Lockheed Ventura

The Lockheed Ventura, also known as the Lockheed B-34 Lexington, was a twin engine medium bomber of World War II, used by United States and British Commonwealth forces in several guises, including maritime patrol.

The Ventura was developed from the Lockheed Model 18 Lodestar transport, as a replacement for the Lockheed Hudson bombers then in service with the Royal Air Force. Used in daylight attacks against occupied Europe, they proved to have weaknesses and were removed from bomber duty and some used for patrols by Coastal Command.

After United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) monopolization of land-based bombers was removed, the US Navy ordered a revised design which entered service as the PV-2 Harpoon for anti-submarine work.

Ventura
B-34 Lexington / B-37
PV-1 Ventura / PV-2 Harpoon
Ventura LOC 8e01506u
A Lockheed PV-1 Ventura
Role Patrol bomber
National origin United States
Manufacturer Lockheed
First flight 31 July 1941
Primary users United States Navy
United States Army Air Forces
Royal Air Force
Developed from Lockheed Model 18 Lodestar

Development

Lockheed Ventura/B-34 Lexington

Lockheed B-34 USAAF in flight
A USAAF B-34-VE in 1943.

The Ventura was very similar to its predecessor, the Lockheed Hudson. The primary difference was not in layout; rather, the Ventura was larger, heavier, and used more powerful engines than the Hudson. The RAF ordered 188 Venturas in February 1940, which were delivered from mid-1942. Venturas were initially used for daylight raids on occupied Europe but like some other RAF bombers, they proved too vulnerable without fighter escort, which was difficult to provide for long-range missions. Venturas were replaced by the faster de Havilland Mosquito. The Venturas were transferred to patrol duties with Coastal Command as the Mosquito replaced them in bomber squadrons; 30 went to the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) and some to the South African Air Force (SAAF). The RAF placed an order for 487 Ventura Mark IIs but many of these were diverted to the USAAF, which placed its own order for 200 Ventura Mark IIA as the B-34 Lexington, later renamed RB-34.

Lockheed B-37

In August 1941, large orders for Venturas were placed with Lend-Lease Act money. Among the orders were for 550 armed reconnaissance versions of the Ventura. This aircraft was originally planned to be built under the designation O-56. The main differences between the Ventura and the O-56 were in the engines: rather than the 2,000 hp (1,491 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-2800 radials of the Ventura, the O-56 used 1,700 hp (1,270 kW) Wright R-2600-13 radials.

Before completion of the first O-56, the U.S. Army Air Forces dropped the "O-" category used to designate "observation" (reconnaissance) aircraft. The O-56 was redesignated the RB-34B (the R denoted 'restricted' meaning it was not to be used for combat). Before the first of these flew, the design was redesignated again as the B-37 with a higher powered version of the R-2600, later it also was designated the RB-37.

While 550 were ordered by the Army Air Forces, acquisition by the USAAF stopped after only 18 Venturas were accepted, when the Army Air Forces agreed to turn over exclusive use of the Ventura to the United States Navy.

PV-1 Ventura

Lockheed Ventura
A PV-1 Ventura

The PV-1 Ventura, built by the Vega Aircraft Company division of Lockheed (hence the "V" Navy manufacturer's letter that later replaced the "O" for Lockheed), was a version of the Ventura built for the U.S. Navy (see Venturas in U.S. Navy service below). The main differences between the PV-1 and the B-34 were the inclusion of special equipment in the PV-1, adapting it to its patrol bombing role. The maximum fuel capacity of the PV-1 was increased from 1,345 gal (5,081 l) to 1,607 gal (6,082 l), to increase its range; the forward defensive armament was also reduced for this reason. The most important addition was of an ASD-1 search radar.

Early production PV-1s still carried a bombardier's station behind the nose radome, with four side windows and a flat bomb-aiming panel underneath the nose. Late production PV-1s dispensed with this bombardier position and replaced it with a pack with three 0.50 inch (12.7 mm) machine guns underneath the nose. These aircraft could also carry eight 5-inch (127 mm) HVAR rockets on launchers underneath the wings.

The PV-1 began to be delivered in December 1942, and entered service in February 1943. The first squadron in combat was VP-135, deployed in the Aleutian Islands in April 1943. They were operated by three other squadrons in this theatre. From the Aleutians, they flew strikes against bases in Paramushiro and Shimushu, Japanese islands in the Kurile chain. Often, PV-1s would lead B-24 bomber formations, since they were equipped with radar. In late 1943, some PV-1s were deployed to the Solomon Islands as night fighters with VMF(N)-531, a Marine Corps fighter squadron.

PV-2 Harpoon

PV-2 NAN9-2-45
A PV-2 Harpoon in flight in 1945
Lockheed PV-2 Harpoon, Naval Aviation Museum, Pensacola, Florida
PV-2 Harpoon at the National Naval Aviation Museum Naval Air Station Pensacola FL 2008
Lockheed PV-2 NMNA
PV-2 Harpoon at the National Naval Aviation Museum Naval Air Station Pensacola FL 18 JUN 2009
PV-2 HARPOON - MAYDAY GOLF NORTH MYRTLE BEACH SC 14AUG12
PV-2 Harpoon repainted and marked "Air Tropic Island Charters" on display at MAYDAY GOLF in North Myrtle Beach SC 14 AUG 2012

The PV-2 Harpoon was a major redesign of the Ventura with the wing area increased from 551 ft2 (51.2 m2) to 686 ft2 (63.7 m2) giving an increased load-carrying capability, and which first flew on 3 December 1943. The motivation for redesign was weaknesses in the PV-1, which had shown itself to have problems in taking off when carrying a full load of fuel. On the PV-2, the armament became standardized at five forward-firing machine guns. Many early PV-1s had a bombardier's position, which was deleted in the PV-2. Some other significant developments included the increase of the bombload by 30% to 4,000 lb (1,800 kg), and the ability to carry eight 5-inch (127 mm) HVAR rockets under the wings.

