# Logistics

Logistics is generally the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation. In a general business sense, logistics is the management of the flow of things between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet requirements of customers or corporations. The resources managed in logistics may include tangible goods such as materials, equipment, and supplies, as well as food and other consumable items. The logistics of physical items usually involves the integration of information flow, materials handling, production, packaging, inventory, transportation, warehousing, and often security.

In military science, logistics is concerned with maintaining army supply lines while disrupting those of the enemy, since an armed force without resources and transportation is defenseless. Military logistics was already practiced in the ancient world and as modern military have a significant need for logistics solutions, advanced implementations have been developed. In military logistics, logistics officers manage how and when to move resources to the places they are needed.

Logistics management is the part of supply chain management that plans, implements, and controls the efficient, effective forward, and reverse flow and storage of goods, services, and related information between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet customer's requirements. The complexity of logistics can be modeled, analyzed, visualized, and optimized by dedicated simulation software. The minimization of the use of resources is a common motivation in all logistics fields. A professional working in the field of logistics management is called a logistician.

Configuring and managing warehouses is a central concern for both business logistics and military logistics.
Logistics Specialist inventories supplies in a storeroom aboard the aircraft carrier USS George H.W. Bush, where inventorying means making a report on stock availability. Every stock keeping unit has an individual code and a code corresponding to a specific subclass from a given drawer.

## Nomenclature

The term logistics is attested in English from 1846, and is from French: logistique, where it was either coined or popularized by military officer and writer Antoine-Henri Jomini, who defined it in his Summary of the Art of War (Précis de l'Art de la Guerre). The term appears in the 1830 edition, then titled Analytic Table (Tableau Analytique),[1] and Jomini explains that it is derived from French: logis, lit. 'lodgings' (cognate to English lodge), in the terms French: maréchal des logis, lit. 'marshall of lodgings' and French: major-général des logis, lit. 'major-general of lodging':

Autrefois les officiers de l’état-major se nommaient: maréchal des logis, major-général des logis; de là est venu le terme de logistique, qu’on emploie pour désigner ce qui se rapporte aux marches d’une armée.

Formerly the officers of the general staff were named: marshall of lodgings, major-general of lodgings; from there came the term of logistics [logistique], which we employ to designate those who are in charge of the functionings of an army.

The term is credited to Jomini, and the term and its etymology criticized by Georges de Chambray in 1832, writing:[2]

Logistique: Ce mot me paraît être tout-à-fait nouveau, car je ne l'avais encore vu nulle part dans la littérature militaire. … il paraît le faire dériver du mot logis, étymologie singulière …

Logistic: This word appears to me to be completely new, as I have not yet see it anywhere in military literature. … he appears to derive it from the word lodgings [logis], a peculiar etymology …

Chambray also notes that the term logistique was present in the Dictionnaire de l'Académie française as a synonym for algebra.

The French word: logistique is a homonym of the existing mathematical term, from Ancient Greek: λογῐστῐκός, romanizedlogistikós, a traditional division of Greek mathematics; the mathematical term is presumably the origin of the term logistic in logistic growth and related terms. Some sources give this instead as the source of logistics,[3] either ignorant of Jomini's statement that it was derived from logis, or dubious and instead believing it was in fact of Greek origin, or influenced by the existing term of Greek origin.

## Definition

Jomini originally defined logistics as:[1]

... l'art de bien ordonner les marches d'une armée, de bien combiner l'ordre des troupes dans les colonnes, les tems [temps] de leur départ, leur itinéraire, les moyens de communications nécessaires pour assurer leur arrivée à point nommé ...

... the art of well ordering the functionings of an army, of well combining the order of troops in columns, the times of their departure, their itinerary, the means of communication necessary to assure their arrival at a named point ...

The Oxford English Dictionary defines logistics as "the branch of military science relating to procuring, maintaining and transporting material, personnel and facilities". However, the New Oxford American Dictionary defines logistics as "the detailed coordination of a complex operation involving many people, facilities, or supplies", and the Oxford Dictionary on-line defines it as "the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation".[4] As such, logistics is commonly seen as a branch of engineering that creates "people systems" rather than "machine systems".

According to the Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (previously the Council of Logistics Management),[5] logistics is the process of planning, implementing and controlling procedures for the efficient and effective transportation and storage of goods including services and related information from the point of origin to the point of consumption for the purpose of conforming to customer requirements and includes inbound, outbound, internal and external movements.[6]

Academics and practitioners traditionally refer to the terms operations or production management when referring to physical transformations taking place in a single business location (factory, restaurant or even bank clerking) and reserve the term logistics for activities related to distribution, that is, moving products on the territory. Managing a distribution center is seen, therefore, as pertaining to the realm of logistics since, while in theory the products made by a factory are ready for consumption they still need to be moved along the distribution network according to some logic, and the distribution center aggregates and processes orders coming from different areas of the territory. That being said, from a modeling perspective, there are similarities between operations management and logistics, and companies sometimes use hybrid professionals, with for example a "Director of Operations" or a "Logistics Officer" working on similar problems. Furthermore, the term supply chain management originally refers to, among other issues, having an integrated vision of both production and logistics from point of origin to point of production.[7] All these terms may suffer from semantic change as a side effect of advertising.

## Logistics activities and fields

Inbound logistics is one of the primary processes of logistics concentrating on purchasing and arranging the inbound movement of materials, parts, or unfinished inventory from suppliers to manufacturing or assembly plants, warehouses, or retail stores.

Outbound logistics is the process related to the storage and movement of the final product and the related information flows from the end of the production line to the end user.

