Lochmaben

Lochmaben (Gaelic: Loch Mhabain) is a small town and civil parish in Scotland, and site of a once-important castle. It lies four miles west of Lockerbie, in Dumfries and Galloway.

Lochmaben
Lochmaben is located in Dumfries and Galloway
Lochmaben
Lochmaben
Location within Dumfries and Galloway
LanguageEnglish
OS grid referenceNY081824
Council area
Lieutenancy area
CountryScotland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townLockerbie
Postcode districtDG11
PoliceScottish
FireScottish
AmbulanceScottish
EU ParliamentScotland
UK Parliament
Scottish Parliament
Lochmaben town centre
Lochmaben town centre showing the town hall and a statue of Robert Bruce

History

Etymology

The name Loch Mhabain is possibly a corruption of Loch Mhaol Bheinn ("Lake on the bare mountain"). It is likely however, that the name Lochmaben represents the Roman name Locus Maponi.[1] This name is Brittonic in origin,[1] and contains the element luch, meaning "marshy or brackish water" (Welsh llwch, Gaelic loch),[1] and the name Mapon, a deity name meaning "Great (divine) son or youth".[1] The first part of the name could also be explained as log,[1] an element derived from Latin locus, "a place".[1]

Early inhabitants

Lochmaben has been inhabited since earliest times due to its strategic position on the routes from England to Scotland and Ireland, to the small lochs surrounding it and to the relatively fertile soil in the area. The first inhabitants may have lived in crannogs in the lochs.

After the Roman departure from the area around Dumfries the locale had various forms of visit by Picts, Saxons, Scots and Danes culminating in a decisive victory over the native Britons in 890 for Giric mac Dúngail (Modern Gaelic: Griogair mac Dhunghail,[2] known in English simply as Giric and nicknamed Mac Rath ("Son of Fortune");[3] fl. c. 878–889), who was a king of the Picts or the king of Alba, at what is now Lochmaben.[4]

Lords of Annandale

By 1160, the Anglo-Norman de Brus (Bruce) family had become the Lords of Annandale. Robert de Brus Lord of Skelton in the Cleveland area of Yorkshire, was a notable figure at the court of King Henry I of England, where he became intimate with Prince David of Scotland, that monarch's brother-in-law. When the Prince became King David I of Scotland, in 1124, Bruce obtained from him the Lordship of Annandale, and great possessions in the south of Scotland. (de Brus was nevertheless buried at Guisborough, the place of his birth). By the 15th century the Lordship was in the hands of Alexander Stewart, Duke of Albany. Following his death in 1485 it, and the castle of Lochmaben, were annexed to the Crown by Act of Parliament dated 1 October 1487.[5]

Castles and battles

Lochmaben Castle
Lochmaben Castle ruins
The imperial gazetteer of Scotland; or, Dictionary of Scottish topography, compiled from the most recent authorities, and forming a complete body of Scottish geography, physical, statistical, and (14802355833)
Lochmaben Castle in an 1886 etching

At some point in the 13th century the Bruces built a castle, probably a keep, at Lochmaben, the remains of which now lie under a golf course. It is claimed that King Robert the Bruce was born there, which is why the town adopted the motto "E Nobis Liberator Rex" ("From us is sprung a liberator king") on its coat of arms. [6] However, this claim is relatively late; it cannot be ruled out, but his birthplace was more likely Turnberry Castle. Bruce certainly battled the English over this area during the Wars of Scottish Independence.

The English King Edward replaced the castle with a much sturdier structure at the south end of Castle Loch around 1300 and its remains still show the massive strength of its defences. Archibald Douglas, Lord of Galloway, with the assistance of the Earls of March and Douglas, after a siege of nine days, took Lochmaben Castle from the English and "razed it to the ground" on 4 February 1384/5. The castle and barony became a possession of the Earls of March, but when the 10th Earl was forfeited and then reinstated, in 1409, it is noted that it was "with the exception of the castle of Lochmaben and the Lordship of Annandale."

The Battle of Lochmaben Fair was fought on 22 July 1484: a force of 500 light horsemen led by Alexander Stewart, Duke of Albany and James Douglas, 9th Earl of Douglas invaded Scotland, but were defeated.