While the PV-2 was expected to have increased range and better takeoff, the anticipated speed statistics were projected lower than those of the PV-1, due to the use of the same engines but an increase in weight. The Navy ordered 500 examples, designating them with the popular name Harpoon.

Early tests indicated a tendency for the wings to wrinkle dangerously. As this problem could not be solved by a 6 ft (1.8 m) reduction in wingspan (making the wing uniformly flexible), a complete redesign of the wing was necessitated. This hurdle delayed entry of the PV-2 into service. The PV-2s already delivered were used for training purposes under the designation PV-2C. By the end of 1944, only 69 PV-2s had been delivered. They finally resumed when the redesign was complete. The first aircraft shipped were the PV-2D, which had eight forward-firing machine guns and was used in ground attacks. When World War II ended, all of the order was cancelled.

With the wing problems fixed, the PV-2 proved reliable, and eventually popular. It was first used in the Aleutians by VP-139, one of the squadrons that originally used the PV-1. It was used by a number of countries after the war's end, but the United States ceased ordering new PV-2s, and they were all soon retired from service.

Civil conversions

Lockheed PV-1 H350 N1514S FLL 25.02.78 edited-3
Howard 350 executive conversion of the PV-1

Ex-military PV-1 Venturas from Canada and South Africa were converted by Howard Aero in San Antonio, Texas, in the 1950s and 1960s as high-speed executive transports. The earliest conversions, called Super Venturas, incorporated a 48 in (122 cm) fuselage stretch, extra fuel tankage, large picture windows, luxury interiors, and weapons bays transformed into baggage compartments. The landing gear was swapped for the heavier-duty units from the PV-2. Later conversions, of which eighteen were completed in the 1960s,[1] were called Howard 350s.[2]

At least nineteen PV-1s were further modified, including cabin pressurization under the designation Howard 500.[3] A final PV-1 modification by Howard was the Eldorado 700, with longer wings, a pointed nose, and streamlined engine cowlings.

A notable crash of a civilian version occurred on December 17, 1954, killing four, including Fred Miller, president of the Miller Brewing Company and grandson of founder Frederick Miller. The company plane was bound for Winnipeg, Manitoba, but had trouble with both engines and crashed shortly after takeoff from Mitchell Field in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.[4][5] Also killed were his oldest son, 20-year-old Fred, Jr., and the two company pilots, Joseph and Paul Laird.[6][7]

Operational history

Portuguese Air Force

The Portuguese Air Force received 42 Lockheed PV-2C Harpoons from 1953, which replaced the Curtiss SB2C-5 Helldiver as an anti-submarine aircraft. The Harpoons equipped squadrons 61 and 62 at the Montijo Air Base. In 1960, the Harpoons were replaced as maritime patrol and anti-submarine aircraft by Lockheed P2V-5 Neptunes. The remaining Harpoons were sent to Portuguese Angola and Mozambique, where they formed Squadron 91 operating from Luanda Air Base and Squadron 101 at Beira Air Base. The Harpoons were used on operations in the Angolan and Mozambican theatres of the Portuguese Overseas War (1961–1974). They served as mainly as light bombers and ground attack aircraft, with occasional reconnaissance, transport and maritime patrol sorties. The last Portuguese Harpoons were retired in 1975.[8] The Museu do Ar (Portuguese Air Museum) has what is believed to be the only remaining Lockheed PV-2C Harpoon in Europe.

Royal Air Force

RAF Ventura over IJmuiden NAN15Sep43
A No. 21 Squadron RAF Ventura attacking IJmuiden, February 1943.

The first Ventura Mark Is were accepted by the Royal Air Force (RAF) in September 1941, with aircraft being delivered to Britain from April 1942.[9][10] By the end of August, enough Venturas had arrived to equip No. 21 Squadron RAF, No. 487 Squadron RNZAF and No. 464 Squadron RAAF.[11] The Ventura flew its first operational mission for the RAF on 3 November 1942, when three Venturas of 21 Squadron attacked railway targets near Hengelo in the Netherlands.[12][13] On 6 December 1942, 47 Venturas from 21, 464 (RAAF) and 487 (RNZAF) squadrons participated in Operation Oyster, the large daylight 2 Group raid against the Philips radio and vacuum tube factories at Eindhoven. Also committed to the raid were 36 Bostons and 10 de Havilland Mosquitos.[14] Carrying incendiaries, they were placed in the third wave of aircraft, and suffered the highest rate of loss. Nine of the 47 Venturas were shot down and many others were damaged by flak or bird strikes. The force also lost four Bostons and one Mosquito.[15] Six months later on 3 May 1943 Venturas of 487 Squadron RNZAF were sent on Operation Ramrod 16, an attack on a power station in Amsterdam. The squadron was told the target was of such importance to Dutch morale that the attack was to be continued regardless of opposition. Significant problems developed coupling up with the escorting fighters, with the end result being that all 10 Venturas that crossed the coast were lost to German fighters. Squadron Leader Leonard Trent, (later the last of the Great Escapers), won the Victoria Cross for his leadership in this raid.

