Locust

Locusts are certain species of short-horned grasshoppers in the family Acrididae that have a swarming phase. These insects are usually solitary, but under certain circumstances they become more abundant and change their behaviour and habits, becoming gregarious. No taxonomic distinction is made between locust and grasshopper species; the basis for the definition is whether a species forms swarms under intermittently suitable conditions. These grasshoppers are innocuous, their numbers are low, and they do not pose a major economic threat to agriculture. However, under suitable conditions of drought followed by rapid vegetation growth, serotonin in their brains triggers a dramatic set of changes: they start to breed abundantly, becoming gregarious and nomadic (loosely described as migratory) when their populations become dense enough. They form bands of wingless nymphs which later become swarms of winged adults. Both the bands and the swarms move around and rapidly strip fields and cause damage to crops. The adults are powerful fliers; they can travel great distances, consuming most of the green vegetation wherever the swarm settles.[1]

Locusts have formed plagues since prehistory. The ancient Egyptians carved them on their tombs and the insects are mentioned in the Iliad, the Bible and the Quran. Swarms have devastated crops and been a contributory cause of famines and human migrations. More recently, changes in agricultural practices and better surveillance of locations where swarms tend to originate, have meant that control measures can be used at an early stage. The traditional means of control are based on the use of insecticides from the ground or the air, but other methods using biological control are proving effective.

Swarming behaviour decreased in the 20th century, but despite modern surveillance and control methods, the potential for swarms to form is still present, and when suitable climatic conditions occur and vigilance lapses, plagues can still occur. Locusts are large insects and convenient for use in research and the study of zoology in the classroom. They are also edible insects; they have been eaten throughout history and are considered a delicacy in many countries. The word "locust" is derived from the Latin Vulgate locusta, meaning grasshopper.[2]

Locusta-migratoria-wanderheuschrecke
Locusts are grasshoppers, such as this migratory locust (Locusta migratoria), that have entered into a migratory phase of their life.
Garden locust (Acanthacris ruficornis)
Garden locust Acanthacris ruficornis in Ghana
CSIRO ScienceImage 7007 Plague locusts on the move
Millions of swarming Australian plague locusts on the move

Swarming grasshoppers

SGR laying
A desert locust ovipositing in sand

Locusts are the swarming phase of certain species of short-horned grasshoppers in the family Acrididae. These insects are usually solitary, but under certain circumstances become more abundant and change their behaviour and habits, becoming gregarious.[3][4][5]

Copulating desert locust pair
Desert locusts in copulation

No taxonomic distinction is made between locust and grasshopper species; the basis for the definition is whether a species forms swarms under intermittently suitable conditions. In English, the term "locust" is used for grasshopper species that change morphologically and behaviourally on crowding, forming swarms that develop from bands of immature stages called hoppers.

These changes are examples of phase polymorphism; they were first analysed and described by Boris Uvarov, who was instrumental in setting up the Anti-Locust Research Centre.[6] He made his discoveries during his studies of the Migratory locust in Caucasus, whose solitary and gregarious phases had previously been thought to be separate species (Locusta migratoria and L. danica L.). He designated the two phases as solitaria and gregaria.[7] These are also referred to as statary and migratory morphs, though strictly speaking, their swarms are nomadic rather than migratory. Charles Valentine Riley and Norman Criddle were also involved in achieving the understanding and control of locusts.[8][9]

Swarming behaviour is a response to overcrowding. Increased tactile stimulation of the hind legs causes an increase in levels of serotonin.[10] This causes the locust to change colour, eat much more, and breed much more easily. The transformation of the locust to the swarming form is induced by several contacts per minute over a four-hour period.[11] A large swarm can consist of billions of locusts spread out over an area of thousands of square kilometres, with a population of up to 80 million per square kilometre (200 million per square mile).[12] When desert locusts meet, their nervous systems release serotonin, which causes them to become mutually attracted, a prerequisite for swarming.[13][14]

The initial bands of gregarious hoppers are known as "outbreaks", and when these join together into larger groups, the event is known as an "upsurge". Continuing agglomerations of upsurges on a regional level originating from a number of entirely separate breeding locations are known as "plagues".[15] During outbreaks and the early stages of upsurges, only part of the locust population becomes gregarious, with scattered bands of hoppers spread out over a large area. As time goes by, the insects become more cohesive and the bands become concentrated in a smaller area. In the desert locust plague in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia that lasted from 1966 to 1969, the number of locusts increased from two to 30 billion over two generations, but the area covered decreased from over 100,000 square kilometres (39,000 sq mi) to 5,000 square kilometres (1,900 sq mi).[16]

