Locri

Locri is a town and comune (municipality) in the province of Reggio Calabria, Calabria, southern Italy. The name derives from the ancient Greek region of Locris. Today it is an important administrative and cultural centre on the Ionian Coast, in the Italian Province of Reggio Calabria.

Locri
Città di Locri
Coat of arms of Locri

Coat of arms
Location of Locri
Locri is located in Italy
Locri
Locri
Location of Locri in Italy
Locri is located in Calabria
Locri
Locri
Locri (Calabria)
Coordinates: 38°12′57.65″N 16°13′43.62″E / 38.2160139°N 16.2287833°ECoordinates: 38°12′57.65″N 16°13′43.62″E / 38.2160139°N 16.2287833°E
CountryItaly
RegionCalabria
Metropolitan cityReggio Calabria (RC)
FrazioniMoschetta, San Fili, Baldari
Government
 • MayorGiuseppe Lombardo (from 2011)
Area
 • Total25.75 km2 (9.94 sq mi)
Population
 (2018-01-01)[2]
 • Total12,367
 • Density480/km2 (1,200/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Locresi
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
89044
Dialing code0964
Patron saintSt. Catherine
Saint dayNovember 24
WebsiteOfficial website

History

Epizephyrian Locris (Greek Ἐπιζεφύριοι Λοκροί; from ἐπί epi, "on", Ζέφυρος (Zephyros), West Wind, and the plural of Λοκρός, Lokros, "a Locrian," thus "The Western Locrians")[4] was founded about 680 BC on the Italian shore of the Ionian Sea, near modern Capo Zefirio, by the Locrians, apparently by Opuntii (East Locrians) from the city of Opus, but including Ozolae (West Locrians) and Lacedaemonians. Its Latin name, Locri, is the plural of the Latin Locrus, which was used both to mean an inhabitant of Locris and the eponymous ancestor of the Locrians. Strabo suggests that it was the Ozolae who were the main founders.

Locri Pinax Of Persephone And Hades
Pinax from Locris: Persephone and Hades sitting on the throne

Due to fierce winds at an original settlement, the settlers moved to the present site. After a century, a defensive wall was built. Outside the city there are several necropoleis, some of which are very large.

Epizephyrian Locris was one of the cities of Magna Graecia. Its renowned lawgiver Zaleucus decreed that anyone who proposed a change in the laws should do so with a noose about their neck, with which they should be hanged if the amendment did not pass. Plato called it "The flower of Italy", due to the local peoples' characteristics. Locris was the site of two great sanctuaries, that of Persephone — here worshipped as the protector of fertile marriage — and of Aphrodite.[5]

In the early centuries Locris was allied with Sparta, and later with Syracuse. It founded two colonies of its own, Hipponion and Medma. During the Pyrrhic Wars (280-275 BC) fought between Pyrrhus of Epirus and Rome, Locris accepted a Roman garrison and fought against the Epirote king. However, the city changed sides numerous times during the war. Bronze tablets from the treasury of its Olympeum, a temple to Zeus, record payments to a 'king', generally thought to be Pyrrhus. Despite this, Pyrrhus plundered the temple of Persephone at Locris before his return to Epirus, an event which would live on in the memory of the Greeks of Italy. At the end of the war, perhaps to allay fears about its loyalty, Locris minted coins depicting a seated Rome being crowned by 'Pistis', a goddess personifying good faith and loyalty, and returned to the Roman fold.

The city was abandoned in the fifth century AD. The town was finally destroyed by the Saracens in 915. The survivors fled inland about 10 kilometres (6 mi) to the town Gerace on the slopes of the Aspromonte.