Given the services performed by logisticians, the main fields of logistics can be broken down as follows:

• Procurement logistics
• Distribution logistics
• After-sales logistics
• Disposal logistics
• Reverse logistics
• Green logistics
• Global logistics
• Domestics logistics
• Concierge Service
• RAM logistics
• Asset Control Logistics
• POS Material Logistics
• Emergency Logistics
• Production Logistics
• Construction Logistics
• Capital Project Logistics
• Digital Logistics
Loading of a thermal oxidizer at the point of origin en route to a manufacturing plant

Procurement logistics consists of activities such as market research, requirements planning, make-or-buy decisions, supplier management, ordering, and order controlling. The targets in procurement logistics might be contradictory: maximizing efficiency by concentrating on core competences, outsourcing while maintaining the autonomy of the company, or minimizing procurement costs while maximizing security within the supply process.

Advance Logistics consists of the activities required to set up or establish a plan for logistics activities to occur.

Distribution logistics has, as main tasks, the delivery of the finished products to the customer. It consists of order processing, warehousing, and transportation. Distribution logistics is necessary because the time, place, and quantity of production differs with the time, place, and quantity of consumption.

Disposal logistics has as its main function to reduce logistics cost(s) and enhance service(s) related to the disposal of waste produced during the operation of a business.

Reverse logistics denotes all those operations related to the reuse of products and materials. The reverse logistics process includes the management and the sale of surpluses, as well as products being returned to vendors from buyers. Reverse logistics stands for all operations related to the reuse of products and materials. It is "the process of planning, implementing, and controlling the efficient, cost effective flow of raw materials, in-process inventory, finished goods and related information from the point of consumption to the point of origin for the purpose of recapturing value or proper disposal. More precisely, reverse logistics is the process of moving goods from their typical final destination for the purpose of capturing value, or proper disposal. The opposite of reverse logistics is forward logistics."

Green Logistics describes all attempts to measure and minimize the ecological impact of logistics activities. This includes all activities of the forward and reverse flows. This can be achieved through intermodal freight transport, path optimization, vehicle saturation and city logistics.

RAM Logistics (see also Logistic engineering) combines both business logistics and military logistics since it is concerned with highly complicated technological systems for which Reliability, Availability and Maintainability are essential, ex: weapon systems and military supercomputers.

Asset Control Logistics: companies in the retail channels, both organized retailers and suppliers, often deploy assets required for the display, preservation, promotion of their products. Some examples are refrigerators, stands, display monitors, seasonal equipment, poster stands & frames.

A forklift truck loads a pallet of humanitarian aid to Pakistan on board a C-17 aircraft, following devastating floods in the country in 2010.

Emergency logistics (or Humanitarian Logistics) is a term used by the logistics, supply chain, and manufacturing industries to denote specific time-critical modes of transport used to move goods or objects rapidly in the event of an emergency.[8] The reason for enlisting emergency logistics services could be a production delay or anticipated production delay, or an urgent need for specialized equipment to prevent events such as aircraft being grounded (also known as "aircraft on ground"—AOG), ships being delayed, or telecommunications failure. Humanitarian logistics involves governments, the military, aid agencies, donors, non-governmental organizations and emergency logistics services are typically sourced from a specialist provider.[8][9]

The term production logistics describes logistic processes within a value adding system (ex: factory or a mine). Production logistics aims to ensure that each machine and workstation receives the right product in the right quantity and quality at the right time. The concern is with production, testing, transportation, storage and supply. Production logistics can operate in existing as well as new plants: since manufacturing in an existing plant is a constantly changing process, machines are exchanged and new ones added, which gives the opportunity to improve the production logistics system accordingly.[10] Production logistics provides the means to achieve customer response and capital efficiency. Production logistics becomes more important with decreasing batch sizes. In many industries (e.g. mobile phones), the short-term goal is a batch size of one, allowing even a single customer's demand to be fulfilled efficiently. Track and tracing, which is an essential part of production logistics due to product safety and reliability issues, is also gaining importance, especially in the automotive and medical industries.

Construction Logistics is known to mankind since ancient times. As the various human civilizations tried to build the best possible works of construction for living and protection. Now the construction logistics emerged as vital part of construction. In the past few years construction logistics has emerged as a different field of knowledge and study within the subject of supply chain management and logistics.

Digital logistics is driven by a new generation of web-based, enterprise logistics applications that enable collaboration and optimization, leveraging a central logistics information backbone that provides visibility across the enterprise and extended supply chain.

## Military logistics

Punjab Regiment uses mules for carrying cargo in Burma during WWII. Animals have been used for logistic purposes by different people throughout history; the Roman army in particular preferred mules over donkeys for their moving capacity.[11]

In military science, maintaining one's supply lines while disrupting those of the enemy is a crucial—some would say the most crucial—element of military strategy, since an armed force without resources and transportation is defenseless. The historical leaders Hannibal, Alexander the Great, and the Duke of Wellington are considered to have been logistical geniuses: Alexander's expedition benefited considerably from his meticulous attention to the provisioning of his army,[12] Hannibal is credited to have "taught logistics" to the Romans during the Punic Wars [13] and the success of the Anglo-Portuguese army in the Peninsula War was the due to the effectiveness of Wellington's supply system, despite the numerical disadvantage.[14] The defeat of the British in the American War of Independence and the defeat of the Axis in the African theater of World War II are attributed by some scholars to logistical failures.[15]

Militaries have a significant need for logistics solutions and so have developed advanced implementations. Integrated Logistics Support (ILS) is a discipline used in military industries to ensure an easily supportable system with a robust customer service (logistic) concept at the lowest cost and in line with (often high) reliability, availability, maintainability, and other requirements, as defined for the project.

