Lockheed Hudson

The Lockheed Hudson was an American-built light bomber and coastal reconnaissance aircraft built initially for the Royal Air Force shortly before the outbreak of the Second World War and primarily operated by the RAF thereafter. The Hudson was a military conversion of the Lockheed Model 14 Super Electra airliner, and was the first significant aircraft construction contract for the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation—the initial RAF order for 200 Hudsons far surpassed any previous order the company had received.[1][2][3] The Hudson served throughout the war, mainly with Coastal Command but also in transport and training roles as well as delivering agents into occupied France. They were also used extensively with the Royal Canadian Air Force's anti-submarine squadrons and by the Royal Australian Air Force.

Hudson
A-28 / A-29 / AT-18
Lockheed A-29 Hudson USAAF in flight c1941
Lockheed A-29 Hudson
Role Bomber, reconnaissance, transport, maritime patrol aircraft
Manufacturer Lockheed
Designer Clarence "Kelly" Johnson
First flight 10 December 1938
Introduction 1939
Primary users Royal Air Force
Royal Canadian Air Force
Royal Australian Air Force
United States Army Air Forces
Produced 1938–1943
Number built 2,941
Developed from Lockheed Model 14 Super Electra

Design and development

Lockheed Hudson cockpit
Lockheed Hudson cockpit

In late 1937 Lockheed sent a cutaway drawing of the Model 14 to various publications, showing the new aircraft as a civilian aircraft and converted to a light bomber.[4] This attracted the interest of various air forces and in 1938, the British Purchasing Commission sought an American maritime patrol aircraft for the United Kingdom to support the Avro Anson.

The British Purchasing Commission ordered 200 aircraft for use by the Royal Air Force and the first aircraft started flight trials from Burbank on 10 December 1938.[5] The flight trials showed no major issues and deliveries to the RAF began on 15 February 1939.[5] Production was speeded up after the British indicated they would order another 50 aircraft if the original 200 could be delivered before the end of 1939.[5] Lockheed sub-contracted some parts assembly to Rohr Aircraft of San Diego and increased its workforce, the company produced the 250th aircraft seven and a half weeks before the deadline.[5]

A total of 350 Mk I and 20 Mk II Hudsons were supplied (the Mk II had different propellers). These had two fixed Browning machine guns in the nose and two more in the Boulton Paul dorsal turret. The Hudson Mk III added one ventral and two beam machine guns and replaced the 1,100 hp Wright R-1820 Cyclone 9-cylinder radials with 1,200 hp versions (428 produced).[6]

The Hudson Mk V (309 produced) and Mk VI (450 produced) were powered by the 1,200 hp Pratt & Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp 14-cylinder two-row radial. The RAF also obtained 380 Mk IIIA and 30 Mk IV Hudsons under the Lend-Lease programme.

Operational history

World War II

By February 1939, RAF Hudsons began to be delivered, initially equipping No. 224 Squadron RAF at RAF Leuchars, Scotland in May 1939. By the start of the war in September, 78 Hudsons were in service.[7] Due to the United States' neutrality at that time, early series aircraft were flown to the Canada–US border, landed, and then towed on their wheels over the border into Canada by tractors or horse drawn teams, before then being flown to Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) airfields where they were then dismantled and "cocooned" for transport as deck cargo, by ship to Liverpool. The Hudsons were supplied without the Boulton Paul dorsal turret, which was installed on arrival in the United Kingdom.

Although later outclassed by larger bombers, the Hudson achieved some significant feats during the first half of the war. On 8 October 1939, over Jutland, a Hudson became the first Allied aircraft operating from the British Isles to shoot down an enemy aircraft[8] (earlier victories by a Fairey Battle on 20 September 1939 over Aachen and by Blackburn Skuas of the Fleet Air Arm on 26 September 1939 had been by aircraft based in France or on an aircraft carrier). Hudsons also provided top cover during the Battle of Dunkirk.

