee in 2015. The administration of Narendra Modi declared in 2014 that Vajpayee's birthday, 25 December, would be marked as Good Governance Day. He died on 16 August 2018 due to age-related illness.

Kamal Nath

Kamal Nath (born 18 November 1946) is an Indian politician and the 18th Chief Minister of Madhya Pradesh, a central Indian state. As a leader of the Indian National Congress he has served as the Minister of Urban Development. He is one of the longest serving and most senior members of the Lok Sabha, the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament. He was appointed the Pro Tem Speaker of the 16th Lok Sabha. He has been elected nine times from the Chhindwara Lok Sabha constituency of Madhya Pradesh. Nath was elected president of the Madhya Pradesh Congress Committee in May 2018, leading the party in the November-December 2018 assembly election. He assumes the office of Chief Minister on December 17, 2018.

L. K. Advani

Lal Krishna Advani (born 8 November 1927) is an Indian politician who served as the 7th Deputy Prime Minister of India from 2002 to 2004 under Atal Bihari Vajpayee. Advani also served as Minister of Home Affairs in the BJP-led National Democratic Alliance government from 1998 to 2004. He is one of the co-founders and a senior leader of Bharatiya Janata Party. He was the Leader of the Opposition in the 10th Lok Sabha and 14th Lok Sabha. Advani began his political career as a volunteer of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, a right-wing Hindu nationalist organisation. In 2015 he was awarded the Padma Vibhushan, India's second highest civilian honor.

List of constituencies of the Lok Sabha

The Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Parliament of India, is made up of Members of Parliament (MPs). Each MP, represents a single geographic constituency. There are currently 543 constituencies.

The maximum size of the Lok Sabha as outlined in the Constitution of India is 552 members made up of up to 530 members representing people of the states of India and up to 20 members representing people from the Union Territories on the basis of their population and 2 Anglo-Indians are nominated by President.

List of members of the 16th Lok Sabha

This is a List of Members of the 16th Lok Sabha arranged by state-wise and union territory-wise representation in Lok sabha. These members of the Lower house of the Indian Parliament were elected in the Indian general election, 2014 held from 7 April to 12 May, 2014.

Maneka Gandhi

Maneka Sanjay Gandhi (also spelled Menaka) (née Anand; born 26 August 1956) is the Indian Union Cabinet Minister for Women & Child Development in the Government of PM Narendra Modi. She is also an animal rights activist, environmentalist, and widow of the Indian politician Sanjay Gandhi. She has been a minister in four governments, and has authored a number of books in the areas of etymology, law and animal welfare. Maneka Gandhi is a member of the Nehru-Gandhi Family.

Member of parliament, Lok Sabha

A member of parliament in Lok Sabha (abbreviated: MP) is the representative of the Indian people in the Lok Sabha; the lower house of the Parliament of India. Members of parliament of Lok Sabha are chosen by direct elections on the basis of the adult suffrage. Parliament of India is bicameral with two houses; Rajya Sabha (upper house i.e. Council of States) and the Lok Sabha (lower house i.e. House of the People). The maximum permitted strength of members of parliament in the Lok Sabha is 552. This includes maximum 530 members to represent the constituencies and states, up to 20 members to represent the union territories (both chosen by direct elections) and not more than two members of the Anglo-Indian community to be nominated by the President of India. The party—or coalition of parties—having a majority in the Lok Sabha chooses the Prime Minister of India.

Parliament of India

The Parliament of India is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of India. It is a bicameral legislature composed of the President of India and the two houses: the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the Lok Sabha (House of the People). The President in his role as head of legislature has full powers to summon and prorogue either house of Parliament or to dissolve Lok Sabha. The president can exercise these powers only upon the advice of the Prime Minister and his Union Council of Ministers.

Those elected or nominated (by the President) to either house of Parliament are referred to as Members of Parliament (MP). The Members of Parliament, Lok Sabha are directly elected by the Indian public voting in Single-member districts and the Members of Parliament, Rajya Sabha are elected by the members of all State Legislative Assembly by proportional representation. The Parliament has a sanctioned strength of 545 in Lok Sabha including the 2 nominees from the Anglo-Indian Community by the President, and 245 in Rajya Sabha including the 12 nominees from the expertise of different fields of science, culture, art and history. The Parliament meets at Sansad Bhavan in New Delhi.