In military logistics, logistics officers manage how and when to move resources to the places they are needed.

Supply chain management in military logistics often deals with a number of variables in predicting cost, deterioration, consumption, and future demand. The United States Armed Forces' categorical supply classification was developed in such a way that categories of supply with similar consumption variables are grouped together for planning purposes. For instance, peacetime consumption of ammunition and fuel will be considerably lower than wartime consumption of these items, whereas other classes of supply such as subsistence and clothing have a relatively consistent consumption rate regardless of war or peace.

Some classes of supply have a linear demand relationship: as more troops are added, more supply items are needed; or as more equipment is used, more fuel and ammunition are consumed. Other classes of supply must consider a third variable besides usage and quantity: time. As equipment ages, more and more repair parts are needed over time, even when usage and quantity stays consistent. By recording and analyzing these trends over time and applying them to future scenarios, the US Armed Forces can accurately supply troops with the items necessary at the precise moment they are needed.[16] History has shown that good logistical planning creates a lean and efficient fighting force. The lack thereof can lead to a clunky, slow, and ill-equipped force with too much or too little supply.

A forklift stacking a logistics provider's warehouse of goods on pallets

One definition of business logistics speaks of "having the right item in the right quantity at the right time at the right place for the right price in the right condition to the right customer".[17] Business logistics incorporates all industry sectors and aims to manage the fruition of project life cycles, supply chains, and resultant efficiencies.

The term "business logistics" has evolved since the 1960s[18] due to the increasing complexity of supplying businesses with materials and shipping out products in an increasingly globalized supply chain, leading to a call for professionals called "supply chain logisticians".

In business, logistics may have either an internal focus (inbound logistics) or an external focus (outbound logistics), covering the flow and storage of materials from point of origin to point of consumption (see supply-chain management). The main functions of a qualified logistician include inventory management, purchasing, transportation, warehousing, consultation, and the organizing and planning of these activities. Logisticians combine a professional knowledge of each of these functions to coordinate resources in an organization.

There are two fundamentally different forms of logistics: one optimizes a steady flow of material through a network of transport links and storage nodes, while the other coordinates a sequence of resources to carry out some project (e.g., restructuring a warehouse).

### Nodes of a distribution network

The nodes of a distribution network include:

There may be some intermediaries operating for representative matters between nodes such as sales agents or brokers.

### Logistic families and metrics

A logistic family is a set of products which share a common characteristic: weight and volumetric characteristics, physical storing needs (temperature, radiation,...), handling needs, order frequency, package size, etc. The following metrics may be used by the company to organize its products in different families:[19]

• Physical metrics used to evaluate inventory systems include stocking capacity, selectivity, superficial utilization, volumetric utilization, transport capacity, transport capacity utilization.
• Monetary metrics used include space holding costs (building, shelving and services) and handling costs (people, handling machinery, energy and maintenance).

Other metrics may present themselves in both physical or monetary form, such as the standard Inventory turnover.

### Handling and order processing

Unit loads for transportation of luggage at the airport. In this case the unit load has protective function.

Unit loads are combinations of individual items which are moved by handling systems, usually employing a pallet of normed dimensions.[20]

Handling systems include: trans-pallet handlers, counterweight handler, retractable mast handler, bilateral handlers, trilateral handlers, AGV and

handlers. Storage systems include: pile stocking, cell racks (either static or movable), cantilever racks and gravity racks.[21]

Order processing is a sequential process involving: processing withdrawal list, picking (selective removal of items from loading units), sorting (assembling items based on destination), package formation (weighting, labeling and packing), order consolidation (gathering packages into loading units for transportation, control and bill of lading).[22]

Picking can be both manual or automated. Manual picking can be both man to goods, i.e. operator using a cart or conveyor belt, or goods to man, i.e. the operator benefiting from the presence of a mini-load ASRS, vertical or horizontal carousel or from an Automatic Vertical Storage System (AVSS). Automatic picking is done either with dispensers or depalletizing robots.

Sorting can be done manually through carts or conveyor belts, or automatically through sorters.

### Transportation

Cargo, i.e. merchandise being transported, can be moved through a variety of transportation means and is organized in different shipment categories. Unit loads are usually assembled into higher standardized units such as: ISO containers, swap bodies or semi-trailers. Especially for very long distances, product transportation will likely benefit from using different transportation means: multimodal transport, intermodal transport (no handling) and combined transport (minimal road transport). When moving cargo, typical constraints are maximum weight and volume.

Operators involved in transportation include: all train, road vehicles, boats, airplanes companies, couriers, freight forwarders and multi-modal transport operators.

Merchandise being transported internationally is usually subject to the Incoterms standards issued by the International Chamber of Commerce.

### Configuration and management

Push-back rack for motorcycles, a LIFO rack system for storage

Similarly to production systems, logistic systems need to be properly configured and managed. Actually a number of methodologies have been directly borrowed from operations management such as using Economic Order Quantity models for managing inventory in the nodes of the network.[23] Distribution resource planning (DRP) is similar to MRP, except that it doesn't concern activities inside the nodes of the network but planning distribution when moving goods through the links of the network.

Traditionally in logistics configuration may be at the level of the warehouse (node) or at level of the distribution system (network).