Modern Locri

After 1850 Gerace developed along the coast, forming a new centre Gerace Marina, to house new public buildings and a railway station. In 1934 it changed its name in Locri, which is now the administrative centre of the Locride area. The city boasts a National Museum and an Archaeological Park (www.locriantica.it). Apart from the archeological sites, the town is also an important sea-side resort along the Costa dei Gelsomini, or Jasmine Coast, one of the wildest coastlines of Italy.[6]

Locri, with over 12,000 inhabitants, is an important administrative and cultural centre on the Ionian Coast, in the Italian Province of Reggio Calabria. The town is easily reached by plane; in fact, it is only 90 minutes away from the International Airport of Lamezia (www.aeroportolameziaterme.info) and from the Airport of Reggio Calabria (www.aeroportodellostretto.it). Locri is well connected to all regional and national towns and cities by train (www.trenitalia.it), shuttle, taxi, and bus (www.troiolobus.com ; www.autolineefederico.it). The A2 autoroute makes Locri easy to reach by car, too. Sicily is accessible by ferry boat from Villa San Giovanni or Reggio Calabria, both of which are a car or a train journey away from Locri (www.trasportisullostretto.it). There are several hotels, residences, hostels, and bed&breakfast establishments where tourists and visitors can find comfortable accommodation for their stay. The Tourist Information Centre can offer assistance and information on matters of accommodation. In Locri, you can find many administrative bodies and public services, such as a criminal and civil court, a revenue agency, a police station, travel agencies, three post offices (two of which have ATM facilities), banks, the State Archive, the City Hall (built in 1880), trade unions, the bishop's office, several Catholic churches, and an Indian and an Evangelical church. The city is also home to the most important hospital of the area, an emergency medical service, many private doctors, and three pharmacies. There are in the locality several state schools – including Elementary Schools, High Schools (www.istitutocomprensivolocri.gov.it), Lyceums (www.liceozaleuco.gov.it), and Vocational Schools (www.ipssalocri.gov.it ; www.ipsiasiderno.it) – as well as private schools and two private English language schools (www.englishcentreonline.com). The city boasts a National Museum and an Archaeological Park (www.locriantica.it), two cinemas (www.cinevittoria.com), two cultural centres, a theatre, and a library. In Locri you will find many shops, restaurants, pizzerias, fast food outlets, pubs, bars, cafeterias, patisseries, farm restaurants, fruit and vegetable market halls, florists, supermarkets, and shopping malls. You also have facilities for a wide range of sports, including soccer, basketball, volleyball, tennis, swimming, snorkeling, fishing and diving, and, because there is nearby hilly and mountainous terrain, trekking and hiking are further options. Finally, being a seaside city, Locri can offer enjoyable walks on the sea-front boulevard or on the beach and in the summer months it plays host to an assortment of beach-side lidos.

Main sights

Ionic temple of Marasà

In the first half of the fifth century BC, the Locrians demolished their archaic temple and rebuilt a new temple in the Ionic style. The temple was designed by Syracusan architects around 470 BC, based on the idea of Hiero I of Syracuse.

The new temple occupies the same place as the previous one but it has a different orientation. The temple was destroyed in the 11th century. The dimensions of the temple were 45.5 by 19.8 metres (149 by 65 ft). The cella is free of supports on the central axes. The pronaos had two columns. The temple has seventeen Ionic columns on the long side, and six on the front. The height of the temple was 12 metres (39 ft).

The theatre

The theatre was built in the fourth century BC not far from the ancient city, in the Contrada Pirettina, taking advantage of a hillside slope. The original structure had space for more than 4,500 people; now only the central part of the theatre is visible.

Part of the Cavea was cut into the rocks. Each plane was divided in 7 wedges between 6 scales. A horizontal separation divided the upper theater from the lower theatre.

Notable people

Mass media

Notes

  1. ^ "Superficie di Comuni Province e Regioni italiane al 9 ottobre 2011". Istat. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  2. ^ "Popolazione Residente al 1° Gennaio 2018". Istat. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  3. ^ All demographics and other statistics from the Italian statistical institute (Istat)
  4. ^ It was common in classical times to name a city in the plural for the name of its inhabitants and/or its eponymous deity or founder, cp. αἱ Ἀθήναι, literally "The Athenas," i.e. "Athens." See also the List of traditional Greek place names
  5. ^ See the history of the Ludovisi Throne, now thought to have come from Locris.
  6. ^ Calabria’s Jasmine Coast, Italia, site of ENIT - the Italian Government Tourist Board, accessed 14 September 2017

External links

Acrion

Acrion was a Locrian and a Pythagorean philosopher. He is mentioned by Valerius Maximus under the name of Arion. According to William Smith, Arion is a false reading, instead of Acrion.