On 27 August 1941, a Hudson of No. 269 Squadron RAF, operating from Kaldadarnes, Iceland, attacked and damaged the German submarine U-570 causing the submarine's crew to display a white flag and surrender – the aircraft achieved the unusual distinction of capturing a naval vessel. The Germans were taken prisoner and the submarine taken under tow when Royal Navy ships subsequently arrived on the scene.[9] A PBO-1 Hudson of the United States Navy squadron VP-82 became the first US aircraft to destroy a German submarine,[10] when it sank U-656 southwest of Newfoundland on 1 March 1942. U-701 was destroyed on 7 July 1942 while running on the surface off Cape Hatteras by a Hudson of the 396th Bombardment Squadron (Medium), United States Army Air Forces (USAAF). A Hudson of No. 113 Squadron RCAF became the first aircraft of the RCAF's Eastern Air Command to sink a submarine, when Hudson 625 sank U-754 on 31 July 1942.[11]

A Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) Hudson was involved in the Canberra air disaster of 1940, in which three ministers of the Australian government were killed.

In 1941, the USAAF began operating the Hudson; the Twin Wasp-powered variant was designated the A-28 (82 acquired) and the Cyclone-powered variant was designated the A-29 (418 acquired). The US Navy operated 20 A-29s, redesignated the PBO-1. A further 300 were built as aircrew trainers, designated the AT-18.

Following Japanese attacks on Malaya, Hudsons from No. 1 Squadron RAAF became the first Allied aircraft to make an attack in the Pacific War, sinking a Japanese transport ship, the Awazisan Maru, off Kota Bharu at 0118h local time, an hour before the attack on Pearl Harbor.

Its opponents found that the Hudson had exceptional manoeuvrability for a twin-engine aircraft; it was notable for the tight turns achievable if either engine was briefly feathered.

  • The highest-scoring Japanese ace of the war, Saburō Sakai, praised the skill and fighting abilities of an RAAF Hudson crew killed in action over New Guinea after being engaged by nine highly-manoeuvrable Mitsubishi A6M Zeroes on 22 July 1942.[12][13] The crew, captained by P/O Warren Cowan, in Hudson Mk IIIA A16-201 (bu. no. 41-36979) of No. 32 Squadron RAAF, was intercepted over Buna by nine Zeroes of the Tainan Kaigun Kōkūtai led by Sakai. The Hudson crew accomplished many aggressive and unexpected turns, engaging the Japanese pilots in a dogfight for more than 10 minutes. It was only after Sakai scored hits on the rear/upper turret that the Hudson could be destroyed. Its crew made such an impression on Sakai that, after the war's end, he sought to identify them. In 1997, Sakai wrote formally to the Australian government, recommending that Cowan be "posthumously awarded your country's highest military decoration".[12]
  • On 23 November 1942, the crew of a No. 3 Squadron, Royal New Zealand Air Force (RNZAF) Hudson Mk IIIA, NZ2049,[14] (41-46465) after spotting an enemy convoy near Vella Lavella, was engaged by three Japanese floatplane fighters. After skilled evasive manoeuvring at an altitude of less than 50 feet (15 metres), by the Hudson's captain, Flying Officer George Gudsell,[15] the crew returned with no casualties to Henderson Field, Guadalcanal.

Hudsons were also operated by RAF Special Duties squadrons for clandestine operations; No. 161 Squadron in Europe and No. 357 Squadron in Burma.

Postwar

Lockheed L-414 VH-AGS Adastra SYD 09.04.71 edited-2
Hudson III, ex RAAF, operated by Adastra Aerial Surveys 1953–1972

Postwar, numbers of Hudsons were sold by the military for civil operation as airliners and survey aircraft. In Australia, East-West Airlines of Tamworth, New South Wales (NSW), operated four Hudsons on scheduled services from Tamworth to many towns in NSW and Queensland between 1950 and 1955.[16] Adastra Aerial Surveys based at Sydney's Mascot Airport operated seven L-414s between 1950 and 1972 on air taxi, survey and photographic flights.[17]

A total of 2,941 Hudsons were built.[18]

The type formed the basis for development of the Lockheed Ventura resulting in them being withdrawn from front line service from 1944, though many survived the war to be used as civil transports, primarily in Australia and a single example was briefly used as an airline crew trainer in New Zealand.