Regarding a single warehouse, besides the issue of designing and building the warehouse, configuration means solving a number of interrelated technical-economic problems: dimensioning rack cells, choosing a palletizing method (manual or through robots), rack dimensioning and design, number of racks, number and typology of retrieval systems (e.g. stacker cranes). Some important constraints have to be satisfied: fork and load beams resistance to bending and proper placement of sprinklers. Although picking is more of a tactical planning decision than a configuration problem, it is important to take it into account when deciding the racks layout inside the warehouse and buying tools such as handlers and motorized carts since once those decisions are taken they will work as constraints when managing the warehouse, same reasoning for sorting when designing the conveyor system or installing automatic dispensers.

Configuration at the level of the distribution system concerns primarily the problem of location of the nodes in a geographic space and distribution of capacity among the nodes. The first may be referred to as facility location (with the special case of site selection) while the latter to as capacity allocation. The problem of outsourcing typically arises at this level: the nodes of a supply chain are very rarely owned by a single enterprise. Distribution networks can be characterized by numbers of levels, namely the number of intermediary nodes between supplier and consumer:

• Direct store delivery, i.e. zero levels
• One level network: central warehouse
• Two level network: central and peripheral warehouses

This distinction is more useful for modeling purposes, but it relates also to a tactical decision regarding safety stocks: considering a two level network, if safety inventory is kept only in peripheral warehouses then it is called a dependent system (from suppliers), if safety inventory is distributed among central and peripheral warehouses it is called an independent system (from suppliers).[19] Transportation from producer to the second level is called primary transportation, from the second level to consumer is called secondary transportation.

Although configuring a distribution network from zero is possible, logisticians usually have to deal with restructuring existing networks due to presence of an array of factors: changing demand, product or process innovation, opportunities for outsourcing, change of government policy toward trade barriers, innovation in transportation means (both vehicles or thoroughfares), introduction of regulations (notably those regarding pollution) and availability of ICT supporting systems (e.g. ERP or e-commerce).

Once a logistic system is configured, management, meaning tactical decisions, takes place, once again, at the level of the warehouse and of the distribution network. Decisions have to be made under a set of constraints: internal, such as using the available infrastructure, or external, such as complying with given product shelf lifes and expiration dates.

At the warehouse level, the logistician must decide how to distribute merchandise over the racks. Three basic situations are traditionally considered: shared storage, dedicated storage (rack space reserved for specific merchandise) and class based storage (class meaning merchandise organized in different areas according to their access index).

Airline logistic network. Denver works as a hub in the network.

Picking efficiency varies greatly depending on the situation.[22] For man to goods situation, a distinction is carried out between high level picking (vertical component significant) and low level picking (vertical component insignificant). A number of tactical decisions regarding picking must be made:

• Routing path: standard alternatives include transversal routing, return routing, midpoint routing and largest gap return routing
• Replenishment method: standard alternatives include equal space supply for each product class and equal time supply for each product class.
• Picking logic: order picking vs batch picking

At the level of the distribution network, tactical decisions involve mainly inventory control and delivery path optimization. Note that the logistician may be required to manage the reverse flow along with the forward flow.

### Warehouse management and control

Although there is some overlap in functionality, warehouse management systems (WMS) can differ significantly from warehouse control systems (WCS). Simply put, a WMS plans a weekly activity forecast based on such factors as statistics and trends, whereas a WCS acts like a floor supervisor, working in real time to get the job done by the most effective means. For instance, a WMS can tell the system that it is going to need five of stock-keeping unit (SKU) A and five of SKU B hours in advance, but by the time it acts, other considerations may have come into play or there could be a logjam on a conveyor. A WCS can prevent that problem by working in real time and adapting to the situation by making a last-minute decision based on current activity and operational status. Working synergistically, WMS and WCS can resolve these issues and maximize efficiency for companies that rely on the effective operation of their warehouse or distribution center.[24]

### Logistics outsourcing

Logistics outsourcing involves a relationship between a company and an LSP (logistic service provider), which, compared with basic logistics services, has more customized offerings, encompasses a broad number of service activities, is characterized by a long-term orientation, and thus has a strategic nature.[25]

Outsourcing does not have to be complete externalization to an LSP, but can also be partial:

Third-party logistics (3PL) involves using external organizations to execute logistics activities that have traditionally been performed within an organization itself.[26] According to this definition, third-party logistics includes any form of outsourcing of logistics activities previously performed in house. For example, if a company with its own warehousing facilities decides to employ external transportation, this would be an example of third-party logistics. Logistics is an emerging business area in many countries.

The concept of a fourth-party logistics (4PL) provider was first defined by Andersen Consulting (now Accenture) as an integrator that assembles the resources, planning capabilities, and technology of its own organization and other organizations to design, build, and run comprehensive supply chain solutions. Whereas a third-party logistics (3PL) service provider targets a single function, a 4PL targets management of the entire process. Some have described a 4PL as a general contractor that manages other 3PLs, truckers, forwarders, custom house agents, and others, essentially taking responsibility of a complete process for the customer.

### Horizontal alliances between logistics service providers

Horizontal business alliances often occur between logistics service providers, i.e., the cooperation between two or more logistics companies that are potentially competing.[27] In a horizontal alliance, these partners can benefit twofold. On one hand, they can " resources which are directly exploitable". In this example extending common transportation networks, their warehouse infrastructure and the ability to provide more complex service packages can be achieved by combining resources. On the other hand, partners can "access intangible resources, which are not directly exploitable". This typically includes know-how and information and, in turn, innovation.[27]

## Logistics automation

Automated storage and retrieval system used by the U.S. military, also used by business in conjunction with manual picking.