Rajya Sabha

The Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the upper house of the Parliament of India. Membership of Rajya Sabha is limited by the Constitution to a maximum of 250 members, and current laws have provision for 245 members. Most of the members of the House are indirectly elected by MLAs of state and territorial legislatures using single transferable votes, while the President can appoint 12 members for their contributions to art, literature, science, and social services. Members sit for staggered terms lasting six years, with a third of the members up for election every two years.The Rajya Sabha meets in continuous sessions, and unlike the Lok Sabha, the lower house of Parliament, is not subject to dissolution. However, the Rajya Sabha, like the Lok Sabha can be prorogued by the President. The Rajya Sabha has equal footing in all areas of legislation with the Lok Sabha, except in the area of supply, where the Lok Sabha has overriding powers. In the case of conflicting legislation, a joint sitting of the two houses can be held. However, since the Lok Sabha has twice as many members as the Rajya Sabha, the former would normally hold the greater power. Joint sittings of the Houses of Parliament of India are rare, and in the history of the Republic, only three such joint-sessions have been held; the latest one for the passage of the 2002 Prevention of Terrorism Act.

The Vice President of India (currently, Venkaiah Naidu) is the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha, who presides over its sessions. The Deputy Chairman, who is elected from amongst the house's members, takes care of the day-to-day matters of the house in the absence of the Chairman. The Rajya Sabha held its first sitting on 13 May 1952. The salary and other benefits for a member of Rajya Sabha are same as for a member of Lok Sabha.

Rajya Sabha members are elected by state legislatures rather than directly through the electorate by single transferable vote method. From 18 July 2018, Rajya Sabha MPs can speak in 22 Indian languages in House as the Upper House has facility for simultaneous interpretation in all the 22 official languages of India.

Ram Vilas Paswan

Ram Vilas Paswan (born 5 July 1946) is an Indian politician, from Bihar and the current Cabinet Minister of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution. Paswan is also the president of the Lok Janshakti Party, eight time Lok Sabha member and former Rajya Sabha MP. Started his political career as member of Samyukta Socialist Party and was elected to the Bihar Legislative Assembly in 1969. Next he joined Lok Dal upon its formation in 1974, and became its general secretary. He opposed the emergency, and was arrested during the period. He entered the Lok Sabha in 1977, as a Janata Party member from Hajipur constituency, was chosen again 1980, 1989, 1996 and 1998,1999,2004, and 2014

In 2000, he formed the Lok Janshakti Party (LJP) as its president. Subsequently, in 2004 he joined the ruling United Progressive Alliance government and remained a Union Minister in Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers and Ministry of Steel. He won the 2004 Lok Sabha elections, but lost the 2009 elections. After being member of a Rajya Sabha member from 2010 to 2014, he was elected again to the 16th Lok Sabha in the 2014 Indian general election from Hajipur constituency.

Shatrughan Sinha

Shatrughan Sinha (born Shatrughan Prasad Sinha on 9 December 1945) is an Indian film actor turned politician. Apart from being member of Lok Sabha (2009–2014, 2014–2019) and Rajya Sabha twice he was also Union Cabinet Minister of Health and Family Welfare (Jan 2003 – May 2004) and Shipping (Aug. 2004) in the Atal Bihari Vajpayee government. He was elected to 15th Lok Sabha in 2009. In 2016, his biography, entitled Anything but Khamosh, was released.

Shivraj Singh Chouhan

Shivraj Singh Chouhan (born 5 March 1959) is an Indian Politician & senior BJP leader . He is the Vice president of Bharatiya Janata Party.

He was the 17th Chief Minister of Madhya Pradesh, a central Indian state. He replaced Babulal Gaur as chief minister on 29 November 2005. As a leader of the Bharatiya Janata Party, he has served as its general secretary and as president of its Madhya Pradesh state unit. He joined the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh in 1972, as a 13-year-old. He was a five-time Member of Parliament, representing Vidisha in the Lok Sabha from 1991 to 2006 before resigning for assembly re-election as per the rules of holding CM office. At present, he represents Budhni constituency, a tehsil place in Sehore district, in the Madhya Pradesh assembly.In 2007, he had introduced schemes named as Ladli Laxmi Yojna, Kanyadhan Yojna and Janani Suraksha Yojna to focus on the prevention of female infanticide in the state. "Medhavi Vidhyati Yojana" and "Medhavi Chhatra Yojna" to 70% in 12th MP Board Bhopal and 85% CBSE Delhi.2019.