The Ventura was never very popular among RAF crews. Although it was 50 mph (80 km/h) faster and carried more than twice as many bombs as its predecessor, the Hudson, it proved unsatisfactory as a bomber. By the summer of 1943, the Ventura had been replaced by the de Havilland Mosquito. The last Ventura raid was flown by 21 Squadron on 9 September 1943. Some Venturas were modified to be used by Coastal Command as the Ventura G.R.I. and 387 PV-1s were used by the RAF as the Ventura G.R.V in the Mediterranean and by Coastal Command. Some RAF aircraft were modified into Ventura C.V transport aircraft. A small number of Venturas were also used in other air forces, including the RCAF, RNZAF and SAAF.

Royal Australian Air Force

In the United Kingdom, No. 464 Squadron RAAF was formed at RAF Feltwell to operate the Ventura as part of 2 Group, Bomber Command; it converted to the de Havilland Mosquito in September 1943. In the Mediterranean, No. 459 Squadron RAAF was equipped with the Ventura V between December 1943 to July 1944, flying mainly anti-submarine and anti-shipping patrols. In Australia, fifty-five PV-1s were supplied to the RAAF for use in the South West Pacific Area. No. 13 Squadron RAAF was the only operational squadron in Australia equipped with the Ventura. It operated primarily in north-eastern Queensland and then the Northern Territory, and later serving in the Borneo campaign in 1945. After the war, the squadron used its aircraft to help transport liberated prisoners of war.

Royal Canadian Air Force

A total of 157 Ventura G.R. Mk. Vs were used operationally by the RCAF from 16 June 1942 to 18 April 1947 in the home defence coastal patrol role in both Eastern and Western Air Command. They were flown by 8, 113, 115, 145, and 149 Squadrons. A further 21 Ventura Mk. Is and 108 Ventura Mk. IIs were used in a training role at 1 Central Flying School, Trenton, Ontario, and at RCAF Station Pennfield Ridge, New Brunswick (RAF No. 34 Operational Training Unit) as part of the BCATP. A total of 21 Mk. Is, 108 Mk. IIs, and 157 G.R. Mk. Vs were in service during this period for a total of 286 aircraft.

South African Air Force

The SAAF also received some 135 PV-1s, which were used to protect shipping around the Cape of Good Hope and to bomb Italian shipping in the Mediterranean. In December 1942 four SAAF Venturas dropped supplies to survivors of the Dunedin Star shipwreck on South-West Africa's Skeleton Coast. Venturas served in the South African Air Force until 1960.

Soviet Air Force

A few US Navy PV-1s force-landed in the Soviet Union after attacking Japanese targets on the Kurile islands and were impounded. Some of them were repaired and pressed into service by the Soviet Air Force where the type became known as the B-34. By December 1944, eight planes were located on airfields on Kamchatka: four were fully airworthy, three were undergoing repairs and one was a write-off.

By 1945 seven PV-1s (five of them being airworthy) were used by the Soviets, one plane was the personal liaison aircraft of Ltc M.A. Yeryomin. The planes were used during the Soviet-Japanese campaign in August 1945. After the end of the war only one aircraft remained in service.

Royal New Zealand Air Force

487 Squadron RNZAF NCOs RAF Methold early 1943
487 Squadron NCOs at RAF Methwold early 1943

From August 1942, 487 Squadron RNZAF, (operating in Europe as part of the RAF), was equipped with the type, although losses (including on 3 May 1943 the loss of all 11 aircraft attacking Amsterdam), lead to their replacement with the de Havilland Mosquito in June.

The Royal New Zealand Air Force in the Pacific received 139 Venturas and some Harpoons from June 1943 to replace Lockheed Hudsons in the maritime patrol bomber and medium bomber roles. Initially Venturas were unpopular with the RNZAF due to rumoured poor performance on one engine, the fate of Squadron Leader Leonard Trent VC of 487 Squadron (above) as well as the failure of the U.S. to provide New Zealand with promised B-24 Liberators. Despite that the RNZAF Venturas came to be among the most widely used of any nation's, seeing substantial action until VJ Day over South West Pacific islands.

The first 19 RB-34s that arrived by sea from the U.S. in June had much equipment either missing or damaged. Six airworthy machines were hurriedly produced by cannibalization and sent into action with No. 3 Squadron RNZAF in Fiji. On 26 June the first PV-1s were flown to Whenuapai and No. 1 Squadron RNZAF was able to convert to 18 of these by 1 August, then replacing the mixed 3 Squadron in action at Henderson Field, Guadacanal in late October.

By this time No. 2 Squadron RNZAF at Ohakea and No. 9 Squadron RNZAF were also using the type. The following year No. 4 Squadron RNZAF and No. 8 Squadron RNZAF also received Venturas. Some squadrons were retained on garrison duty while others followed the allied advance to Emirau and Green Island and to New Britain. RNZAF Venturas were tasked with routine patrols, anti-shipping strikes, minelaying, bombing and strafing missions, air-sea rescue patrols, and photographic reconnaissance missions. In an apparently bizarre case of taking Lockheed's marketing slogan of The Fighter-Bomber too literally, even briefly, Venturas conducted fighter sweeps.

RNZAF machines often clashed with Japanese fighters, notably during an air-sea rescue patrol on Christmas Eve 1943. NZ4509 was attacked by nine Japanese single-engined fighters over St. George's Channel. It shot down three, later confirmed, and claimed two others as probables, although it suffered heavy damage in the action. The pilot, Flying Officer D. Ayson and navigator, Warrant Officer W. Williams, were awarded the DFC. The dorsal turret gunner Flight Sergeant G. Hannah was awarded the DFM.

By late 1944 the Ventura began to be phased out of front line action as the RNZAF backed away from the Patrol Bomber concept, orders for PV-2 Harpoons were canceled after a handful of aircraft had been delivered. At VJ Day only 30 PV-1 aircraft remained on the front-line with No. 3 Squadron at Jacquinot Bay.