Variants

Lockheed Hudson ExCC
A Hudson I from 11 Squadron, RCAF.
Hudson V 48 Sqn RAF in flight 1942
A Hudson Mk V of No. 48 Squadron RAF, in early 1942.
Model 414
Company designation for the military A-28 / A-29 and Hudson variants.
Hudson I
Production aircraft for the Royal Air Force (RAF); 351 built and 50 for the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF).
Hudson II
As the Mk I but with spinnerless constant speed propellers; 20 built for the RAF and 50 for the RAAF.
Hudson III
Production aircraft with retractable ventral gun position; 428 built.
Hudson IIIA
Lend-lease variants of the A-29 and A-29A aircraft; 800 built.
Hudson IV
As Mk II with ventral gun removed; 30 built and RAAF Mk I and IIs were converted to this standard.
Hudson IVA
52 A-28s delivered to the RAAF.
Hudson V
Mk III with two 1,200 hp (890 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-1830-S3C4-G Twin Wasp engines; 409 built.
Hudson VI
A-28As under lend-lease; 450 built.
A-28
US Military designation powered by two 1,050 hp (780 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-1830-45 engines; 52 lend-lease to Australia as Hudson IVA.[19]
A-28A
US Military designation powered by two 1,200 hp (890 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-1830-67 engines , interiors convertible to troop transports; 450 lend-lease to RAF/RCAF/RNZAF as Hudson VI; 27 units passed to the Brazilian Air Force.[19]
A-29
US Military designation powered by two 1,200 hp (890 kW) Wright R-1820-87 engines; lend lease version intended for the RAF, 153 diverted to United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) as the RA-29 and 20 to the United States Navy (USN) as the PBO-1.[19]
A-29A
as A-29 but with convertible interiors as troop transports; 384 lend-lease to the RAF/RAAF/RCAF/RNZAF Chinese Air Force as Hudson IIIA, some retained by USAAF as the RA-29A.[19]
A-29B
24 of the 153 A-29s retained by the USAAF converted for photo-survey.[19]
PBO-1 VP-82 NAS Argentia
A US Navy PBO-1 from VP-82 at Argentia, 1942.
AT-18
Gunnery trainer version of the A-29 powered by two Wright R-1820-87 engines, 217 built.
AT-18A
Navigational trainer version with dorsal turret removed, 83 built.
C-63
Provisional designation changed to A-29A.
PBO-1
Twenty former RAF Hudson IIIAs repossessed for use by Patrol Squadron 82 (VP-82) of the USN

Operators

RAAF 13 Sqn (AWM AC0069)
Two Australian Lockheed Hudsons in 1940
 Australia
 Brazil
 Canada
 China
 Ireland
 Israel
 Netherlands
RNZAFMuseumLockheed Hudson
Hudson in the RNZAF Museum.
 New Zealand
 Portugal
 South Africa
 United Kingdom
 United States
RAF Lockheed Hudson
Lockheed Hudson Mk IIIA (T9422) at the North Atlantic Aviation Museum, Gander, Newfoundland

Civil operators

 Australia
 Portugal
 Trinidad and Tobago
 United Kingdom

Surviving aircraft

Lockheed Hudson III Point Cook Vabre
Hudson Mk III at Point Cook (2008).
Hudson bomber passenger variant DSC02062
A Hudson Bomber converted for civilian passenger use after the Second World War and flown by East-West Airlines; it is restored as a Hudson Mk III and is currently located at the Temora Aviation Museum
Australia
Canada
New Zealand
United Kingdom

Specifications (Hudson Mk I)