On 16 January 1508/9, at Edinburgh, Sir Robert Lauder of The Bass (d.1517/8), knight, was appointed "Captain and Keeper of the King's castle and fort of Lochmaben, with all pertinentes" and other privileges etc., for three years.[7] In 1605 the Depute Lieutenant of the Borders, Sir William Cranstoun of that Ilk (later 1st Lord Cranstoun), was Keeper of Lochmaben Castle.[8]

Lochmaben remained important and had a turbulent history until some time after the early 17th century by which time the castle had seen its last siege and was gradually abandoned.

Town

The town had prospered and become a Royal Burgh in 1447, and a Royal Charter in 1579. Its importance waned with the peace that was to become the norm, but it had sufficient resources to build a substantial Tolbooth (later the village Hall) in 1723. The town is well found with a broad main street and the town is set in rolling countryside. The railway came in 1863, with Lochmaben a stop on the Dumfries to Lockerbie line, and brought easy communication both north and south. It closed to passengers in 1952 and to freight in 1966.

Healthcare

Lochmaben Hospital was opened in 1905 as an infectious diseases hospital but, with the virtual demise of these diseases, it is now a modern 16-bed community facility caring for both physical and psychiatric problems.

There is also a doctors' surgery.

Education

Lochmaben Primary School is one of the largest in Annandale. The school moved to new premises in 1982.

Recreation

It also has an 18-hole golf course surrounding the Kirk loch on the edge of the town. Lochmaben has 3 main lochs: Kirk Loch, Castle Loch and the Mill Loch. It also has 2 smaller lochs: The Blind Loch and the Upper Loch. The town’s lochs thrive with both sailing and fishing taking place throughout the year. In some years in winters of prolonged frost curling has taken place on the frozen lochs, mostly the Kirk Loch.

A 53-mile long-distance walking route called Annandale Way[9] running through Annandale (from the source of the River Annan to the sea) was opened in September 2009.[10] The route passes through Lochmaben and along the bank of Castle Loch. It offers interesting walking from Lochmaben on a day walk basis.

Business

Many inhabitants commute to the nearby Arla Foods factory, which produces 2 million bottles of milk per week.

Notable people

Kirklochsunset
The Kirk loch at sunset

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f James, Alan. "A Guide to the Place-Name Evidence" (PDF). SPNS - The Brittonic Language in the Old North. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
  2. ^ Giric mac Dúngail is the Mediaeval form.
  3. ^ Skene, Chronicles, p. 87.
  4. ^ "History of the Burgh of Dumfries – Chapter I". Electricscotland.com. Retrieved 2014-01-03.
  5. ^ Cokayne, G. E.,The Complete Peerage, edited by the Hon. Vicary Gibbs, vol. 1, London, 1910, p. 81.
  6. ^ http://www.ngw.nl/heraldrywiki/index.php?title=Lochmaben
  7. ^ The Register of the Privy Seal of Scotland edited by M. Livingstone, I.S.O., vol.1, 1488–1529, Edinburgh, 1908, number 1799, pps: 273/274.
  8. ^ James Balfour Paul,The Scots Peerage, under 'Cranstoun' pp. 592/3.
  9. ^ "Annandale Way website". Annandaleway.org. Retrieved 2014-01-03.
  10. ^ "The Long Distance Walkers Association – Annandale Way". Ldwa.org.uk. Retrieved 2014-01-03.
  • The Visitation of Yorkshire, 1563/4, by William Flower, Norroy King of Arms, and edited by Charles B. Northcliffe, M.A., of Langton, London, 1881, p. 40
  • The Dormant, Abeyant, Forfeited, and Extinct Peerages of the British Empire, by Sir Bernard Burke, C.B.,LL.D., Ulster King of Arms, &c., London, 1883, p. 80.
  • Scottish Kings, 1005-1626, by Sir Archibald H Dunbar, Bt., Edinburgh, 1899.

External links

Annan (Parliament of Scotland constituency)

Annan in Dumfriesshire was a royal burgh that returned one commissioner to the Parliament of Scotland and to the Convention of Estates.

After the Acts of Union 1707, Annan, Dumfries, Kirkcudbright, Lochmaben and Sanquhar formed the Dumfries district of burghs, returning one member between them to the House of Commons of Great Britain.