Solitary and gregarious phases

DesertLocust.jpeg
Solitaria (grasshopper) and gregaria (swarming) phases of the desert locust

One of the greatest differences between the solitary and gregarious phases is behavioural. The gregaria nymphs are attracted to each other, this being seen as early as the second instar. They soon form bands of many thousands of individuals. These groups behave like cohesive units and move across the landscape, mostly downhill, but making their way around barriers and merging with other bands. The attraction between the insects seems to be largely visual, but also involves olfactory cues, and the band seem to navigate using the sun. They pause to feed at intervals before resuming their march, and may cover tens of kilometres over a few weeks.[7]

Also, differences in morphology and development are seen. In the desert locust and the migratory locust, for example, the gregaria nymphs become darker with strongly contrasting yellow and black markings, they grow larger, and have longer developmental periods. The adults are larger with different body proportions, less sexual dimorphism, and higher metabolic rates. They mature more rapidly and start reproducing earlier, but have lower levels of fecundity.[7]

The mutual attraction between individual insects continues into adulthood, and they continue to act as a cohesive group. Individuals that get detached from a swarm fly back into the mass. Others that get left behind after feeding, take off to rejoin the swarm when it passes overhead. When individuals at the front of the swarm settle to feed, others fly past overhead and settle in their turn, the whole swarm acting like a rolling unit with an ever-changing leading edge. The locusts spend much time on the ground feeding and resting, moving on when the vegetation is exhausted. They may then fly a considerable distance before settling in a location where transitory rainfall has caused a green flush of new growth.[7]

Distribution and diversity

Several species of grasshoppers swarm as locusts in different parts of the world, on all continents except Antarctica and North America:[17][18][19][a] For example, the Australian plague locust (Chortoicetes terminifera) swarms across Australia.[17]

The desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) is probably the best known species owing to its wide distribution (North Africa, Middle East, and Indian subcontinent)[17] and its ability to migrate over long distances. A major infestation covered much of western Africa in 2003-4, after unusually heavy rain set up favourable ecological conditions for swarming. The first outbreaks occurred in Mauritania, Mali, Niger, and Sudan in 2003. The rain allowed swarms to develop and move north to Morocco and Algeria, threatening croplands.[21][22] Swarms crossed Africa, appearing in Egypt, Jordan and Israel, the first time in those countries for 50 years.[23][24] The cost of handling the infestation was put at US$122 million, and the damage to crops at up to $2.5 billion.[25]

The migratory locust (Locusta migratoria), sometimes classified into up to 10 subspecies, swarms in Africa, Asia, Australia, and New Zealand, but has become rare in Europe.[26] In 2013, the Madagascan form of the migratory locust formed many swarms of over a billion insects, reaching "plague" status and covering about half the country by March 2013.[27] Species such as the Senegalese grasshopper (Oedaleus senegalensis)[28] and the African rice grasshopper (Hieroglyphus daganensis), both from the Sahel, often display locust-like behaviour and change morphologically on crowding.[28]

North America is currently the only continent besides Antarctica without a native locust species. The Rocky Mountain locust was formerly one of the most significant insect pests there, but it became extinct in 1902. In the 1930s, during the Dust Bowl, a second species of North American locust, the High Plains locust (Dissosteira longipennis) reached plague proportions in the American Midwest. Today, the High Plains locust is a rare species, leaving North America with no regularly swarming locusts.

Interaction with humans

Ancient times

Maler der Grabkammer des Horemhab 002
Locust detail from a hunt mural in the grave-chamber of Horemhab, Ancient Egypt, circa 1422–1411 BC

Study of literature shows how pervasive plagues of locusts were over the course of history. The insects arrived unexpectedly, often after a change of wind direction or weather, and the consequences were devastating. The Ancient Egyptians carved locusts on tombs in the period 2470 to 2220 BC, and a devastating plague is mentioned in the Book of Exodus in the Bible, as taking place in Egypt around 1446 BC.[16][29] The Iliad mentions locusts taking to the wing to escape fire.[30] Plagues of locusts are also mentioned in the Quran.[12] In the ninth century BC, the Chinese authorities appointed anti-locust officers.[31]