Lockheed A-29 Hudson

Data from

General characteristics

Performance

Armament

See also

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Related lists

References

Notes

  1. ^ Herman 2012, pp. 11, 85, 86.
  2. ^ Parker 2013, pp. 59, 71.
  3. ^ Borth 1945, p. 244.
  4. ^ Bonnier Corporation (November 1937). "New Transport Plane Can Be Converted To Bomber". Popular Science Monthly. Bonnier Corporation. p. 64.
  5. ^ a b c d Francillon 1982, p. 146.
  6. ^ Parker 2013, p. 71.
  7. ^ Kightly 2015, p. 80.
  8. ^ "Collections: Lockheed Hudson IIIA." RAF Museum. Retrieved: 15 October 2014.
  9. ^ Thomas, Andrew. "Icelandic Hunters - No 269 Squadron Royal Air Force." Aviation News, 24 May 2001. Retrieved: 15 October 2014.
  10. ^ Swanborough and Bowers 1976, p. 505.
  11. ^ Douglas 1986, p. 520.
  12. ^ a b "Australian Story: Enemy Lines". ABC-TV, 2002. Retrieved: 30 April 2014.
  13. ^ Birkett, Gordon. "RAAF A16 Lockheed Hudson Mk.I/Mk.II/Mk.III/Mk.IIIA/Mk.IV/MK.IVA". ADF-Serials, 2013. Retrieved: 30 April 2014.
  14. ^ "RNZAF Lockheed Hudson Survivors." Cambridge Air Force, 2008. Retrieved: 15 July 2010.
  15. ^ "A Veteran's Advice." Archived 2010-05-22 at the Wayback Machine rsa.org.nz. Retrieved: 15 July 2010.
  16. ^ Marson 2001, p. 110.
  17. ^ Marson 2001, p. 76.
  18. ^ Francillon 1987, pp. 148, 501–502.
  19. ^ a b c d e Francillon 1982, pp. 151–152.
  20. ^ Lake 1999, p. 5
  21. ^ "LOCKHEED HUDSON". Adastra Aerial Surveys. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  22. ^ Connery, Georgina (22 December 2016). "Restored Lockheed Hudson bomber on display at Canberra Airport". The Canberra Times. Fairfax Media. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
  23. ^ "Lockheed Hudson Mk IV bomber A16-105 : 1 Operational Training Unit, RAAF". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  24. ^ "Blog: Lockheed Hudson Mk IV bomber A16-105". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  25. ^ "Airframe Dossier - Lockheed Hudson IV, s/n A16-105 RAAF, c/n 414-6034, c/r VH-AGP". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  26. ^ Cuskelly, Ron (25 October 2016). "VH-AGP". Adastra Aerial Surveys. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  27. ^ "Lockheed Hudson". Temora Aviation Museum. Temora Aviation Museum. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  28. ^ "Airframe Dossier - Lockheed Hudson IV, s/n A16-112 RAAF, c/n 414-6041, c/r VH-KOY". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  29. ^ "Aircraft Register [VH-KOY]". Australian Government Civil Aviation Safety Authority. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  30. ^ Cuskelly, Ron (26 February 2016). "VH-AGS". Adastra Aerial Surveys. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  31. ^ "Airframe Dossier - Lockheed Hudson IVA, s/n A16-122 RAAF, c/n 414-6051, c/r VH-AGX". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  32. ^ Cuskelly, Ron (12 September 2016). "VH-AGX". Adastra Aerial Surveys. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  33. ^ "Lockheed Hudson Bomber". North Atlantic Aviation Museum. North Atlantic Aviation Museum. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  34. ^ "Restoration". National Air Force Museum of Canada. National Air Force Museum of Canada. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
  35. ^ "Featured Aircraft". Air Force Museum of New Zealand. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  36. ^ "AVIATION". Museum of Transport and Technology. MOTAT. Archived from the original on 13 November 2016. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  37. ^ Wesley, Richard (23 December 2007). "Lockheed 414 Hudson GR.III". MOTAT Aircraft Collection. Blogger. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  38. ^ "Lockheed Hudson NZ2035". Ferrymead Aeronautical Society. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  39. ^ "Airframe Dossier - Lockheed Hudson III, s/n NZ2035 RNZAF, c/n 414-3858". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  40. ^ a b Homewood, Dave. "Royal New Zealand Air Force Lockheed Hudson Survivors". Wings Over Cambridge. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  41. ^ a b "RNZAF Lockheed Hudson Mk.III, Mk.IIIA, Mk.V & Mk.VI NZ2001 to NZ2094". NZDF-SERIALS. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  42. ^ "Lockheed Hudson IIIA". Royal Air Force Museum. Trustees of the Royal Air Force Museum. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  43. ^ Simpson, Andrew (2012). "INDIVIDUAL HISTORY" (PDF). Royal Air Force Museum. Royal Air Force Museum. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  44. ^ Cuskelly, Ron (2 March 2016). "VH-AGJ". Adastra Aerial Surveys. Retrieved 13 December 2016.