Planned re-equipment with de Havilland Mosquitos did not take place until after the cessation of hostilities. The last Ventura unit was No. 2 Squadron, which continued to operate PV-1 and PV-2 aircraft on meteorological duty until 1948. A restored RNZAF RB-34 (NZ4600) is owned by the Museum of Transport and Technology in Auckland.

United States Army Air Forces

Some 264 Ventura Mark IIs ordered by the RAF were seized by the U.S. Army Air Forces. Though some were used as anti-submarine patrol bombers under the designation B-34 Lexington, most were used for training with various stateside units. 27 of these were used by the U.S. Navy for anti-submarine patrols as well; these were designated PV-1 Ventura and PV-2 Harpoon.

United States Navy

PV-1 VPB-147 Caribbean 1944
PV-1s of VPB-147 in the Caribbean in 1944.
Lockheed PV-2s VP-136 Whidbey Island 1945-46
PV-2s of VPB-136 at NAS Whidbey Island, c.1945–46
Hawkins Field Betio Tarawa March 1944
Long range aircraft at Hawkins Field (Tarawa), March 1944

During the early months of 1942, the primary responsibility for anti-submarine warfare in the United States was shouldered by the Army Air Forces. This irked the Navy, as it considered this region of battle its burden. To carry out such a task, the Navy was pursuing a long-range, land-based patrol and reconnaissance aircraft with a substantial bomb load. This goal was always resisted by the Army Air Forces, which carefully protected its monopoly on land-based bombing. This forced the navy to use long-range floatplanes for these roles. The Navy was unable to upgrade to more capable aircraft until the Army Air Forces needed the Navy plant in Renton, Washington to manufacture its Boeing B-29 Superfortress. In exchange for use of the Renton plant, the Army Air Forces would discontinue its objections to Naval land-based bombers, and provide aircraft to the Navy. One of the clauses of this agreement stated that production of the B-34 and B-37 by Lockheed would cease, and instead these resources would be directed at building a navalized version, the PV-1 Ventura.

The PV-1 began to be delivered in December 1942, and entered service in February 1943. The first squadron in combat was VP-135, deployed in the Aleutian Islands in April 1943. They were operated by three other squadrons in this theatre. From the Aleutians, they flew strikes against Paramushiro, a Japanese island. Often, PV-1s would lead B-24 bomber formations, since they were equipped with radar. In late 1943, PV-1s were deployed to the Solomon Islands and to the newly captured field at Tarawa in the Gilbert Islands. After the war, the U.S. Navy deemed many PV-1s as obsolete and the aircraft were sent to Naval Air Station Clinton, Oklahoma to be demilitarized and reduced to scrap.

Other operators

Variants

Lockheed B-37 USAAF
One of 18 USAAF B-37s, 1943.
PV-3 NAN12-2-43
A PV-3 in early 1943. It was assigned in October 1942 to VP-82 which operated from NAS Argentia, Newfoundland on anti-submarine patrols over the Atlantic.
B-34
US designation for the Model 137 (with 2000hp R-2800-31 engines) bought for the Royal Air Force, 200 built and designated the Ventura IIA by the British.[16]
B-34A
Former Royal Air Force Venturas returned to USAAF under a reverse lend-lease.[16]
B-34B
B-34As converted as navigation trainers.[16]
B-37
Lockheed Model 437 for the USAAF (with 1700hp R-2600-13 engines), only 18 out of an order of 550 built for armed observation. Originally designated the O-56, it was later designated the RB-37.[16]
PV-1
United States Navy version of the B-34; 1,600 built. A total of 388 were delivered to the Royal Air Force as the Ventura GR.V, others to the RAAF, RNZAF and SAAF.[16]
PV-1P
Designation for PV-1s fitted with a camera installation.[16]
PV-2 Harpoon
Updated model with larger fin and wing area; 470 built.[16]
PV-2C
Modified version of the PV-2 used for training; 30 built.[16]
PV-2D
Same as PV-2 but with eight 0.5in nose guns; 35 built.[16]
PV-2T
Designation for PV-2s used for crew training.[16]
PV-3
Twenty-seven former RAF Ventura IIs requisitioned by the USN.[16]
Ventura I
R-2800-S1A4-G powered variant for the Royal Air Force; 188 built, 30 to the RCAF and some to the SAAF, later re-designated the Ventura GR.I.[16]
Ventura II
R-2800-31 powered variant for the RAF, 487 built, some transferred to the USAAC and USN.[16]
Ventura IIA
British designation for the B-34.[16]
Ventura V
British designation for the PV-1, later designated Ventura GR.V.[16]

Operators

SAAF-Lockheed PV1 Ventura-001
Retired PV-1 at the SAAF Museum
 Australia
 Brazil
 Canada
 France
  • French NavyAeronavale 1944–1961
    • Flotille 6F (PV-1 only, from 1944 to 1947)
    • Escadrille 11S (PV-1 from 1947 to 1953 and six PV-2s from 1953 to 1960) for transport duty only.
 Italy
 Japan
 Netherlands
 New Zealand
 Portugal
  • Portuguese Air Force 42 aircraft from 1954 to 1975
    • Squadron 61, Montijo Air Base (1954–1960)
    • Squadron 62, Montijo Air Base (1954–1960)
    • Squadron 91, Luanda Air Base, Angola (1961–1971)
    • Squadron 103, Beira Air Base, Mozambique (1962)
    • Squadron 101, Beira Air Base, Mozambique (1962–1975)
    • Squadron 401, Henrique de Carvalho Air Base, Angola (1971–1975)
 South Africa to 1960
 United Kingdom
 United States
PV-1 night fighter VMF(N)-531 1943
A USMC PV-1 night fighter from VMF(N)-531 in the Solomons, 1943.
PBY-5A PV-1 Aleutians 1943
PBY-5As and PV-1s of VPB-135 on an Aleutian airfield in 1943, most likely Atka Island.