Aristotle studied locusts and their breeding habits and Livy recorded a devastating plague in Capua in 203 BC. He mentioned human epidemics following locust plagues which he associated with the stench from the putrifying corpses; the linking of human disease outbreaks to locust plagues was widespread. A pestilence in the northwestern provinces of China in 311 AD that killed 98% of the population locally was blamed on locusts, and may have been caused by an increase in numbers of rats (and their fleas) that devoured the locust carcases.[31]

More recent times

Diagrams of Locusts which swarmed over England in 1748
Locusts which swarmed over England in 1748: Drawing by De la Cour; engraved by R. White, in Thomas Pennant's A Tour in Wales, 1781

During the last two millennia, locust plagues continued to appear at irregular intervals with the main recorded outbreaks of the desert and migratory locusts occurring in Africa, the Middle East, and Europe. Other species of locusts caused havoc in North and South America, Asia, and Australasia; 173 outbreaks over a period of 1924 years have been recorded in China.[31] The Bombay locust (Nomadacris succincta) was a major pest in India and southeastern Asia in the 18th and 19th centuries, but has seldom swarmed since the last plague in 1908.[32]

In the spring of 1747 locusts arrived outside Damascus eating the majority of the crops and vegetation of the surrounding countryside. One local barber, Ahmad al-Budayri, recalled the locusts "came like a black cloud. They covered everything: the trees and the crops. May God Almighty save us!"[33]

The extinction of the Rocky Mountain locust has been a source of puzzlement. It had swarmed throughout the west of the United States and parts of Canada in the 19th century. Albert's swarm of 1875 was estimated to cover 198,000 square miles (510,000 km2) (greater than the area of California) and to weigh 27.5 million tons, with some 12.5 trillion insects.[34] The last specimen was seen alive in Canada in 1902. Recent research suggests the breeding grounds of this insect in the valleys of the Rocky Mountains came under sustained agricultural development during the large influx of gold miners,[35] destroying the underground eggs of the locust.[36][37]

Monitoring

Eugenio Morales en el Sáhara Español (1942)
Eugenio Morales Agacino on expedition monitoring locusts in the desert of Spanish Sahara, 1942

Early intervention is a more successful means of dealing with locusts than later action when swarms have already built up. The technology to control locust populations is now available, but the organisational, financial, and political problems may be difficult to overcome. Monitoring is the key to reducing damage, with the early detection and eradication of bands being the objective. Ideally, a sufficient proportion of nomadic bands can be treated with insecticide before the swarming phase is reached. Reaching this objective may be possible in richer countries like Morocco and Saudi Arabia, but neighbouring poorer countries ( Mauritania, Yemen ) lack the resources and may act as a source of locust swarms that threaten the whole region.[12]

Several organisations around the world monitor the threat from locusts. They provide forecasts detailing regions likely to suffer from locust plagues in the near future. In Australia, this service is provided by the Australian Plague Locust Commission.[38] It has been very successful with dealing with developing outbreaks, but has the great advantage of having a defined area to monitor and defend without locust invasions from elsewhere.[39] In Central and Southern Africa, the service is provided by the International Locust Control Organization for Central and Southern Africa.[40] In West and Northwest Africa, the service is co-ordinated by the Food and Agriculture Organization's Commission for Controlling the Desert Locust in the Western Region, and executed by locust control agencies belonging to each country concerned.[41] The FAO also monitors the situation in the Caucasus and Central Asia, where over 25 million hectares of cultivated land are under threat.[42]

Control

Flaming Locusts in 1915
Preparing to flame locusts in Palestine, 1915

Historically, people could do little to protect their crops from being devastated by locusts, although eating the insects may have been some consolation. By the early 20th century, efforts were being made to disrupt the development of the insects by cultivating the soil where eggs were laid, collecting hoppers with catching machines, killing them with flamethrowers, trapping them in ditches, and crushing them with rollers and other mechanical methods.[16] By the 1950s, the organochloride dieldrin was found to be an extremely effective insecticide, but it was later banned from use in most countries because of its persistence in the environment and its bioaccumulation in the food chain.[16]

Cessna spraying red locusts in Iku Katavi NP
Cessna of the International Red Locust Control Organization spraying red locusts in Iku Katavi National Park, Tanzania, 2009