Logistics automation is the application of computer software or automated machinery to improve the efficiency of logistics operations. Typically this refers to operations within a warehouse or distribution center with broader tasks undertaken by supply chain management systems and enterprise resource planning systems.

Industrial machinery can typically identify products through either barcode or RFID technologies. Information in traditional bar codes is stored as a sequence of black and white bars varying in width, which when read by laser is translated into a digital sequence, which according to fixed rules can be converted into a decimal number or other data. Sometimes information in a bar code can be transmitted through radio frequency, more typically radio transmission is used in RFID tags. An RFID tag is card containing a memory chip and an antenna which transmits signals to a reader. RFID may be found on merchandise, animals, vehicles and people as well.

## Logistics: profession and organizations

A logistician is a professional logistics practitioner. Professional logisticians are often certified by professional associations. One can either work in a pure logistics company, such as a shipping line, airport, or freight forwarder, or within the logistics department of a company. However, as mentioned above, logistics is a broad field, encompassing procurement, production, distribution, and disposal activities. Hence, career perspectives are broad as well. A new trend in the industry are the 4PL, or fourth-party logistics, firms, consulting companies offering logistics services.

Some universities and academic institutions train students as logisticians, offering undergraduate and postgraduate programs. A university with a primary focus on logistics is Kühne Logistics University in Hamburg, Germany. It is non profit and supported by Kühne-Foundation of the logistics entrepreneur Klaus Michael Kühne.

The Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport (CILT), established in the United Kingdom in 1919, received a Royal Charter in 1926. The Chartered Institute is one of the professional bodies or institutions for the logistics and transport sectors that offers professional qualifications or degrees in logistics management. CILT programs can be studied at centers around UK, some of which also offer distance learning options.[28] The institute also have overseas branches namely The Chartered Institute of Logistics & Transport Australia (CILTA)[29] in Australia and Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport in Hong Kong (CILTHK)[30] in Hong Kong. In the UK, Logistics Management programs are conducted by many universities and professional bodies such as CILT. These programs are generally offered at the postgraduate level.

The Global Institute of Logistics established in New York in 2003 is a Think Tank for the profession and is primarily concerned with intercontinental maritime logistics. It is particularly concerned with container logistics and the role of the seaport authority in the maritime logistics chain.The Institute has developed a community of over 8,500 logisticians who act a global knowledge network committed to supporting the Institute's mission of contributing to the resolution of legacy challenges in global logistics. Challenges associated with the traditional approach of managing single transport modes, modal systems as stand-alone operations. The key to overcoming these legacy challenges is for the individual stakeholder groups within the logistics chain to actively engage with each other. The promotion of this agenda is the Institute's work.

The International Association of Public Health Logisticians (IAPHL) is a professional network that promotes the professional development of supply chain managers and others working in the field of public health logistics and commodity security, with particular focus on developing countries. The association supports logisticians worldwide by providing a community of practice, where members can network, exchange ideas, and improve their professional skills.[31]

### Logistics museums

There are many museums in the world which cover various aspects of practical logistics. These include museums of transportation, customs, packing, and industry-based logistics. However, only the following museums are fully dedicated to logistics:

General logistics:

Military logistics:

## References

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2. ^ Chambray (1832). "Observation sur Le Tableau Analytique des principales combinaisons De La Guerre, Et De Leurs Rapports Avec La Politique Des États: Pour Servir D'Introduction Au Traité Des Grandes Opérations Militaires par le général Jomini". Le Spectateur militaire: Recueil de science, d’art et d’histoire militaires (in French). 13: [https://books.google.com/books?id=N5s8AAAAYAAJ&dq=logistique&pg=PA19#v=onepage 19.
3. ^ J.Tepic, I.Tanackov, S.Gordan, ANCIENT LOGISTICS – HISTORICAL TIMELINE AND ETYMOLOGY, Technical Gazette 18, 2011 http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/67363071/ancient-logistics-historical-timeline-etymology
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5. ^ Material Handling & Logistics News http://mhlnews.com/global-supply-chain/council-logistics-management-become-council-supply-chain-management-professional
6. ^ CSCMP glossary "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 May 2016. Retrieved 10 September 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
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13. ^ Ayrault Dodge Theodore, Hannibal: A History of the Art of War Among the Carthaginians and Romans Down to the Battle of Pydna, 168 BC. Da Capo Press. 1995
14. ^ Troy T. Kirby, The Duke of Wellington and the Supply System During the Peninsula War, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform 2014
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16. ^ Joint Logistics Analysis Tool
17. ^ Mallik, Susan (2010). "Customer Service in Supply Chain Management". In Hossein Bidgoil (ed.). The Handbook of Technology Management: Supply Chain Management, Marketing and Advertising, and Global Management, vol 2 (1 ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-470-24948-2.
18. ^ McGinnis M. A., Military Logistics: Insights for Business Logistics, International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management Vol 22, 1992
19. ^ a b R. Ruggeri, A. Perego, Esercitazioni e temi d'esame di Logistica Industriale, CUSL 2002
20. ^
21. ^ Lambert D., Stock J., Ellsram L., Fundamentals of Logistics, McGraw-Hill 1998
22. ^ a b D.F. Bozutti, M.A. Bueno-Da-Costa, R. Ruggeri, Logística: Visão Global e Picking, EdUFSCar 2010
23. ^ Waters D., Logistics: An Introduction to Supply Chain Management, Palgrave Macmillan 2003
24. ^ John T. Phelan, Jr. P.E. Supply & Demand Chain Executive. Enom, Inc. Missing or empty |title= (help); Missing or empty |url= (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help)
25. ^ Wallenburg, Carl Marcus; Cahill, David L.; Michael Knemeyer, A.; Goldsby, Thomas J. (2011). "Commitment and Trust as Drivers of Loyalty in Logistics Outsourcing Relationships: Cultural Differences Between the United States and Germany". Journal of Business Logistics. 32: 83–98. doi:10.1111/j.2158-1592.2011.01008.x.
26. ^ Baziotopoulos (2008). "An Investigation of Logistics Outsourcing Practices In the Greek Manufacturing Sector". PhD thesis.
27. ^ a b Raue, J.S. & Wieland, A. (2015), The interplay of different types of governance in horizontal cooperations: a view on logistics service providers. The International Journal of Logistics Management, Vol. 26, No. 2.
28. ^ Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport UK
29. ^ Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport Australia
30. ^ Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport Hong Kong
31. ^