Bibliography

  • Borth, Christy. Masters of Mass Production. Indianapolis, Indiana: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1945.
  • Douglas, W.A.B. The Creation of a National Air Force. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Toronto Press, 1986. ISBN 978-0-80202-584-5.
  • Francillon, René J. (1982). Lockheed Aircraft since 1913. London: Putnam & Company. ISBN 0-370-30329-6..
  • Francillon, René. Lockheed Aircraft since 1913. London: Putnam, 1987. ISBN 0-85177-805-4.
  • Herman, Arthur. Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II. New York: Random House, 2012. ISBN 978-1-4000-6964-4.
  • Kightly, James."Database: Lockheed Hudson". Aeroplane, Vol. 43, No. 10, October 2015. pp. 73–88.
  • Marson, Peter J. The Lockheed Twins. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd, 2001. ISBN 0-85130-284-X.
  • Parker, Dana T. Building Victory: Aircraft Manufacturing in the Los Angeles Area in World War II. Cypress, California: Amazon Digital Services, Inc., 2013. ISBN 978-0-9897906-0-4.
  • Swanborough, Gordon and Peter M. Bowers. United States Navy Aircraft since 1911. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1976. ISBN 0-87021-792-5.
  • Vincent, David. The RAAF Hudson Story: Book One Highbury, South Australia: David Vincent, 1999. ISBN 0-9596052-2-3
  • Lake, Alan. Flying Units of the RAF – The ancestry, formation and disbandment of all flying units from 1912. Airlife Publishing Ltd, Shrewsbury, UK, 1999, ISBN 1840370866.

External links

Ayatosan Maru

The Ayatosan Maru (綾戸山丸 貨物船) was a 9,788 gross ton (10,930DWT) freighter that was built by Tama Shipbuilding Co., Tamano for Mitsui & Co. Ltd. launched in 1939. She had been intended to run the New York passenger and freight run, however she was requisitioned by the Imperial Japanese Navy and fitted out as a high-speed transport, which was completed in May 1941.

During the invasion of Malaya she was damaged by Royal Australian Air Force Lockheed Hudson light bombers and a blaze broke out which was later extinguished. She was also damaged by a torpedo from the Dutch submarine HNLMS O-16.

While unloading troops and supplies at Gona on 21 July 1942, she was bombed by United States Army Air Forces and Royal Australian Air Force bombers and was sunk at 8°50′S 148°50′E, with the loss of forty lives and three vehicles. Two other transports that had completed unloading escaped with their escort. She became known as "The Gona Wreck" with allied patrols investigating and confirming the ship's identity. The wreck was later used to range artillery and as a bombing target by Allied forces.

No. 113 Squadron RCAF

No. 113 (Bomber Reconnaissance) Squadron was a Royal Canadian Air Force squadron that was active during the Second World War. It was originally formed as an Army Co-operation squadron and then a Fighter squadron before being disbanded in 1939 and then reformed in 1942. It was primarily used in an anti-submarine role and was based on the east coast of Canada and Newfoundland. The squadron flew the Lockheed Hudson and Lockheed Ventura before disbanding on 10 August 1944.