In years when locust control is needed, the hoppers are targeted early by applying water-based, contact pesticides using tractor-based sprayers. This is effective but slow and labour-intensive, and where possible, spraying concentrated insecticide solutions from aircraft over the insects or the vegetation on which they feed is preferable.[43] The use of ultralow-volume spraying of contact pesticides from aircraft in overlapping swathes is effective against nomadic bands and can be used to treat large areas of land swiftly.[39] Other modern technologies used for planning locust control include GPS, GIS tools, and satellite imagery, and computers provide rapid data management and analysis.[44][45]

CSIRO ScienceImage 1367 Locusts attacked by the fungus Metarhizium
Locusts killed by the naturally occurring fungus Metarhizium, an environmentally friendly means of biological control[46]

A biological pesticide to control locusts was tested across Africa by a multinational team in 1997.[47] Dried fungal spores of a Metarhizium acridum sprayed in breeding areas pierce the locust exoskeleton on germination and invade the body cavity, causing death.[48] The fungus is passed from insect to insect and persists in the area, making repeated treatments unnecessary.[49] This approach to locust control was used in Tanzania in 2009 to treat around 10,000 hectares in the Iku-Katavi National Park infested with adult locusts. The outbreak was contained and the elephants, hippopotamuses, and giraffes present in the area were unharmed.[40]

The ultimate goal in locust control is the use of preventive and proactive methods that disrupt the environment to the least possible extent. This would make agricultural production easier and more secure in the many regions where growing crops is of vital importance to the survival of the local people.[15]

As experimental models

The locust is large and easy to breed and rear, and is used as an experimental model in research studies. It has been used in evolutionary biology research and to discover to what degree conclusions reached about other organisms, such as the fruit fly (Drosophila) and the housefly (Musca), are applicable to all insects.[50][51] It is a suitable school laboratory animal because of its robustness and the ease with which it can be grown and handled.[52]

As food

Skewered locusts
Skewered locusts in Beijing, China

Locusts are edible insects. Several cultures throughout the world consume insects, and locusts are considered a delicacy and eaten in many African, Middle Eastern, and Asian countries. They have been used as food throughout history.[53]

They can be cooked in many ways, but are often fried, smoked, or dried.[54] The Bible records that John the Baptist ate locusts and wild honey (Greek: ἀκρίδες καὶ μέλι ἄγριον, romanizedakrides kai meli agrion) while living in the wilderness.[55] Attempts have been made to explain the locusts as some ascetic vegetarian food such as carob beans, but the plain meaning of akrides is the insects.[56][57]

The Torah, although disallowing the use of most insects as food, permits the consumption of certain locusts; specifically, the red, the yellow, the spotted grey, and the white are considered permissible.[58][59] In Islamic jurisprudence, eating locusts is considered halal.[60][59] The Islamic prophet, Muhammad, was reported to have eaten locusts during a military raid with his companions.[61]

Locusts are eaten in the Arabian Peninsula, including Saudi Arabia,[62] where consumption of locusts spiked around Ramadan especially in the Al-Qassim Region in 2014, since many Saudis believe they are healthy to eat. The Saudi Ministry of Health warned that pesticides they used against the locusts made them unsafe.[63][64] Yemenis also consume locusts, and expressed discontent over governmental plans to use pesticides to control them.[65] ʻAbd al-Salâm Shabînî described a locust recipe from Morocco.[66] 19th century European travellers observed Arabs in Arabia, Egypt, and Morocco selling, cooking, and eating locusts.[67] They reported that in Egypt and Palestine locusts were consumed.[68] They reported that in Palestine, around the River Jordan, in Egypt, in Arabia, and in Morocco that Arabs ate locusts, while Syrian peasants did not eat locusts.

In the Haouran region, Fellahs who were in poverty and suffered from famine ate locusts after removing the guts and head, while locusts were swallowed wholesale by Bedouins.[69] Syrians, Copts, Greeks, Armenians, and other Christians and Arabs themselves reported that in Arabia locusts were eaten frequently and one Arab described to a European traveler the different types of locusts which were favored as food by Arabs.[70][71] Persians use the Anti-Arab racial slur "Arabe malakh-khor" (Persian: عرب ملخ خور‎, literally Arab locust eater) against Arabs.[72][73][74][75]