Survivors

Australia

Under restoration
PV-1
Stored
PV-1
  • 33369 - stored by the Royal Australian Air Force Museum awaiting restoration to static display standard; previously operated by the RAAF Historic Flight, 1988–96, as VH-SFF (former N159U), painted as A59-67.[49]

Brazil

On display
PV-1

Canada

Under restoration
PV-1
  • 33315 – under restoration by the Ventura Memorial Flight Association in Edmonton, Alberta.[51]

New Zealand

On display
RB-34

South Africa

On display
PV-1

United States

Airworthy
PV-1
PV-2
On display
PV-2
Under restoration or in storage
B-34
PV-2

Specifications (B-34 Lexington)

3-side-drawing of a PV-1 Ventura
PV-2 Harpoon

Data from

General characteristics

Performance

Armament

See also

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Related lists

References

Notes
  1. ^ Marson, 2001, p. 27
  2. ^ Taylor 1965, p.244.
  3. ^ Marson, 2001, p. 26
  4. ^ "Fred Miller, son die in fiery plane crash". Milwaukee Sentinel. December 18, 1954. p. 1.
  5. ^ "Fred C. Miller, son killed in air crash". Milwaukee Journal. December 18, 1954. p. 1.
  6. ^ "Pilots buried side by side". Milwaukee Journal. December 20, 1954. p. 2.
  7. ^ "CAB findings in Miller crash". Milwaukee Sentinel. March 18, 1955. p. 1, part 2.
  8. ^ CARDOSO, Adelino, Aeronaves Militares Portuguesas no Século XX, Lisbon: Essencial, 2000
  9. ^ Francillon 1982, p. 198.
  10. ^ Bowyer 1974, p. 254.
  11. ^ Bowyer 1974, pp. 254–256.
  12. ^ Bowyer 1974, p. 261.
  13. ^ Carey 2002, p. 12.
  14. ^ Bowyer 1974, pp. 263, 266, 273.
  15. ^ Bowyer 1974, pp. 280, 282.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Andrade 1979, pp. 52–53, 207–208, 247.
  17. ^ "Italian Air Force Aircraft Types". www.aeroflight.co.uk.
  18. ^ Lake, Alan 1999 p.18.
  19. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 4, pp. 548–549.
  20. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 4, p. 553.
  21. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 4, pp. 555–556.
  22. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 3, pp. 18–19, 23.
  23. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 4, pp. 557–559.
  24. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 3, pp. 26–27.
  25. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 3, pp. 373–375.
  26. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 4, pp. 561–562.
  27. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 3, pp. 377–379.
  28. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 4, pp. 563–564.
  29. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 3, pp. 42, 45–46.
  30. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 3, pp. 29–33.
  31. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 4, pp. 565–566.
  32. ^ Roberts 2000, pp. 625, 627.
  33. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 4, pp. 567–568.
  34. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 3, pp. 370–371.
  35. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 4, pp. 570–561.
  36. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 4, pp. 382–383.
  37. ^ Roberts 2000, pp. 629–630.
  38. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 3, pp. 34–35.
  39. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 4, pp. 572–573.
  40. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 3, pp. 53–54, 57.
  41. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 4, pp. 574–575.
  42. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 3, pp. 383–384.
  43. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 4, pp. 576–577.
  44. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 4, pp. 578–580.
  45. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 4, pp. 581–582.
  46. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 3, pp. 385–386.
  47. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 3, pp. 387–388.
  48. ^ "PV-1 Ventura/49555." Archived 2012-03-18 at the Wayback Machine Queensland Air Museum. Retrieved: 2 April 2012.
  49. ^ https://www.airforce.gov.au/sites/g/files/net3736/f/minisite/static/1469/RAAFmuseum/exhibitions/b_scenes/air_store/ventura.htm
  50. ^ "Lockheed PV-1/Bu. 48654" Musea Aeroespacial – in Spanish Retrieved: 29 August 2014.
  51. ^ "PV-1 Ventura/33315." Warbird Registry. Retrieved: 1 June 2011.
  52. ^ "RB-34 Ventura/41-38117." Warbirds Resource Group. Retrieved: 20 April 2011.
  53. ^ "PV-1 Ventura/34759." Warbirds Resource Group. Retrieved: 20 April 2011.
  54. ^ "FAA Registry: N500LN." FAA.gov Retrieved: 1 June 2011.
  55. ^ "FAA Registry: N7261C." FAA.gov Retrieved: 1 June 2011.
  56. ^ "FAA Registry: N7273C." FAA.gov Retrieved: 1 June 2011.
  57. ^ "PV-2 Harpoon/Bu. 37211." Palm Springs Air Museum. Retrieved: 23 February 2014.
  58. ^ "FAA Registry: N2PV." FAA.gov Retrieved: 1 June 2011.
  59. ^ "FAA Registry: N7256C." FAA.gov Retrieved: 1 June 2011.
  60. ^ "PV-2 Harpoon/Bu. 37396." American Military Heritage Foundation. Retrieved: 23 February 2014.
  61. ^ "FAA Registry: N6855C." FAA.gov Retrieved: 1 June 2011.
  62. ^ "FAA Registry: N7670C." FAA.gov Retrieved: 1 June 2011.
  63. ^ "FAA Registry: N83L." FAA.gov Retrieved: 1 June 2011.
  64. ^ "PV-2 Harpoon/Bu. 37535." Erickson Aircraft Collection. Retrieved: 21 August 2014.
  65. ^ "FAA Registry: N7454C." FAA.gov Retrieved: 1 June 2011.
  66. ^ "PV-2 Harpoon/Bu. 37633" Wingspan Air Heritage Foundation. Retrieved: 21 August 2014.
  67. ^ "FAA Registry: N6655D." FAA.gov Retrieved: 1 June 2011.
  68. ^ "FAA Registry: N6657D." FAA.gov Retrieved: 1 June 2011.
  69. ^ "PV-2 Harpoon/Bu. 84062." Stockton Field Aviation Museum. Retrieved: 23 February 2014.
  70. ^ "PV-2 Harpoon/Bu. 37230." National Museum of Naval Aviation. Retrieved: 10 April 2012.
  71. ^ "PV-2 Harpoon/Bu. 37257." Pima Air Museum. Retrieved: 20 April 2011.
  72. ^ "PV-2 Harpoon/37492." Mayday Golf. Retrieved: 21 August 2012.
  73. ^ "B-34 Ventura/41-38032." NAS Sanford Memorial. Retrieved: 20 April 2011.
  74. ^ "FAA Registry: N7483C." FAA.gov Retrieved: 1 June 2011.
  75. ^ "FAA Registry: N7257C" FAA.gov Retrieved: 21 August 2014.
  76. ^ "PV-2 Harpoon/Bu. 37270" Wingspan Air Heritage Foundation. Retrieved: 21 August 2014.
  77. ^ "FAA Registry: N86493." FAA.gov Retrieved: 1 June 2011.
  78. ^ "PV-2 Harpoon/Bu. 84060." Cavanaugh Flight Museum. Retrieved: 23 February 2014.
Bibliography
  • Andrade, John. U.S. Military Aircraft Designations and Serials since 1909. Hersham, Surrey, UK: Midland Counties Publications, 1979. ISBN 0-904597-22-9.
  • Bowyer, Michael J. F. 2 Group R.A.F.: A Complete History, 1936–1945.London: Faber and Faber, 1974. ISBN 0-571-09491-0.
  • Carey, Alan C. PV Ventura / Harpoon Units of World War 2 (Osprey Combat Aircraft 34). Botley, UK: Osprey Publishing, 2002. ISBN 1-84176-383-7.
  • Francillon, René J. Lockheed Aircraft since 1913. London: Putnam, 1982. ISBN 0-370-30329-6.
  • Marson, Peter J., The Lockheed Twins. Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd, Tonbridge, Kent, 2001. ISBN 0-85130-284-X.
  • Roberts, Michael D., Captain, MSC, USNR (Ret.).Dictionary of American Naval Aviation Squadrons, Volume 2: The History of VP, VPB, VP(H) and VP(AM) Squadrons. Washington, D.C.: Naval Aviation History Office, 2000.
  • Scrivner, Charles L. and W.E. Scarborough, Captain USN (ret). Lockheed PV-1 Ventura in Action. Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, Inc., 1981. ISBN 0-89747-118-0.
  • Stanaway, John C. Vega Ventura: The Operational Story of Lockheed's Lucky Star. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing, 2000. ISBN 0-7643-0087-3.
  • Taylor, John W. R. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1965–66. London: Sampson Low, Marston, 1965.
  • Lake, Alan. FLYING UNITS OF THE RAF – The ancestry, formation and disbandment of all flying units from 1912. England: Alan Lake, 1999, ISBN 1-84037-086-6.