No. 11 Squadron RCAF

No. 11 Squadron RCAF was a Royal Canadian Air Force squadron that was active during the Second World War. It was primarily used in an anti-submarine role and was based on the east coast of Canada and Newfoundland. In 1945 it moved bases to Patricia Bay, British Columbia. The squadron flew the Lockheed Hudson and Consolidated B-24 Liberator before disbanding on 15 September.

No. 145 Squadron RCAF

No. 145 (Bomber Reconnaissance) Squadron was a Royal Canadian Air Force squadron that was active during the Second World War. It was primarily used in an anti-submarine role and was based on the east coast of Canada and Newfoundland. The squadron flew the Lockheed Hudson and Lockheed Ventura before disbanding on 30 June 1945.

No. 200 Squadron RAF

No. 200 Squadron of the Royal Air Force operated during the First and Second World War. The squadron was first formed in mid-1917 and during the First World War, it undertook a training role, before being disbanded in mid-1919. It was re-formed in 1941, and operated maritime patrol aircraft firstly from the United Kingdom, and then west Africa until early 1944 when it moved to India. In April 1945, the squadron was disbanded, having been renumbered No. 8 Squadron RAF.

No. 206 Squadron RAF

No. 206 Squadron is a Test and Evaluation Squadron of the Royal Air Force. Until 2005 it was employed in the maritime patrol role with the Nimrod MR.2 at RAF Kinloss, Moray. It was announced in December 2004 that 206 Squadron would disband on 1 April 2005, with half of its crews being redistributed to Nos. 120 and 201 Squadrons, also stationed at Kinloss. This was a part of the UK Defence Review called Delivering Security in a Changing World; the Nimrod MR.2 fleet was reduced in number from 21 to 16 as a consequence.

No. 224 Squadron RAF

No. 224 Squadron RAF was a Royal Air Force squadron that saw service in both the First and Second World Wars.

No. 24 Squadron RAF

No. 24 Squadron (also known as No. XXIV Squadron) of the Royal Air Force is the Air Mobility Operational Conversion Unit (AMOCU). Based at RAF Brize Norton in Oxfordshire, 24 Squadron is responsible for aircrew training (C-130J Hercules and A400M Atlas) and engineer training (C130J Hercules, A400M Atlas and C17 Globemaster).

No. 320 (Netherlands) Squadron RAF

No. 320 (Netherlands) Squadron RAF was a unit of the Royal Air Force during World War II formed from the personnel of the Royal Netherlands Naval Air Service.

No. 459 Squadron RAAF

No. 459 Squadron RAAF was a Royal Australian Air Force squadron that operated during World War II. It was formed in early 1942 and served as a maritime patrol and bomber unit in the Mediterranean theatre until early 1945, operating mainly Lockheed Hudson aircraft. In early 1945, the squadron was transferred to the United Kingdom with the intention of being transferred to RAF Coastal Command and converting to Vickers Wellington bombers; however, due to a series of delays the conversion was not completed and the squadron was disbanded in April 1945.

No. 62 Squadron RAF

No. 62 Squadron of the Royal Air Force was originally established as a Royal Flying Corps squadron in 1916 and operated the Bristol F2B fighter in France during the last year of World War I. After the war the squadron was disbanded and it was re-established in 1937 as part of the buildup of the RAF in the late 1930s. During World War II the Squadron was deployed to the Far East, operating the Bristol Blenheim from Singapore and Malaya. In 1942 No. 62 Squadron was re-equipped with the Lockheed Hudson and it moved to Sumatra, then Burma and then India. After the close of World War II the squadron disbanded for the second time. It was briefly re-established from 1946 to 1947 as a Dakota squadron and operated out of Burma and India. It final incarnation was as a Bristol Bloodhound missile unit in the early 1960s.