Locusts yield about five times more edible protein per unit of fodder than cattle, and produce lower levels of greenhouse gases in the process.[76] The feed conversion rate of orthopterans is 1.7 kg/kg,[77] while for beef it is typically about 10 kg/kg.[78] The protein content in fresh weight is between 13–28 g/100g for adult locust, 14–18 g/100g for larvae, as compared to 19–26 g/100g for beef.[79][80] The calculated protein efficiency ratio is low, with 1.69 for locust protein compared to 2.5 for standard casein.[81] A serving of 100 g of desert locust provides 11.5 g of fat, 53.5% of which is unsaturated, and 286 mg of cholesterol.[81] Among the fatty acids, palmitoleic, oleic and linolenic acids were found to be the most abundant. Varying amounts of potassium, sodium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc were present.[81]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The American locust (Schistocerca americana) does not swarm.[20]

References

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  56. ^ Brock, Sebastian. "St John the Baptist's diet - according to some early Eastern Christian sources". St John's College, Oxford. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  57. ^ Kelhoffer, James A. (2004). "Did John The Baptist Eat Like A Former Essene? Locust-Eating In The Ancient Near East And At Qumran". Dead Sea Discoveries. 11 (3): 293–314. doi:10.1163/1568517042643756. JSTOR 4193332. There is no reason, however, to question the plausibility of Mark 1:6c, that John regularly ate these foods while in the wilderness.
  58. ^ "Are locusts really Kosher?! « Ask The Rabbi « Ohr Somayach". Ohr.edu. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
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External links

Carob

The carob (Ceratonia siliqua) is a flowering evergreen tree or shrub in the legume family, Fabaceae. It is widely cultivated for its edible pods, and as an ornamental tree in gardens and landscapes. The carob tree is native to the Mediterranean region and the Middle East.The ripe, dried, and sometimes toasted pod is often ground into carob powder, which is sometimes used to replace cocoa powder. Carob bars, an alternative to chocolate bars, as well as carob treats, are often available in health food stores. Carob pods are naturally sweet, not bitter, and contain no theobromine or caffeine.

The carat, a unit of mass for gemstones, and a measurement of purity for gold, takes its name from the Greek word for a carob seed, keration, via the Arabic word, qīrāṭ.

Gears of War

Gears of War is a video game franchise created by Epic Games, developed and managed by The Coalition, and owned and published by Xbox Game Studios. The series focuses on the conflict between humanity, the subterranean reptilian hominids known as the Locust Horde, and their mutated counterparts, the Lambent and the Swarm. The franchise consists of five third-person shooter video games, which has also been supplemented by a comic book series and five novels.

The first installment, titled Gears of War, was released on November 7, 2006 for the Xbox 360. The game follows protagonist Marcus Fenix, a soldier in the Coalition of Ordered Governments tasked to lead a last-ditch effort to destroy the Locust Horde and save humanity. Two subsequent titles, Gears of War 2 (2008) and Gears of War 3 (2011), continued Fenix and humanity's ongoing conflict with the Locust Horde and Lambent forces. In 2013, Epic Games and Microsoft released Gears of War: Judgment, a prequel to the series’ first title, which instead focuses on Damon Baird, one of Fenix's squad-mates. Gears of War: Ultimate Edition was released for Microsoft Windows on March 1, 2016. The series' third sequel, Gears of War 4, is set 25 years after Gears of War 3 and follows Marcus Fenix's son, JD, as he battles a new resurrected Locust Horde that once again threatens humanity.Gears of War was developed by Epic Games. Cliff Bleszinski, who has previously worked on Epic's Unreal Tournament games, served the series’ lead game designer for the first three installments. He was inspired by gameplay elements from Resident Evil 4, Kill Switch, and Bionic Commando. The series was also guided by Rod Fergusson, the executive producer and director of development of Epic Games until 2012. The first four installments of the Gears of War series used a modified version of the Unreal Engine 3 engine. On January 27, 2014, Microsoft acquired all rights to the franchise from Epic Games. Canadian studio The Coalition developed Gears of War 4, which was released on October 11, 2016 for the Xbox One and Windows 10.Gears of War became one of the best-selling franchises for the Xbox 360. The series is well known for its emphasis on cover-based combat, in which players can use objects to avoid gunfire or safely engage enemies. All five installments in Gears of War featured several multiplayer modes that allowed players to compete against each other or team-up to battle AI opponents on Xbox Live. The Gears of War games have been amongst the most popular and most played titles on Xbox Live.

Gears of War 2

Gears of War 2 is a military science fiction third-person shooter video game developed by Epic Games and published by Microsoft Game Studios for the Xbox 360. It is the second installment of the Gears of War series, with lead design by Cliff Bleszinski. The game was released in North America, Europe and Australia on November 7, 2008 and was released in Japan on July 30, 2009. The game expands technically on the previous game by using a modified Unreal Engine 3. The development team brought in comic book writer Joshua Ortega to help write the plot for the game.