• Engels, Donald W. (1980). Alexander the Great and the Logistics of the Macedonian Army, University of California Press (194 pages). online
• Hess, Earl J. Civil War Logistics: A Study of Military Transportation (2017) online review
• Huston, James A. (1966). The Sinews of War: Army Logistics, 1775–1953, United States Army (789 pages). online
• Handfield, R.B., Straube, F., Pfohl, H.C. & Wieland, A., Trends and Strategies in Logistics and Supply Chain Management: Embracing Global Logistics Complexity to Drive Market Advantage, BVL 2013
• Ronald H. Ballou, Samir K. Srivastava, Business Logistics: Supply Chain Management, Pearson Education, 2007
• Donald Bowersox, David Closs, M. Bixby Cooper, Supply Chain Logistics Management, McGraw-Hill 2012
• M. Christopher: Logistics & Supply Chain Management: creating value-adding networks, Prentice Hall 2010. online
• J. V. Jones: Integrated Logistics Support Handbook, McGraw-Hill Logistics Series 2006
• B. S. Blanchard: Logistics Engineering and Management, Pearson Prentice Hall 2004
• R.G. Poluha: The Quintessence of Supply Chain Management: What You Really Need to Know to Manage Your Processes in Procurement, Manufacturing, Warehousing and Logistics (Quintessence Series). First Edition. Springer Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London 2016. ISBN 978-3-662-48513-2
Air Force Materiel Command

Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) is a major command (MAJCOM) of the United States Air Force (USAF). AFMC was created on July 1, 1992, through the amalgamation of the former Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC) and the former Air Force Systems Command (AFSC).

AFMC is headquartered at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. AFMC is one of ten Air Force Major Commands and has a workforce of approximately 80,000 military and civilian personnel. It is the Air Force's largest command in terms of funding and second in terms of personnel. AFMC's operating budget represents 31 percent of the total Air Force budget and AFMC employs more than 40 percent of the Air Force's total civilian workforce.

The command conducts research, development, testing and evaluation, and provides the acquisition and life cycle management services and logistics support. The command develops, acquires and sustains the aerospace power needed to defend the United States and its interests. This is accomplished through research, development, testing, evaluation, acquisition, maintenance and program management of existing and future USAF weapon systems and their components.

Auxiliary ship

An auxiliary ship is a naval ship designed to operate in support of combatant ships and other naval operations. Auxiliaries are not primary combatants, although they may have some limited combat capacity, usually of a self-defence nature.

Auxiliaries are extremely important for navies of all sizes, as without them, the primary fleet vessels cannot be effective. Thus, nearly every navy maintains an extensive fleet of auxiliaries. However, the composition and size of these auxiliary fleets varies depending on the nature of each navy and its primary mission. Smaller coastal navies tend to have smaller auxiliary vessels focusing primarily on littoral and training support roles. Larger blue-water navies tend to have large auxiliary fleets comprising longer-range fleet support vessels designed to provide support far beyond territorial waters.

DHL

DHL (Dalsey, Hillblom and Lynn) International GmbH is an American founded German company which is now the international courier, parcel, and express mail division of the German logistics company Deutsche Post DHL. Deutsche Post DHL is the world's largest logistics company, particularly in sea and air mail. The company delivers over 1.3 billion parcels per year.The company was founded in the United States in 1969 and expanded its service throughout the world by the late 1970s. The company was primarily interested in offshore and intercontinental deliveries, but the success of FedEx prompted their own intra-US expansion starting in 1983.

In 1998, Deutsche Post began to acquire shares in DHL. It reached controlling interest in 2001, and acquired all outstanding shares by December 2002. The company then absorbed DHL into its Express division, while expanding the use of the DHL brand to other Deutsche Post divisions, business units, and subsidiaries. Today, DHL Express shares its DHL brand with business units such as DHL Global Forwarding and DHL Supply Chain. It gained a foothold in the United States when it acquired Airborne Express.

The DHL Express financial results are published in the Deutsche Post AG annual report. In 2016, this division's revenue increased by 2.7 per cent to €14 billion. The earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) increased by 11.3% over 2015 to €1.5 billion.

Deutsche Bahn

Deutsche Bahn AG (IPA: [ˈdɔʏtʃə baːn]; abbreviated as DB or DB AG) is a German railway company. Headquartered in Berlin, it is a private joint-stock company (AG), with the Federal Republic of Germany being its single shareholder.Deutsche Bahn describes itself as the second-largest transport company in the world, after the German postal and logistics company Deutsche Post / DHL, and is the largest railway operator and infrastructure owner in Europe. Deutsche Bahn was the largest railway company in the world by revenue in 2015. It carries about two billion passengers each year.

