Locrian Greek

Locrian Greek is an ancient Greek dialect that was spoken by the Locrians in Locris, Central Greece. It is a dialect of Northwest Greek. The Locrians were divided into two tribes, the Ozolian Locrians and the Opuntian Locrians, thus the Locrian dialect can be also divided in two branches, the Ozolian and Opuntian respectively. The traits of both dialects were described by Wilhelm Dittenberger, editor of the project Inscriptiones Graecae.[1]

Locrian Greek
RegionLocris
Era?
Language codes
ISO 639-3
grc-loc
GlottologNone

Ozolian Locrian

  • Dative plural of the third declension in -οις (-ois) instead of -σι (-si), a Northwest trait, e.g. πάντοις pantoisπᾶσι pasi, μειόνοις meionois — μείοσι meiosi
  • The adjective διπλειός dipleios instead of διπλοῦς diplous
  • The assimilation of κ (k) in the preposition ἐκ ek with the first consonant of the next word, e.g. ἐλ λιμένος e(l) limenosἐκ λιμένος ek limenos
  • The preposition κατά (kata) governs the genitive rather than the accusative, e.g. καθ'ὧν kath'ōnκαθ'ἅ kath'a

Opuntian Locrian

  • Dative plural of the third declension in -εσσι (-essi) instead of -οις (-ois), an Aeolic trait which was found in the Phocian dialect too, e.g. Κεφαλλάνεσσι Kephallanessi, χρημάτεσσι chrêmatessi
  • The infinitive in -εν (-en) instead of -ειν (-ein), e.g. ἀναγράφεν anagraphenἀναγράφειν anagraphein
  • The patronymic names are according to the name they define, an Aeolic trait, e.g. Δαναΐς Νικοτελεία Danais Nikoteleia — Δαναΐς Νικοτέλους Danais Nikotelous
  • The preposition κατά (kata) governs the genitive rather than the accusative, e.g. καθ'ὧν kath'ōnκαθ'ἅ kath'a

Glossary

  • δείλομαι deilomai will, want (Locrian and Delphian) (Attic boulomai) (Coan dêlomai) (Doric bôlomai) (Thessalian bellomai)
  • ϝέρρω Werrô go away (Attic errô) (Hsch. berrês fugitive, berreuô escape)
  • Ϝεσπάριοι Λοϟροὶ Wesparioi Lokroi Epizephyrian (Western) Locrians in Calabria (Attic hesperios of the evening, western, Doric wesperios) (cf. Latin Vesper) IG IX,1² 3:718
  • Λοϟροὶ τοὶ ͱυποκναμίδιοι Lokroi toi hypoknamidioi (Attic Lokroi hoi hypoknemidioi) Hypoknemidian Locrians; under mount Knemis IG IX,1² 3:718
  • ὀπλίαι opliai places where the Locrians counted their cattle

See also

References

  1. ^ Inscriptiones Graecae Septentrionalis, Pars I Inscriptiones Phocidis, Locridis, Aetoliae, Acarnaniae, Insularum maris Ionii, Berolini, 1897, IG. IX, I

External links

  • Fr. Bechtel. Die griechishe Dialekte, II. Berlin, 1923.
List of Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages include some 449 (SIL estimate, 2018 edition) languages and dialects spoken by about or more than 3.5 billion people (roughly half of the world population). Most of the major languages belonging to language branches and groups of Europe, and Western and southern Asia, belong to the Indo-European language family. Therefore, Indo-European is the biggest language family in the world by number of mother tongue speakers (but not by number of languages in which it is the 3rd or 5th biggest). Eight of the top ten biggest languages, by number of native speakers, are Indo-European. One of these languages, English, is the De facto World Lingua Franca with an estimate of over one billion second language speakers.

Each subfamily or linguistic branch in this list contains many subgroups and individual languages. Indo-European language family has 10 known branches or subfamilies, of which eight are living and two are extinct. The relation of Indo-European branches, how they are related to one another and branched from the ancestral proto-language is a matter of further research and not yet well known. There are some individual Indo-European languages that are unclassified within the language family, they are not yet classified in a branch and could be members of their own branch.

The 449 Indo-European languages identified in the SIL estimate, 2018 edition, are mostly living languages, however, if all the known extinct Indo-European languages are added, they number more than 800. This list includes all known Indo-European languages, living and extinct.