In Gears of War 2, the COG continues its fight against the Locust horde, who are attempting to sink all of the cities on the planet Sera. Sergeant Marcus Fenix leads Delta Squad into the depths of the planet to try to stop the Locust during the assault upon Locust territory. The player controls Fenix in the main mission campaign, with the ability to play cooperatively with a second player controlling Fenix's best friend and fellow Squad member Dominic "Dom" Santiago. The game includes several existing and new multiplayer modes including five-on-five battles between human and Locust forces, and a "Horde" mode that challenges up to five players against waves of Locust forces with ever-increasing strength. New weapons and gameplay mechanics such as "chainsaw duels" and the ability to use downed foes as "meatshields" were added to the game.

On its release weekend, Gears of War 2 sold over two million copies, and within two months of release, had sold four million copies. It was the seventh best selling video game of 2009 and received several accolades. The game received similar praise as its predecessor, with the new gameplay and multiplayer modes seen as outstanding additions. It was followed by Gears of War 3 in 2011.

Grasshopper

Grasshoppers are a group of insects belonging to the suborder Caelifera. They are among what is probably the most ancient living group of chewing herbivorous insects, dating back to the early Triassic around 250 million years ago.

Grasshoppers are typically ground-dwelling insects with powerful hind legs which allow them to escape from threats by leaping vigorously. As hemimetabolous insects, they do not undergo complete metamorphosis; they hatch from an egg into a nymph or "hopper" which undergoes five moults, becoming more similar to the adult insect at each developmental stage. At high population densities and under certain environmental conditions, some grasshopper species can change color and behavior and form swarms. Under these circumstances, they are known as locusts.

Grasshoppers are plant-eaters, with a few species at times becoming serious pests of cereals, vegetables and pasture, especially when they swarm in their millions as locusts and destroy crops over wide areas. They protect themselves from predators by camouflage; when detected, many species attempt to startle the predator with a brilliantly-coloured wing-flash while jumping and (if adult) launching themselves into the air, usually flying for only a short distance. Other species such as the rainbow grasshopper have warning coloration which deters predators. Grasshoppers are affected by parasites and various diseases, and many predatory creatures feed on both nymphs and adults. The eggs are the subject of attack by parasitoids and predators.

Grasshoppers have had a long relationship with humans. Swarms of locusts can have devastating effects and cause famine, and even in smaller numbers, the insects can be serious pests. They are used as food in countries such as Mexico and Indonesia. They feature in art, symbolism and literature.

Historic Locust Grove

Historic Locust Grove is a 55-acre 18th-century farm site and National Historic Landmark situated in eastern Jefferson County, Kentucky. The site is owned by the Louisville Metro government, and operated as a historic interpretive site by Historic Locust Grove, Inc.

The main feature on the property is the ca. 1790 Georgian mansion that was the home of the Croghan family and gathering place for George Rogers Clark, Lewis and Clark, and U.S. Presidents. In addition to the mansion there is the Visitors Center that houses a gift shop, museum and meeting space.

Honey locust

The honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos), also known as the thorny locust, is a deciduous tree in the family Fabaceae, native to central North America where it is mostly found in the moist soil of river valleys. Honey locust is highly adaptable to different environments, has been introduced worldwide, and is an aggressive invasive species.

Locust, New Jersey

Locust (also known as Locust Point) is an unincorporated community located within Middletown Township in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States. It is situated along the north banks of the Navesink River and Claypit Creek. The area consists of mostly medium-to-large sized houses throughout the hilly terrain of this part of the township. The Oceanic Bridge connects Locust with Rumson to the south.

Locust Corner, New Jersey

Locust Corner is an unincorporated community located within East Windsor Township in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States. The corner itself refers to the intersection of Princeton-Hightstown Road, County Route 571, and Old Trenton Road, CR 535. To the southeast of the intersection is the western terminus of the Hightstown Bypass, New Jersey Route 133. Much of the area has developed into commercial office spaces including on what was once the site of RCA Astro Electronics' headquarters.

Locust Lake State Park

Locust Lake State Park is a Pennsylvania state park on 1,089 acres (441 ha) in Ryan Township, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania in the United States. Locust Lake State Park is located approximately 7 miles (11 km) north of Pottsville, 3 miles (5 km) south of Mahanoy City, 8 miles (13 km) west of Tamaqua and 6 miles (10 km) west of Tuscarora State Park. The lake is 52 acres (21 ha). The park offers hiking, camping, boating, fishing, swimming, biking, and a wide array of other seasonal activities.