Sonia Gandhi

Sonia Gandhi pronunciation ; (born 9 December 1946) is an Indian politician of Italian descent. A member of the Nehru–Gandhi family by way of her marriage to Rajiv Gandhi, she is a former president of the Indian National Congress. She took over as the party leader in 1998, seven years after her husband's assassination, and remained in office for a record nineteen years, a period that was characterised by the party's renewed adherence to the centre-left position on the Indian political spectrum.Born in a small village near Vicenza, Italy, Gandhi was raised in a Roman Catholic Christian family. After completing her primary education at local schools, she moved to Cambridge for higher education and married Rajiv Gandhi in 1968. She later took up Indian citizenship and began living with her mother-in-law, the then-Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi, at the latter's New Delhi residence. Sonia Gandhi, however, continued to stay away from the public sphere, even during the years of her husband's premiership.

Following her husband's assassination, Gandhi was invited by Congress leaders to lead the party, but she refused and stayed away from politics. She finally agreed to join politics in 1997 after constant prodding from the party; the following year, she was nominated for party president, and elected over Jitendra Prasada. Under her leadership, the Congress went on form the government post the 2004 elections in coalition with other centre-left political parties. Gandhi has since been credited for being instrumental in formulating the United Progressive Alliance (UPA), which was re-elected to power in 2009. Gandhi declined the premiership following the 2004 victory; she instead led the ruling alliance and the National Advisory Council.Over the course of her career, Gandhi presided over the advisory councils credited for the formation and subsequent implementation of such rights-based development and welfare schemes as the Right to information, Food security bill, and MNREGA, as she drew criticism related to the Bofors scandal and the National Herald Case. Her foreign birth has also been a subject of much debate and controversy. Gandhi's active participation in politics began to reduce during the latter half of the UPA government's second term owing to health concerns. She stepped down as the Congress president in December 2017, but continues to lead the party's Parliamentary committee. Although she never held any public office in the government of India, Gandhi has been widely described as one of the most powerful politicians in the country, and is often listed among the most powerful women in the world.

Speaker of the Lok Sabha

The Speaker of the Lok Sabha is the presiding officer of the Lok Sabha (House of the People), the lower house of the Parliament of India. The speaker is elected generally in the very first meeting of the Lok Sabha following general elections. Serving for a term of five years, the speaker chosen from sitting members of the Lok Sabha (House of people), and is by convention a member of the ruling party or alliance.

The current speaker is Sumitra Mahajan of the Bharatiya Janata Party, who presides over the 16th Lok Sabha. She is the second woman to hold the office, after her immediate predecessor Meira Kumar.

Sushma Swaraj

Sushma Swaraj (pronunciation ) (born 14 February 1952) is an Indian politician and a former Supreme Court lawyer. A senior leader of Bharatiya Janata Party, Swaraj is serving as the Minister of External Affairs of India since 26 May 2014; she is the second woman to hold the office, after Indira Gandhi. She has been elected seven times as a Member of Parliament and three times as a Member of the Legislative Assembly. At the age of 25 in 1977, she became the youngest cabinet minister of north Indian state of Haryana. She also served as 5th Chief Minister of Delhi from 13 October 1998 to 3 December 1998.In the 2014 Indian general election, she won the Vidisha constituency in Madhya Pradesh for a second term, retaining her seat by a margin of over 400,000 votes. She became the Minister of External Affairs in the union cabinet on 26 May 2014. Swaraj was called India's 'best-loved politician' by the US daily Wall Street Journal.

Vasundhara Raje

Vasundhara Raje Scindia (born 8 March 1953) is an Indian politician who held the post of 13th Chief Minister of Rajasthan from 2013 to 11 December 2018 - previously she served for the same post from 2003 to 2008 and was the first woman to hold the post.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.