A distinction between a language and a dialect is not clear-cut and simple because there is, in many cases, several dialect continuums, transitional dialects and languages and also because there is no consensual standard to what amount of vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation and prosody differences there is a language or there is a dialect (mutual intelligibility can be a standard but there are closely related languages that are also mutual intelligible to some degree, even if it is an asymmetric intelligibility). Because of this, in this list, several dialect groups and some individual dialects of languages are shown (in italics), especially if a language is or was spoken by a large number of people and over a big land area, but also if it has or had divergent dialects.

The ancestral population and language, Proto-Indo-Europeans that spoke Proto-Indo-European, estimated to have lived about 4500 BCE (6500 BP), at some time in the past, starting about 4000 BCE (6000 BP) expanded through migration and cultural influence. This started a complex process of population blend or population replacement, acculturation and language change of peoples in many regions of western and southern Eurasia.

This process gave origin to many languages and branches of this language family.

At the end of the second millennium BC Indo-European speakers were many millions and lived in a vast geographical area in most of western and southern Eurasia (including western Central Asia).

In the following two millennia the number of speakers of Indo-European languages increased even further.

In geographical area, Indo-European languages remained spoken in big land areas, although most of western Central Asia and Asia Minor was lost to another language family (mainly Turkic) due to Turkic expansion, conquests and settlement (after the middle of the first millennium AD and the beginning and middle of the second millennium AD respectively) and also to Mongol invasions and conquests (that changed Central Asia ethnolinguistic composition). Another land area lost to non-Indo-European languages was today's Hungary due to Magyar/Hungarian (Uralic language speakers) conquest and settlement.

However, in the second half of the second millennium AD, Indo-European languages expanded their territories to North Asia (Siberia), through Russian expansion, and North America, South America, Australia and New Zealand as the result of the age of European discoveries and European conquests through the expansions of the Portuguese, Spanish, French, English and the Dutch (these peoples had the biggest continental or maritime empires in the world and their countries were major powers).

The contact between different peoples and languages, especially as a result of European colonization, also gave origin to the many pidgins, creoles and mixed languages that are mainly based in Indo-European languages (many of which are spoken in island groups and coastal regions).

List of extinct languages of Europe

This is a list of extinct languages of Europe, languages which have undergone language death, have no native speakers and no spoken descendant. As the vast majority of Europeans speak Indo-European languages, a result of the westward portion of the prehistoric Indo-European migrations, the bulk of the indigenous languages of Europe became extinct thousands of years ago without leaving any record of their existence as they were superseded by Celtic, Italic, Germanic, Balto-Slavic, Hellenic, and Iranian Indo-European languages. A small minority of these extinct languages, however, survived long enough to be attested.

On the other hand, many European Indo-European languages themselves, such as Gothic, have also become extinct. In some cases however, it is not known whether a language has a spoken descendant or not. For example, because of the uncertain origin of the Albanian language — aside from its being an Indo-European language — and because little remains of the ancient languages in question, it is disputed whether Dacian, Thracian or Illyrian have a spoken descendant, Albanian. And because of the scarcity of the evidence, it is not known whether Basque is a descendant of the Aquitanian language.

Although the Pomeranian language has a spoken descendant, the Kashubian language, the other dialects of Pomeranian are extinct.

Locrian

Locrian may refer to:

Locrians, an ancient Greek ethnic group

Locrian Greek, ancient Greek dialect spoken by the Locrians

Locris, the territory of the LocriansIn music:

Locrian mode, a musical mode or diatonic scale

Major Locrian scale, the scale obtained by sharpening the second and third degrees of the locrian mode

Locrian sharp 2 or Half diminished scale, a musical scale commonly used in jazz and some rock

Locrian (band), Chicago-based experimental music duo

Melinno

Melinno (Ancient Greek: Μελιννῶ) was a Greek lyric poet. She probably lived in the 2nd century BCE, and was probably from Epizephyrian Locris in Magna Graecia, but because little biographical material on her is available, this is uncertain. She is credited with the work commonly called Ode to Rome, which presents unique problems in the analysis of Greek poetry and is viewed as influential in the future course of Greek and Latin poetry. Her work has been characterised as "something of a sport, to which the extant remains of Greek poetry present no parallel."

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