Locust Manor station

Locust Manor is a station on the Long Island Rail Road's Atlantic Branch in the Locust Manor neighborhood of Queens, New York City. The station is located at Farmers Boulevard and Bedell Street and is 14.0 miles (22.5 km) from Penn Station in Midtown Manhattan. This station has two exits; one exit, adjacent to the Rochdale Village power house, is on the northeast portion of the sprawling Rochdale housing co-operative. At that end of the station, the staircase leads to a Bedell Street (southbound) walkway in between two private Rochdale parking lots, and to a northbound walkway leading to residential 134th Avenue. The southern exit leads to Farmers Boulevard, between Garrett and Bedell streets. There are short canopies near the exits. Ticket machines are at a pedestrian tunnel on the north (Rochdale Village) end of the station, at the base of the eastbound (Long Island-bound) LIRR station staircase.

The Far Rockaway Branch provides regular service while Long Beach Branch trains skip this station on weekdays. On weekends, the services are reversed. During peak hours, trains from both branches skip or stop here. One weekend overnight westbound Babylon Branch train also stops here.

The stop serves the Rochdale, Queens section and its Rochdale Village apartment complex, and was also the stop for the racecourse on which Rochdale Village was erected, Jamaica Race Course. Today it contains fiberglass populuxe designed shelters on high-level platforms.

Locust Point, Baltimore

Locust Point is a peninsular neighborhood in Baltimore, Maryland. Located in South Baltimore, the neighborhood is entirely surrounded by the Locust Point Industrial Area; the traditional boundaries are Lawrence street to the west and the Patapsco River to the north, south, and east. It once served as a center of Baltimore's Polish-American, Irish-American and Italian-American communities; in more recent years Locust Point has seen gradual gentrification with the rehabilitation of Tide Point and Silo Point. The neighborhood is also noted as being the home of Fort McHenry.Locust Point has been called "Baltimore's Ellis Island" because the neighborhood was once the third largest point of entry for immigrants to the United States after Ellis Island and the Port of Philadelphia. From 1868 until the closure of the Locust Point piers in 1914, 1.2 million European immigrants entered Baltimore through Locust Point.It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2012.

Locust Valley, New York

Locust Valley is a hamlet and census-designated place (CDP) located in Nassau County, New York. Locust Valley is an unincorporated area of the Town of Oyster Bay. As of the United States 2010 Census, the CDP population was 3,406. The area is commonly identified with its W.A.S.P and "White Shoe" culture surrounding a group of polo and golf clubs, primarily the secretive Piping Rock Club, as well as the equally prestigious Creek Club, in the neighboring incorporated villages of Matinecock and Lattingtown, respectively. The town is also known for Locust Valley lockjaw.

Figures ranging from the Duke of Windsor to John Lennon to Franklin D. Roosevelt have spent considerable time in Locust Valley.

Locust Valley station

Locust Valley is a station along the Oyster Bay Branch of the Long Island Rail Road. It is located at Birch Hill Road and Piping Rock Road, south of Forest Avenue, Locust Valley, New York.

No bus access is available at the station; however, local taxicabs do stop.

M22 Locust

The M22 Locust, officially Light Tank (Airborne), M22, was an American-designed airborne light tank which was produced during World War II. The Locust began development in 1941 after the British War Office requested that the American government design a purpose-built airborne light tank which could be transported by glider into battle to support British airborne forces. The War Office had originally selected the Light Tank Mark VII Tetrarch light tank for use by the airborne forces, but it had not been designed with that exact purpose in mind so the War Office believed that a purpose-built tank would be required to replace it. The United States Ordnance Department was asked to produce this replacement, which in turn selected Marmon-Herrington to design and build a prototype airborne tank in May 1941. The prototype was designated the Light Tank T9 (Airborne), and was designed so that it could be transported underneath a Douglas C-54 Skymaster transport aircraft, although its dimensions also allowed it to fit inside a General Aircraft Hamilcar glider.