No. 7 Squadron RAAF

No. 7 Squadron was an Australian flying training squadron of World War I and medium bomber squadron of World War II. The squadron was formed in England in October 1917 as part of the Australian Flying Corps, and disbanded in early 1919. It was re-formed by the Royal Australian Air Force on paper in June 1940, and operationally in January 1942. After seeing action during the Pacific War flying Lockheed Hudson and, later, DAP Beaufort bombers, the squadron was disbanded a second time in December 1945.

No. 8 Squadron RAAF

No. 8 Squadron was an Australian flying training squadron of World War I and medium bomber squadron of World War II. The squadron was formed in England in October 1917 as part of the Australian Flying Corps, and disbanded in April 1919. It was re-formed by the Royal Australian Air Force in September 1939. After seeing action during the Pacific War flying Lockheed Hudson and, later, DAF Beaufort bombers, the squadron was disbanded a second time in January 1946.

RAF Bircham Newton

Royal Air Force Bircham Newton or more simply RAF Bircham Newton is a former Royal Air Force station located 2.1 miles (3.4 km) south east of Docking, Norfolk and 13.4 miles (21.6 km) north east of King's Lynn, Norfolk, England.

RAF Coastal Command order of battle during World War II

This article lists the order of battle of RAF Coastal Command throughout the Second World War in the European Theatre of World War II.

RAF Docking

RAF Docking was a RAF Station of the Second World War a few miles from Bircham Newton in Norfolk.

It was a satellite airfield for the RAF Coastal Command station at RAF Bircham Newton and was mostly used for overflow from there.

A grass airfield, with eight blister hangars and one A1 hangar, was laid out soon after the outbreak of war and the first squadron to operate from there was No. 235 Squadron RAF using Bristol Blenheims for convoy escort and anti-shipping operations in the North Sea. These were then replaced by the Lockheed Hudson.

A meteorological observation unit No. 405 Flight of Bomber Command was set up as part of the effort to gain important weather information. When Coastal Command took over all the meteorological units this became No. 1401 (Met) Flight and received a greater variety of aircraft. As well as Blenheims it operated Spitfires, Gloster Gladiator biplanes and Hawker Hurricanes. These aircraft were all used to take measurements of temperature and humidity; from 40,000 ft downwards in precise areas. In August 1942 the Flight was made into a Squadron - No. 521 - with Hudsons Hampdens, Mosquitos and Venturas. The squadron's Mosquitos would operate deep into occupied Europe to take measurements over target areas; known as "PAMPA". In 1944 the squadron moved to the other satellite for Bircham Newton, RAF Langham

RAF St Eval

Royal Air Force St. Eval or RAF St. Eval was a strategic Royal Air Force station for the RAF Coastal Command during the Second World War (situated in Cornwall, England, UK). St Eval's primary role was to provide anti-submarine and anti-shipping patrols off the south west coast. Aircraft from the airfield were also used for photographic reconnaissance missions, meteorological flights, convoy patrols, air-sea rescue missions and protection of the airfield from the Luftwaffe.

RCAF Eastern Air Command

Eastern Air Command was the part of the Royal Canadian Air Force's Home War Establishment responsible for air operations on the Atlantic coast of Canada during the Second World War. It played a critical role in anti-submarine operations in Canadian and Newfoundland waters during the Battle of the Atlantic. Eastern Air Command also had several fighter squadrons and operational training units under its umbrella.

Sattler Airfield

Sattler Airfield is an abandoned airfield in the Northern Territory of Australia that was constructed 32 km (20 mi) to the south of Darwin during World War II in what is now the locality of Bees Creek. It was named after Flight Lieutenant Geoffery Sattler, the commander of a Lockheed Hudson A16-7, who died on 12 January 1942 at Keema Bay, North Celebes with the rest of his crew. On 2 April 1942, the then new Sattler RAAF airfield was bombed by the Japanese Imperial Forces. There was minimal damage. There were no Allied planes at the base as it was still under construction.

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