External links

17 Squadron SAAF

17 Squadron SAAF is a squadron of the South African Air Force. It is currently a transport/utility helicopter squadron.

First formed: 1 September 1939

Historic aircraft flown: Junkers Ju 52/3m, Blenheim V, Lockheed Ventura GR V, Vickers Wellington, Vickers Warwick GR V, Harvard, Sikorsky S-55, Sikorsky S-51, Sud Aviation Alouette II, Aérospatiale Alouette III, Aérospatiale Puma, SA 365N Dauphin

Current aircraft flown: Atlas Oryx, Agusta A109LUH

Current base: AFB Swartkop, Pretoria.

60 Squadron SAAF

60 Squadron SAAF is a squadron of the South African Air Force. It is a transport, aerial refuelling and EW(electronic warfare)/ELINT(electronic intelligence) squadron. It was first formed at Nairobi in December 1940.

During its first years the squadron flew the British Aircraft Double Eagle, Martin Maryland, de Havilland Mosquito, and the Lockheed Ventura. The squadron was reequipped with Boeing 707s in 1986.

While it was based for a long period at AFB Waterkloof, Pretoria, due to ongoing runway and taxiway repairs at that base, the squadron operated temporarily for a period out of Johannesburg International Airport.

Operations wound down with the last operational Boeing 707 flight flown on 10 July 2007 to Bujumbura, Kinshasa and Kindu. The squadron appears to be in limbo, with conversion to the Airbus A400M cancelled.

80 Air Navigation School SAAF

80 Air Navigation School is a unit of the South African Air Force. It is currently an aerial navigation, maritime operations and maritime survival school.

Historic aircraft flown: Lockheed Ventura, various on loan

Current aircraft flown: None (the school loans the C-47TP, Cessna Caravan and PC-7 Mk.II Astra from other units as required)

Fisantekraal Airfield

Fisantekraal Airfield is an ex-South African Air Force airfield built circa 1943, and used to operate Lockheed Ventura bombers. It is located approximately 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) northeast of Durbanville It has been in private ownership since 1993. The ICAO reference code for Fisantekraal is FAFK.