After a series of modifications were made to the initial prototype, production of the T9 began in April 1943. It was significantly delayed, however, when several faults were found with the tank's design. Marmon-Herrington only began to produce significant numbers of the T9 in late 1943 and early 1944, and by then the design was considered to be obsolete; only 830 were built by the time production ended in February 1945. As a result, the Ordnance Department gave the tank the specification number M22 but no combat units were equipped with it. However, the War Office believed that the tank would perform adequately despite its faults, so the tank was given the title of "Locust" and 260 were shipped to Great Britain under the Lend-Lease Act. Seventeen Locusts were received by the 6th Airborne Armoured Reconnaissance Regiment in late 1943, but mechanical problems led to the tanks being withdrawn in favour of the Tetrarchs previously used by the regiment.

In October 1944 however, the remaining Tetrarchs of the regiment were replaced by Locusts and eight were used during Operation Varsity in March 1945. The tanks did not perform well in action; several were damaged during the landing process and one was knocked out by a German self-propelled gun. Only two Locusts were able to reach their planned rendezvous point and go into action, occupying a piece of high ground along with an infantry company. The tanks were forced to withdraw from the position after several hours however, because they attracted artillery fire that caused the infantry to suffer heavy casualties. The Locust never saw active service with the British Army again and was classified as obsolete in 1946. A number of Locusts were used by foreign militaries in the post-war period however; the Belgian Army used Locusts as command tanks for their M4 Sherman tank regiments, and the Egyptian Army used several company-sized units of Locusts during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.

Mid-Atlantic accent

The Mid-Atlantic accent, or Transatlantic accent, is an accent of English, blending together prestigious American and British English (Received Pronunciation) ways of speaking. Adopted in the early 20th century mostly by American aristocrats and actors, it is not a native vernacular or regional American accent. Instead, according to voice and drama professor Dudley Knight, it is an affected set of speech patterns whose "chief quality was that no Americans actually spoke it unless educated to do so". Primarily fashionable in the 1930s and 1940s, the accent was embraced in private independent preparatory schools, especially by members of the Northeastern upper class, as well as in schools for film and stage acting. The accent's overall use sharply declined following the Second World War.A similar accent, known as Canadian dainty, was also known in Canada in the same era, although it resulted from different historical processes. More generically, the term "mid-Atlantic accent" refers to any accent with a mixture of American and British characteristics.

National Register of Historic Places listings in Downtown and Downtown West St. Louis

This is a list of properties and historic districts within the Downtown St. Louis and Downtown West, St. Louis areas of the city of St. Louis, Missouri that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The downtown area is defined by Cole Street to the north, the river front to the east, Chouteau Avenue to the south, and Jefferson Avenue to the west. Tucker Avenue divides Downtown to the east from Downtown West to the west.

For other listings in the city, see National Register of Historic Places listings in St. Louis north and west of downtown and National Register of Historic Places listings in St. Louis south and west of downtown. For listings in St. Louis County, outside the city limits of St. Louis, see National Register of Historic Places listings in St. Louis County, Missouri.

Periodical cicadas

Magicicada is the genus of the 13-year and 17-year periodical cicadas of eastern North America. Although they are sometimes called "locusts", this is a misnomer, as cicadas belong to the taxonomic order Hemiptera (true bugs), suborder Auchenorrhyncha, while locusts are grasshoppers belonging to the order Orthoptera. Magicicada belongs to the cicada tribe Lamotialnini, a group of genera with representatives in Australia, Africa, and Asia, as well as the Americas.Magicicada species spend almost the full length of their long lives underground feeding on xylem fluids from the roots of deciduous forest trees in the eastern United States. In the spring of their 13th or 17th year, mature cicada nymphs emerge in the springtime at any given locality, synchronously and in tremendous numbers. After the prolonged developmental phase, the adults are active for only about 4 to 6 weeks. The males aggregate into chorus centers and attract mates. Mated females lay eggs in the stems of woody plants. Within two months of the original emergence, the lifecycle is complete and the adult cicadas disappear for another 13 or 17 years.

Robinia pseudoacacia

Robinia pseudoacacia, commonly known in its native territory as black locust, is a medium-sized hardwood deciduous tree endemic to a few small areas of the United States, but it has been widely planted and naturalized elsewhere in temperate North America, Europe, Southern Africa and Asia and is considered an invasive species in some areas. Another common name is false acacia, a literal translation of the specific name (pseudo meaning fake or false and acacia referring to the genus of plants with the same name.) It was introduced into Britain in 1636.

The Locust

The Locust is an American grindcore band from San Diego, California, United States known for their unique mix of grind speed and aggression, complexity, and new wave weirdness.The band is noted for their use of insect costumes when performing live.

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