Ammazzateci tutti

Ammazzateci tutti (Italian for "Kill Us All") is an Italian Antimafia social movement created in Locri, Calabria (South of Italy) at the end of 2005 by Aldo Pecora, the spokesperson of the movement. The movement is also known as "Ragazzi di Locri" (Kids from Locri) because it is composed principally by young high school and university students.

The movement emerged when Francesco Fortugno, a centre-left politician and deputy president of the regional parliament, was killed by the 'Ndrangheta on 16 October 2005 in Locri. The first public manifestation of the movement was at the funeral of Fortugno on 19 October 2005, with a banner And Now Kill Us All.Ammazzateci Tutti played a key role in organizing the largest popular demonstration ever in Locri on 4 November 2005. The event was attended by over 15,000 people, mainly by putting online the website www.ammazzatecitutti.org, which registered more than 200.000 contacts in one week."Ammazzateci tutti is a message that expresses both hope and challenge to the 'Ndrangheta, saying 'See if you have enough lead to kill us all,' " according to Pecora. "It's also a challenge to normal people to rebel against the 'Ndrangheta." Since its founding, Ammazzateci tutti has held regular demonstrations designed to pressure the Italian state into taking action against the 'Ndrangheta.

President and national spokesman of the movement is Aldo Pecora. The national coordination of the movement is led by Rosanna Scopelliti, daughter of the magistrate Antonino Scopelliti, killed by the 'Ndrangheta in August 1991. The movement uses a phrase of the Calabrian writer Corrado Alvaro to depict the spirit of the movement : "The worst desperation of a society is the doubt that living honestly is useless."As a youth movement, Ammazzateci Tutti uses modern media techniques such as YouTube and Facebook to get their message across.

Antonimina

Antonimina is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Reggio Calabria in the Italian region Calabria, located about 80 kilometres (50 mi) southwest of Catanzaro and about 45 kilometres (28 mi) northeast of Reggio Calabria.

Antonimina borders the following municipalities: Ciminà, Cittanova, Gerace, Locri, Portigliola, Sant'Ilario dello Ionio.

Cataldo 'ndrina

The Cataldo 'ndrina is a clan of the 'Ndrangheta, a criminal and mafia-type organisation in Calabria, Italy. This particular 'ndrina is based in Locri, a hotbed of 'Ndrangheta activity. The clan allied, with the Marafioti family, is involved in a long blood feud with the Cordì 'ndrina, from the same town, since the end of the 1960s.

Cordì 'ndrina

The Cordì 'ndrina is a clan of the 'Ndrangheta, a criminal and mafia-type organisation in Calabria, Italy. The 'ndrina is based in Locri, a hotbed of 'Ndrangheta activity.

Fabio Ceravolo

Fabio Giovanni Ceravolo (born 5 March 1987) is an Italian footballer who plays as a striker for Parma.

Francesco Favasuli

Francesco Favasuli (born 24 August 1983) is an Italian football midfielder who currently plays for Cavese.

Gerace

Gerace (Italian pronunciation: [dʒeˈraːtʃe]; Greek: Hierax, Gerakion) is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Reggio Calabria, Calabria, southern Italy.

Gerace is located some 10 kilometres (6 mi) inland from Locri, yet the latter town and the sea can be seen from Gerace's perch atop a 500-metre (1,600 ft) vertical rock. The town stands on a hill formed of conglomerates of sea fossils from 60 millions years ago. It is inscribed into I Borghi più belli d'Italia list.

Giuseppe Sculli

Giuseppe Sculli (born 23 March 1981) is a retired Italian footballer who played in several positions; primarily a striker, he could play anywhere along the front-line, and also played as a winger, as a second striker, and even as a right-sided midfielder or as a wingback on the right flank.