Fisantekraal Airfield serves as a general flying airfield, and is a favourite for flight training in the Cape Town area. Most of the fixed wing and helicopter schools, and Air Mercy Services' Pilatus PC-12 from Cape Town International (FACT) and Morningstar airfield (Morningstar Flight Academy) also visit Fisantekraal for circuit and emergency training. Private and company aircraft sometimes pick up or drop passengers at Fisantekraal.

The largest aircraft to have landed at FAFK was as of 22 August 2017 a Lockheed C-130 Hercules, Call sign 5X-UCF, made several landings. Quite a few advertisements and movies have also been filmed on location at FAFK.

Frederick Miller

Frederick Edward John Miller (November 24, 1824 - May 11, 1888) was a brewery owner in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Born as "Friedrich Eduard Johannes Müller" in Riedlingen, Württemberg, he founded the Miller Brewing Company at the Plank Road Brewery, purchased 164 years ago in 1855. He learned the brewing business in Germany at Sigmaringen.

Miller married Josephine Miller in Friedrichshafen, Württemberg, on June 7, 1853. Their first child, Joseph Edward Miller, was born the next year. In 1854, the family emigrated to the United States, spending the first year in New York. They moved to Wisconsin in 1855, arriving through New Orleans.Josephine died in April 1860 and Miller married Lisette Gross and had five children who survived infancy: Ernst, Emil, Frederick II, Clara, and Elise. Clara married Carl A. Miller (no relation), also a German immigrant.Frederick Miller once owned a tract of land in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan that is now Craig Lake State Park.

Miller died of cancer in 1888 at age 63, and was buried in the Calvary Cemetery in Milwaukee. Following his death, the company was run by his surviving three sons and son-in-law Carl.Miller's younger daughter Elise was the mother of Harry G. John (1919–1992), president of the company from 1946–1947 and founder of the De Rance Corporation, once the world's largest Catholic charity.Older daughter Clara's son Frederick C. Miller (1906–1954) was an All-American college football player at Notre Dame under Knute Rockne and became president of the company after John in 1947. He and his 20-year-old son Fred, Jr., were killed in a plane crash in Milwaukee in 1954. The nine-passenger twin-engine company aircraft was a converted Lockheed Ventura. It was bound for Winnipeg for a December hunting trip at Portage la Prairie; the crash also killed the two company pilots, brothers Joseph and Paul Laird.

German submarine U-174

German submarine U-174 was a Type IXC U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II.

She was laid down at the DeSchiMAG AG Weser yard in Bremen as yard number 1014 on 2 January 1941, launched on 21 August and commissioned on 26 November with Fregattenkapitän Ulrich Thilo in command.

U-174 began her service career with training as part of the 4th U-boat Flotilla. She was reassigned to the 10th flotilla for operations on 1 August 1942.

She was sunk by an American Lockheed Ventura in April 1943.

Gould Airfield

Gould Airfield was an airfield south of Batchelor Airfield at Batchelor, Northern Territory, Australia during World War II.

The runway was 6,000 ft × 150 ft (1,829 m × 46 m).

H. C. Lamacraft

Harry Charles Lamacraft (born 1911 in Barnet, Hertfordshire) was an English motorcycle racer, most noted for successful exploits at the Brooklands racetrack and at the Isle of Man TT in the 1930s. He took tenth place in the 1934 Isle of Man Junior TT and tenth place in the 1935 Isle of Man Senior TT. In all, he rode in the TT 11 times, finishing above 19th place every time.

Lamacraft was most successful racing Velocette 350 cc KTT and Excelsior (Coventry) 500 cc motorcycles. His first KTT was later sold to Bert Perryman, who began his career at Brooklands with this machine. This machine is now property of Jeff Clew and can be seen in the Haynes International Motor Museum. His second Velocette, a KTT mk IV, raced at Brooklands and the Isle of Man (1933/34 TT's), won tenth place 1933 Junior TT. This machine was sold to David Vincent, who won his Gold Star at Brooklands for lapping at 100 mph during a race with Lamacraft's former motorcycle. Lamacraft won a Gold Star at Brooklands in 1935, of a lap of over 100 mph during a race. Period photographs show that he experimented with supercharging on his mkV Velocette, presumably for racing at Brooklands.

Lamacraft joined the Royal Air Force during World War II and served as a flight sergeant navigator, flying a Lockheed Ventura bomber. He was killed in a mission to destroy a power plant on 3 May 1943 over the Netherlands, aged 32. He is buried in Amersfoort, the Netherlands.

I was a Rich Man's Plaything

I was a Rich Man's Plaything is a 1947 artwork by Eduardo Paolozzi. The collage was made from cuttings from American magazines and advertisements, mounted on card. The work of juxtaposed found objects is considered a seminal piece of pop art: it was the first to include the word "pop" in its design, years before Lawrence Alloway coined the term "pop art".

The collage measures 35.9 cm × 23.8 cm (14.1 in × 9.4 in). It takes its title from words printed on the cover of Intimate Confessions magazine, the largest clipping incorporated into the design. Over that, Paolozzi pasted images of a gun emitting the word "pop" cut from the packaging of a toy pop gun, a cherry with a slice of cherry pie, and a "Real Gold" logo from a brand of California lemon juice. Also mounted on the card is an image of a Lockheed Hudson or Lockheed Ventura bomber, and part of a Coca-Cola advertisement. Paolozzi took clippings from some magazines that he was given by American ex-servicemen, and from other that he acquired from shops in London .