The group is divided into a large number of companies, including DB Fernverkehr (long-distance passenger), DB Regio (local passenger services) and DB Cargo (rail freight). The Group subsidiary DB Netz also operates large parts of the German railway infrastructure and thus the largest rail network in Europe.

In rail transport, the company generates about half of its total revenue. The other half of the operating business comprises the further transport and logistics business as well as various service providers. The company generates part of its sales through public transport contracts; Support will also be provided for maintenance and expansion of the infrastructure.

Passenger transport companies carried around 4.4 billion passengers in 2016 with their trains and buses. In 2016 DB logistics companies transported 277 million tons of goods in rail freight transport.

ExPRESS Logistics Carrier

An ExPRESS logistics carrier (ELC) is an unpressurized attached payload platform for the International Space Station (ISS) that provides mechanical mounting surfaces, electrical power, and command and data handling services for Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) as well as science experiments on the ISS. ("ExPRESS" stands for Expedite the Processing of Experiments to the Space Station.) The ELCs were developed primarily at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, with support from JSC, KSC, and MSFC. ELC was formerly called "Express Pallet" and is the unpressurized counterpart to the pressurized ExPRESS Rack. An ELC provides scientists with a platform and infrastructure to deploy experiments in the vacuum of space without requiring a separate dedicated Earth-orbiting satellite.

ELCs interface directly with the ISS integrated truss common attach system (CAS). The P3 Truss has two such attach points called Unpressurised Cargo Carrier Attachment System (UCCAS) mechanisms, one facing zenith (space facing) called UCCAS-1, the other facing nadir (earth facing) called UCCAS-2. Whereas the S3 Truss has four similar locations called Payload Attachment System (PAS) mechanisms, two facing Zenith (PAS-1 and PAS-2), and two facing Nadir (PAS-3 and PAS-4).

List of United States Marine Corps regiments

This is a list of United States Marine Corps regiments, sorted by status and number, with the current or most-recent type and division. Some of the inactive regiments are succeeded by active battalions.

Logistic function

A logistic function or logistic curve is a common "S" shape (sigmoid curve), with equation:

${\displaystyle f(x)={\frac {L}{1+e^{-k(x-x_{0})}}}}$

where

For values of x in the domain of real numbers from −∞ to +∞, the S-curve shown on the right is obtained, with the graph of f approaching L as x approaches +∞ and approaching zero as x approaches −∞.

The logistic function finds applications in a range of fields, including artificial neural networks, biology (especially ecology), biomathematics, chemistry, demography, economics, geoscience, mathematical psychology, probability, sociology, political science, linguistics, and statistics.

Marine expeditionary unit

Marine expeditionary units (MEU, pronounced "MEE-yoo") are the smallest air-ground task forces (MAGTF) in the United States Fleet Marine Force. Each MEU is an expeditionary quick reaction force, deployed and ready for immediate response to any crisis, whether it be natural disaster or combat missions. Marine amphibious unit (MAU) was the name used until the late 1980s.

An MEU is normally composed of: a reinforced USMC infantry battalion (designated as a Battalion Landing Team) as the ground combat element, a composite medium tiltrotor squadron forming the aviation combat element, a combat logistics battalion providing the logistics combat element, and a company-size command element serving as the MEU headquarters group. Troop strength is about 2,200 members and usually commanded by a colonel, and is deployed from amphibious assault ships. Currently, an MEU embarks men and equipment onto the amphibious warfare ships of an expeditionary strike group (ESG) which also includes escort warships and submarines to protect them from air, surface, and submarine threats. For further protection and strong air support, an ESG is often deployed along with one or more carrier strike groups.

Military logistics

Military logistics is the discipline of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. In its most comprehensive sense, it is those aspects or military operations that deal with:

Design, development, acquisition, storage, distribution, maintenance, evacuation, and disposition of materiel.

Transport of personnel.

Acquisition or construction, maintenance, operation, and disposition of facilities.

Acquisition or furnishing of services.

Medical and health service support.

Ministry of Defence and Armed Forces Logistics (Iran)

The Ministry of Defence and Armed Forces Logistics (MODAFL; Persian: وزارت دفاع و پشتیبانی نیروهای مسلح‎) is the defence ministry of the Islamic Republic of Iran, reestablished in 1989.

The ministry is responsible for planning, logistics and funding of the Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran, while the General Staff, a separate institution under command of the supreme leader of Iran, has control over the forces. The ministry is considered one of the three "sovereign" ministerial bodies of Iran due to nature of its work at home and abroad.

Multi-Purpose Logistics Module

A Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) was a large pressurized container used on Space Shuttle missions to transfer cargo to and from the International Space Station (ISS). Two MPLMs made a dozen trips in the Shuttle cargo bay and initially berthed to the Unity module and later the Harmony module on the ISS. From there, supplies were offloaded, and finished experiments and waste were reloaded. The MPLM was then reberthed in the Shuttle for return to Earth. Three modules were built by the Italian Space Agency (ASI): Leonardo, Raffaello, and Donatello.The Leonardo module was modified in 2010 to turn it into the Permanent Multipurpose Module (PMM) and was permanently attached to the ISS during the STS-133 mission in March 2011. The Raffaello module in July 2011 was the last ever payload of a NASA Space Shuttle. It returned with the Shuttle and was stored at the Kennedy Space Center. The Donatello module never launched.

There were 37 Space Shuttle missions to the ISS. MPLMs were flown twelve times, with the Spacelab modules it was derived from flown nine times to ISS.