Annandale Way

The Annandale Way is a 90-kilometre (56 mi) hiking trail in Scotland, which is officially designated by Scottish Natural Heritage as one of Scotland's Great Trails. It follows the valley of the River Annan from its source in the Moffat Hills to the sea in the Solway Firth south of the town of Annan. The route, which was established on 12 September 2009, has been designed to be traversable in four to five days as a continuous walk but it also offers several day-walks. Overnight stops can be arranged in small market towns and villages along the route such as Moffat, Johnstonebridge, Lochmaben, Lockerbie, or Annan. The route has been developed by Sulwath Connections and local communities, with the support of local estates and farmers, to help promote Annandale as a new area for walking. Its trailheads are near the Devil's Beef Tub in the Moffat Hills and on the Solway Firth just south of Annan, in Newbie.

Battle of Lochmaben Fair

The Battle of Lochmaben Fair was an engagement in Lochmaben, Scotland, on 22 July 1484 between Scottish loyalists to James III of Scotland and the rebels Alexander Stewart, Duke of Albany and James Douglas, 9th Earl of Douglas, leading cavalry from England. Both exiles from Scotland, Albany and Douglas invaded with permission but not support of Richard III of England, hoping to encourage rebellion against James. Instead, they were met with armed resistance. The loyalists took the day. Douglas was captured and Albany forced to retreat.

Battle of Sark

The Battle of Sark, alternatively called the Battle of Lochmaben Stone, was fought between England and Scotland in October 1448. A large battle, it was the first significant Scottish victory over the English in over half a century, following the Battle of Otterburn of 1388. It placed the Scots in a position of strength against the English for over a decade, until Edward IV ascended the English throne, and it brought the powerful Douglas family to even greater prominence in Scotland.

Castle Loch

Castle Loch is a shallow eutrophic loch covering an area of around 100 hectares in the town of Lochmaben in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland. It lies to the west of Mochrum Loch and has 2 islets. The ruined Lochmaben Castle lies at the southern end of the loch.

Clan Johnstone

Clan Johnstone is a Border Reiver Scottish clan.

Crichton F.C.

Crichton Football Club was a football club based in Dumfries in Scotland.

Dumfries, Lochmaben and Lockerbie Railway

The Dumfries, Lochmaben and Lockerbie Railway was a railway in Dumfriesshire, Scotland. It connected Dumfries with Lockerbie via Lochmaben. Promoted independently, it was absorbed by the Caledonian Railway to give access to Dumfriesshire and later to Portpatrick for the Irish ferry service. It opened in 1863, closed to ordinary passenger services in 1952, and closed completely in 1966.

Dumfries (Parliament of Scotland constituency)

Dumfries was a royal burgh that returned one commissioner to the Parliament of Scotland and to the Convention of Estates.

After the Acts of Union 1707, Dumfries, Annan, Kirkcudbright, Lochmaben and Sanquhar formed the Dumfries district of burghs, returning one member between them to the House of Commons of Great Britain.

Earl of Annandale and Hartfell

Earl of Annandale and Hartfell is a title in the Peerage of Scotland, created in 1661 for James Johnstone.

In 1625, the title of Earl of Annandale had been created for John Murray, but it became extinct when his son James died without heirs.

James Johnstone, son of Sir James Johnstone, Warden of the West Marches, was created Lord Johnstone of Lochwood in 1633, and in 1643, was further created Earl of Hartfell. Johnstone's son, also James, resigned the earldom and received a regrant of the title, as Earl of Annandale and Hartfell, in 1661, and a further regrant of the same title, but by crown charter, in 1662 to his heirs male of the body, whom failing, his heirs female of the body. William, the second Earl of Annandale and Hartfell, was created Marquess of Annandale in 1701. At the death of the third marquess, no one could prove a claim to the peerages of either earldoms and therefore they became dormant.

The earldoms remained dormant until Patrick Hope-Johnstone's claim was approved by the House of Lords in 1985. The Committee for Privileges ruled that the Charles II 1662 charter of regrant of lands constituted the creation of a new title. The title therefore descended through the female line in the person of Lady Henrietta Johnstone (who married Charles the First Earl of Hopetoun) to Patrick Hope-Johnstone.

The current earl holds the subsidiary title of Lord Johnstone (1662), in the peerage of Scotland.

The family seat is Raehills, near Lockerbie, Dumfriesshire.

John Marius Wilson

Rev. John Marius Wilson (c.1805–1885) was a British writer and an editor, most notable for his gazetteers. The Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales (published 1870–72), was a substantial topographical dictionary in six volumes. It was a companion to his Imperial Gazetteer of Scotland, published 1854–57.

He was born in Lochmaben, Dumfriesshire in about 1805, and was ordained as a Congregationalist minister, working for a time in County Galway in Ireland. From the late 1840s onwards he devoted himself to writing and editing, living in Edinburgh, where he died in 1885, aged 80.