The original collage was one of ten from Paolozzi's "BUNK!" series, compiled from 1941 to 1952, that were exhibited in the Paolozzi retrospective held at the Tate Gallery in 1971, and which the artist presented to the gallery. They were also included in the 45 "BUNK!" collages reproduced as screenprints in a collection published in 1972. Paolozzi's "BUNK!" series was inspired by technology, popular culture, glamour and consumerism, and took its name from a quotation of Henry Ford, that "History is more or less bunk … We want to live in the present …". The word "BUNK!" is printed on one of the ten pieces held by the Tate Gallery, taken from "Evadne in Green Dimension" (1952). Paolozzi gave an illustrated lecture entitled "Bunk" at the Institute of Contemporary Arts in 1952, the first event presented by the newly formed Independent Group, mainly comprising found images from magazines and other sources, projected using an epidiascope.

Lockheed PV-2 Harpoon No. 37396

Lockheed PV-2 Harpoon, U.S. Navy Bureau Number 37396 , civil registration N7265C, named "Hot Stuff", is located at 3867 N. Aviation Way, Mount Comfort, Indiana. The aircraft, an intact example of a World War II anti-submarine patrol bomber, was added to the National Register of Historic Places on April 23, 2009. It was built in 1945 by the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation, and is one of only 104 built of this PV-2 variant of the Lockheed Ventura. At the time of its listing, it was the only complete, operable example of a PV-2 in the United States, although one was being restored in Wisconsin. While this particular plane did not see combat, the type was used in the Aleutian Islands during World War II. The property was the featured listing in the National Park Service's weekly list of May 1, 2009.

No. 113 Squadron RCAF

No. 113 (Bomber Reconnaissance) Squadron was a Royal Canadian Air Force squadron that was active during the Second World War. It was originally formed as an Army Co-operation squadron and then a Fighter squadron before being disbanded in 1939 and then reformed in 1942. It was primarily used in an anti-submarine role and was based on the east coast of Canada and Newfoundland. The squadron flew the Lockheed Hudson and Lockheed Ventura before disbanding on 10 August 1944.

No. 145 Squadron RCAF

No. 145 (Bomber Reconnaissance) Squadron was a Royal Canadian Air Force squadron that was active during the Second World War. It was primarily used in an anti-submarine role and was based on the east coast of Canada and Newfoundland. The squadron flew the Lockheed Hudson and Lockheed Ventura before disbanding on 30 June 1945.

No. 21 Squadron RAF

No. 21 Squadron of the Royal Air Force was formed in 1915 and was disbanded for the last time in 1979.

The squadron is famous for Operation Jericho on 18 February 1944, when the crews of Mosquitoes breached the walls of a Gestapo prison at Amiens, France, allowing members of the French Resistance to escape.

No. 2 Squadron RNZAF

No. 2 Squadron RNZAF was a squadron of the Royal New Zealand Air Force (RNZAF). It was formed in 1930 as part of the Territorial Air Force with the main Headquarters at Wellington and shadow flights at New Plymouth and Wanganui. Squadron personnel conducted their annual flying at RNZAF Base Wigram. In 1937 the Territorial Squadrons were re-organised and No. 2 Squadron became the Wellington Territorial Squadron.

No. 464 Squadron RAAF

No. 464 Squadron RAAF was a Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) bomber squadron during World War II. Formed in 1942 in the United Kingdom with personnel from Australia, Britain, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa and the Netherlands, the squadron served in the light bomber role, undertaking operations over France and the Low Countries, from bases in England. It also flew night fighter missions. Later, following D-Day, the squadron moved to France where it was used to interdict German transports and infrastructure. It further engaged in several low-level precision raids against Gestapo targets in France and Denmark. The squadron was disbanded in September 1945, following the conclusion of the war.

No. 487 Squadron RNZAF

No. 487 (NZ) Squadron was a Royal New Zealand Air Force light-bomber squadron, formed under Article XV of the Empire Air Training Scheme during World War II. Established in mid-1942, the squadron served in the European theatre, under the operational command of the Royal Air Force. It operated the Lockheed Ventura and de Havilland Mosquito and took part in over 3,000 operational sorties before being disbanded at the end of the war in late 1945.

No. 5 Aircraft Depot RAAF

No. 5 Aircraft Depot RAAF was formed in 1942 at RAAF Station Forest Hill near Wagga Wagga, New South Wales. The unit handled the major maintenance work on aircraft including the Bristol Beaufort, Bristol Beaufighter, Lockheed Ventura and the B-25 Mitchell. After the war, No 5 Aircraft Depot was disbanded.

No. 8 Squadron RCAF

No. 8 Squadron RCAF was a unit of the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) that was in operation from 1936 to 1945.

South African Air Force Museum

The South African Air Force Museum houses exhibits and restores material related to the history of the South African Air Force. The museum is divided into three locations, AFB Swartkop outside Pretoria, AFB Ysterplaat in Cape Town and at the Port Elizabeth airport.

Lockheed and Lockheed Martin aircraft and spacecraft
Transports
Fighter-bombers
Reconnaissance
Helicopters
Experimental
Light aircraft
Missiles
USAAS/USAAC/USAAF/USAF bomber designations, Army/Air Force and Tri-Service systems
Original sequences
(1924–1930)
Main sequence
(1930–1962)
Long-range Bomber
(1935–1936)
Non-sequential
Tri-Service sequence
(1962–current)
USAAC/USAAF observation aircraft
Observation
Observation Amphibian
USN/USMC patrol aircraft designations 1923–1962
Patrol
Patrol Bomber
Patrol Torpedo Bomber

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