List of ancient Greek tyrants

This is a list of tyrants from Ancient Greece.

Locrians

The Locrians (Greek: Λοκροί, Locri) were an ancient Greek tribe that inhabited the region of Locris in Central Greece, around Parnassus. They spoke the Locrian dialect, a Doric-Northwest dialect, and were closely related to their neighbouring tribes, the Phocians and the Dorians. They were divided into two geographically distinct tribes, the western Ozolians and the eastern Opuntians; their primary towns were Amphissa and Opus respectively, and their most important colony was the city of Epizephyrian Locris in Magna Graecia, which still bears the name "Locri". Among others, Ajax the Lesser and Patroclus were the most famous Locrian heroes, both distinguished in the Trojan War; Zaleucus from Epizephyrian Locris devised the first written Greek law code, the Locrian code.

Locride

Locride is an area of Calabria (Italy) around the town of Locri in the Province of Reggio Calabria. The term take origin from the ancient Locris, an ancient greek region.

It is divided into 4 areas:

Vallata dello Stilaro

Vallata del Torbido

Epizefiri

Vallata del Bonamico

Heracleum

Locris

Locris (; Greek, Modern: Λοκρίδα, Lokrida, Ancient: Λοκρίς, Lokris) was a region of ancient Greece, the homeland of the Locrians, made up of three distinct districts.

Opuntian Locris

Opuntian Locris or Eastern Locris was an ancient Greek region inhabited by the eastern division of the Locrians, the so-called tribe of the Locri Epicnemidii (Greek: Λοκροὶ Ἐπικνημίδιοι) or Locri Opuntii (Greek: Λοκροὶ Ὀπούντιοι).

Ozolian Locris

Ozolian Locris (Ancient Greek: Ὀζολία Λοκρίς) or Hesperian Locris (Ancient Greek: Λοκρίς Ἑσπερία, lit. 'Western Locris') was a region in Ancient Greece, inhabited by the Ozolian Locrians (Greek: Ὀζολοὶ Λοκροί; Latin: Locri Ozoli) a tribe of the Locrians, upon the Corinthian Gulf, bounded on the north by Doris, on the east by Phocis, and on the west by Aetolia.

Portigliola

Portigliola (Calabrian: Portigghiòla) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Reggio Calabria in the Italian region Calabria, located about 80 kilometres (50 mi) southwest of Catanzaro and about 50 kilometres (31 mi) northeast of Reggio Calabria. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 1,297 and an area of 6.0 square kilometres (2.3 sq mi).Portigliola borders the following municipalities: Antonimina, Locri, Sant'Ilario dello Ionio.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Locri-Gerace

The Italian Catholic Diocese of Locri-Gerace (Latin: Dioecesis Locrensis-Hieracensis) is in Calabria. It is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Reggio Calabria-Bova.

Historically it was the Diocese of Gerace, becoming in 1954 the Diocese of Gerace-Locri and taking the current name in 1986.

Siderno

Siderno (Calabrian: Sidernu or Siderni; Greek: Σιδέρνο, romanized: Sidérno) is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Reggio Calabria, Calabria, southern Italy, about 3 kilometres from Locri.

Siderno Marina is the newer town located on the Ionian coast. It is a destination for both Italian and foreign tourists and has a bathing beach.

Siderno Superiore is the old town, higher up on the flank of the coastal mountain range. It has historic palaces, old buildings and very narrow streets. It has now become a ghost town because most of the old population has moved to the more modern Siderno which is the new city and offers more job opportunities and services.

Timaeus of Locri

Timaeus of Locri (; Ancient Greek: Τίμαιος ὁ Λοκρός, romanized: Tímaios ho Lokrós; Latin: Timaeus Locrus) is a character in two of Plato's dialogues, Timaeus and Critias. In both, he appears as a philosopher of the Pythagorean school. If there ever existed a historical Timaeus of Locri, he would have lived in the fifth century BCE, but his historicity is dubious since he only appears as a literary figure in Plato; all other ancient sources are either based on Plato or are fictional accounts.

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