List of listed buildings in Lochmaben, Dumfries and Galloway

This is a list of listed buildings in the civil parish of Lochmaben in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland.

Lochmaben (Parliament of Scotland constituency)

Lochmaben in Dumfriesshire was a royal burgh that returned one commissioner to the Parliament of Scotland and to the Convention of Estates.

After the Acts of Union 1707, Lochmaben, Annan, Dumfries, Kirkcudbright and Sanquhar formed the Dumfries district of burghs, returning one member between them to the House of Commons of Great Britain.

Lochmaben Castle

Lochmaben Castle is a ruined castle in the town of Lochmaben, the feudal Lordship of Annandale, and the united county of Dumfries and Galloway. It was built by Edward I in the 13th and 14th centuries, and later rebuilt during the reign of James IV of Scotland. An earlier motte-and-bailey castle was built south of the current castle in c. 1160 by the Bruce family, Lords of Annandale.

King Edward replaced the castle with a much sturdier structure at the south end of Castle Loch around 1300 and its remains still show the massive strength of its defences. Archibald Douglas, Lord of Galloway, with the assistance of the Earls of March and Douglas, after a siege of nine days, took Lochmaben Castle from the English and "razed it to the ground" on 4 February 1384/5. The castle and barony became a possession of the Earls of March, but when the 10th Earl was forfeited and then reinstated, in 1409, it is noted that it was "with the exception of the castle of Lochmaben and the Lordship of Annandale" which by July 1455 was in the possession of Alexander Stewart, Duke of Albany, etc.,(d.1485). Following his death both the Lordship and the castle were annexed to the Crown by Act of Parliament dated October 1, 1487.On 16 January 1508/9, at Edinburgh, Sir Robert Lauder of The Bass (d.1517/8), knight, was appointed "Captain and Keeper of the King's castle and fort of Lochmaben, with all pertinentes" and other privileges etc., for three years.In June 1592 Francis Stewart, 5th Earl of Bothwell dressed as a woman and captured the castle.In 1605 the Depute Lieutenant of the Borders, Sir William Cranstoun of that Ilk (later 1st Lord Cranstoun), was Keeper of Lochmaben Castle.Lochmaben Castle remained important and had a turbulent history until some time after the early 17th century by which time it had seen its last siege and was gradually abandoned. It is now protected as a scheduled monument.Lord Mansfield, the Earl of Mansfield, is the Hereditary Keeper of Bruce’s Castle of Lochmaben

Lochmaben Stone

The Lochmaben Stone (grid reference NY 3123 6600) is a megalith standing in a field, nearly a mile west of the Sark mouth on the Solway Firth, three hundred yards or so above high water mark on the farm of Old Graitney in Dumfries & Galloway in Scotland. The area is also known as Stormont. Together with a smaller stone it is all that is left of a stone circle dating back to around 3000BC.

The principal stone or megalith, referred to as the Lochmabonstone by Logan Mack in 1926, has, in the Borders context, an unsurpassed extent of history attached to it. It is an erratic, 7 feet high and 18 feet in girth and weighs approximately ten tons. It is composed of weathered granite, exposed to severe glacial action.

In these treeless flatlands this stone, given its size, would have been a distinctive landmark on the flat Solway Plain for several millennia.

Sanquhar (Parliament of Scotland constituency)

Sanquhar in Dumfriesshire was a royal burgh that returned one commissioner to the Parliament of Scotland and to the Convention of Estates.

After the Acts of Union 1707, Sanquhar, Annan, Dumfries, Kirkcudbright and Lochmaben formed the Dumfries district of burghs, returning one member between them to the House of Commons of Great Britain.

South of Scotland Football League

The South of Scotland Football League (SoSFL) is a senior football competition based in south-west Scotland. The league sits at level 6 on the pyramid system, on par with the East of Scotland Football League and acts as a feeder to the Lowland Football League. It is currently composed of 16 member clubs in a single division.

Since 2014–15, the winners of the East of Scotland Football League and the South of Scotland Football League take part in an end of season play-off for a place in the Lowland Football League, subject to both clubs meeting the licensing criteria for promotion.

The Lochmaben Harper

"The Lochmaben Harper" or "The Blind Harper" is a traditional British Folk ballad (Child # 192, Roud # 85) and is one of the ballads collected by Francis Child in The English and Scottish Popular Ballads (1882–1898).

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