Pakistan Navy School of Logistics and Management

The Pakistan Navy School of Logistics and Management, is an accredited and an academic university operated by the Pakistan Navy. The School of Logistics and Management located at Karsaz in Karachi, Sindh Province. And, it grants academic degrees in Logistics, Military and Political Science, War studies, Strategic studies, Business Administration, and Defence Sciences. The SLM student population is mostly active-duty naval officers, although Pakistan Government civilians and members of foreign militaries can also matriculate under a variety of programs. Most of the faculty are civilians.

The Air Force Institute of Aviation Technology (AFAT) serves a similar purpose for the Pakistan Air Force. The Pakistan Army Command and Staff College does likewise for the Pakistan Army.

Reliance Industries Limited

Reliance Industries Limited (RIL) is an Indian conglomerate holding company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. Reliance owns businesses across India engaged in energy, petrochemicals, textiles, natural resources, retail, and telecommunications. Reliance is one of the most profitable companies in India, the largest publicly traded company in India by market capitalization, and the largest company in India as measured by revenue after recently surpassing the government-controlled Indian Oil Corporation. On 18 October 2007, Reliance Industries became the first Indian company to breach $100 billion market capitalization.The company is ranked 148th on the Fortune Global 500 list of the world's biggest corporations as of 2018. It is ranked 8th among the Top 250 Global Energy Companies by Platts as of 2016. Reliance continues to be India’s largest exporter, accounting for 8% of India's total merchandise exports with a value of Rs 147,755 crore and access to markets in 108 countries. Reliance is responsible for almost 5% of the government of India's total revenues from customs and excise duty. It is also the highest income tax payer in the private sector in India. S.H.I.E.L.D. S.H.I.E.L.D. is a fictional espionage, special law enforcement, and counter-terrorism agency appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby in Strange Tales #135 (Aug. 1965), it often deals with paranormal and superhuman threats. The acronym originally stood for Supreme Headquarters, International Espionage and Law-Enforcement Division. It was changed in 1991 to Strategic Hazard Intervention Espionage Logistics Directorate. Within the various films set in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, as well as multiple animated and live-action television series, the backronym stands for Strategic Homeland Intervention, Enforcement and Logistics Division.The organization has heavily appeared in media adaptations as well as films and shows that take place in the Marvel Cinematic Universe. Supply-chain management In commerce, supply-chain management (SCM), the management of the flow of goods and services, involves the movement and storage of raw materials, of work-in-process inventory, and of finished goods from point of origin to point of consumption. Interconnected or interlinked networks, channels and node businesses combine in the provision of products and services required by end customers in a supply chain. Supply-chain management has been defined as the "design, planning, execution, control, and monitoring of supply-chain activities with the objective of creating net value, building a competitive infrastructure, leveraging worldwide logistics, synchronizing supply with demand and measuring performance globally." SCM practice draws heavily from the areas of industrial engineering, systems engineering, operations management, logistics, procurement, information technology, and marketing and strives for an integrated approach. Marketing channels play an important role in supply-chain management. Current research in supply-chain management is concerned with topics related to sustainability and risk management, among others. Some suggest that the “people dimension” of SCM, ethical issues, internal integration, transparency/visibility, and human capital/talent management are topics that have, so far, been underrepresented on the research agenda. Supply chain In business and finance, supply chain is a system of organizations, people, activities, information, and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer. Supply chain activities involve the transformation of natural resources, raw materials, and components into a finished product that is delivered to the end customer. In sophisticated supply chain systems, used products may re-enter the supply chain at any point where residual value is recyclable. Supply chains link value chains. Third-party logistics Third-party logistics (abbreviated as 3PL, or TPL) in logistics and supply chain management is an organization's use of third-party businesses to outsource elements of its distribution, warehousing, and fulfillment services. Third-party logistics providers typically specialize in integrated operations of warehousing and transportation services that can be scaled and customized to customers' needs, based on market conditions, to meet the demands and delivery service requirements for their products. Often, services exceed logistics to include value-added services related to the production or procurement of goods, such as services that integrate parts of the supply chain. A provider of such integrated services are referenced as a third-party supply chain management provider (3PSCM), or as a supply chain management service provider (SCMSP). 3PL targets particular functions within supply management, such as warehousing, transportation, or raw material provision.The global 3PL market reached$75 billion in 2014, and grew to \$157 billion in the US; demand growth for 3PL services in the US (7.4% YoY) outpaced the growth of the US economy in 2014. As of 2014, 80 percent of all Fortune 500 companies and 96 percent of Fortune 100 used some form of 3PL services.

Warehouse

A warehouse is a building for storing goods. Warehouses are used by manufacturers, importers, exporters, wholesalers, transport businesses, customs, etc. They are usually large plain buildings in industrial parks on the outskirts of cities, towns or villages.

They usually have loading docks to load and unload goods from trucks. Sometimes warehouses are designed for the loading and unloading of goods directly from railways, airports, or seaports. They often have cranes and forklifts for moving goods, which are usually placed on ISO standard pallets loaded into pallet racks. Stored goods can include any raw materials, packing materials, spare parts, components, or finished goods associated with agriculture, manufacturing, and production. In India, a warehouse may be referred to as a godown.

XPO Logistics

XPO Logistics, Inc. (NYSE: XPO) is a U.S. corporation and one of the world's 10 largest providers of transportation and logistics services. It operates as a third-party provider or 3PL in 32 countries and has over 50,000 customers, including 69 of the Fortune 100. XPO's corporate headquarters is located in Greenwich, Connecticut. Its European headquarters is located in Lyon, France.

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