Local education authority

Local education authorities (LEAs) are the local councils in England and Wales that are responsible for education within their jurisdiction. The term is used to identify which council (district or county) is locally responsible for education in a system with several layers of local government. Local education authorities are not usually ad hoc or standalone authorities, although the former Inner London Education Authority was one example of this.

Responsible local authority

England

England has several tiers of local government and the relevant local authority varies. Within Greater London the 32 London Borough Councils and the Common Council of the City of London are the local authorities responsible for education; in the metropolitan counties it is the 36 metropolitan borough councils; and in the non-metropolitan counties it is the 27 county councils or, where there is no county council, the councils of the 55 unitary authorities. The Council of the Isles of Scilly is an education authority.[1] Since the Children Act 2004 each local education authority is also a children's services authority and responsibility for both functions is held by the director of children's services.[1] There are 152 local education authorities in England.

Wales

In Wales the councils of the counties and county boroughs are responsible for education. Since 5 May 2010, the terms local education authority and children's services authority have been repealed and replaced by the single term 'local authority' in both primary and secondary legislation.[2]

Functions

Local education authorities have some responsibility for all state schools in their area.

  • They are responsible for distribution and monitoring of funding for the schools
  • They are responsible for co-ordination of admissions, including allocation of the number of places available at each school
  • They are the direct employers of all staff in community and VC schools
  • They have a responsibility for the educational achievement of looked-after children, i.e. children in their care[3]
  • They have attendance and advisory rights in relation to the employment of teachers, and in relation to the dismissal of any staff[4]
  • They are the owners of school land and premises in community schools.[5]

Until recently, local education authorities were responsible for the funding of students in higher education (for example undergraduate courses and PGCE) whose permanent address is in their area, regardless of the place of study. Based on an assessment of individual circumstances they offer grants or access to student loans through the Student Loans Company.

History

Creation

The term was introduced by the Education Act 1902 (2 Edw.7, c. 42). The Act designated each local authority; either county council and county borough council; would set up a committee known as a local education authority (LEA).[6] The councils took over the powers and responsibilities of the school boards and technical instruction committees in their area. Municipal boroughs with a population of 10,000 and urban districts with a population of 20,000 were to be local education authorities in their areas for elementary education only. The LEAs' role was further expanded with the introduction of school meals in 1906 and medical inspection in 1907.[6]

In 1904 the London County Council became a local education authority, with the abolition of the London School Board. The metropolitan boroughs were not education authorities, although they were given the power to decide on the site for new schools in their areas, and provided the majority of members on boards of management.

Reform

The system continued unchanged until 1965, when the London County Council was replaced by the Greater London Council. The twenty outer London boroughs became local education authorities, while a new Inner London Education Authority, consisting of the members of the GLC elected for the inner boroughs covering the former County of London was created.[7]

In 1974 local government outside London was completely reorganised. In the new metropolitan counties of England, metropolitan boroughs became LEAs. In the non-metropolitan counties the county councils were the education authorities,[8] as they were throughout Wales.

In 1986, with the abolition of the Greater London Council, a directly elected Inner London Education Authority was formed. This however only existed until 1990, when the twelve inner London boroughs assumed responsibility for education.

In 1989, under the Education Reform Act 1988, the LEAs lost responsibility for higher education, with all polytechnics and colleges of higher education becoming independent corporations.

A further wave of local government reorganisation during the 1990s led to the formation of unitary authorities in parts of England and throughout Wales, which became local education authorities.[9]

A local educational authority award is an award given to the local educational authority, as opposed to an award given by the LEA.

List of local authorities responsible for education

There are currently 152 local education authorities in England and 22 in Wales. Below they are listed alphabetically by region.[10]

London
South West
South East
East
West Midlands
East Midlands
Yorkshire and the Humber
North West
North East
Wales

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Children Act 2004 c. 31
  2. ^ 'Open letter regarding the term changes to ‘Local Education Authority’ and ‘Children’s Services Authority’ '.
  3. ^ "A Guide to the Law for School Governors" (PDF). Department for Children, Schools and Families. p. 67. Retrieved 19 March 2016.
  4. ^ "A Guide to the Law for School Governors" (PDF). Department for Children, Schools and Families. p. 86. Retrieved 19 March 2016.
  5. ^ "A Guide to the Law for School Governors" (PDF). Department for Children, Schools and Families. p. 79. Retrieved 19 March 2016.
  6. ^ a b Bryne, T., Local Government in Britain, (1994)
  7. ^ Saint, A., Politics and the people of London: the London County Council (1889-1965), (1989)
  8. ^ Redcliffe-Maud & Wood, B., English Local Government Reformed, (1974)
  9. ^ Jones, B. et al., Politics UK, (2004)
  10. ^ Department for Education and Skills - LA Contact Details

External links

1986 United Kingdom local elections

Local elections were held in the United Kingdom in 1986. There was a 3% reduction in the number of councillors, owing to the abolition of the Greater London Council and the Metropolitan County Councils.

The national projected share of the vote was Labour 37%, Conservative 34%, Liberal-SDP Alliance 26%. The Conservatives lost 975 seats, Labour gained 13 seats and the Liberal-SDP Alliance gained 338 seats.

Brighton and Hove City Council

Brighton and Hove City Council is the local authority of the city of Brighton and Hove. It is a unitary authority, having the powers of a non-metropolitan county and district council combined. It provides a full range of local government services including Council Tax billing, libraries, social services, processing planning applications, waste collection and disposal, and it is a local education authority.

Cheshire East Council

Cheshire East Council is the local authority of Cheshire East, Cheshire, England. It is a unitary authority, having the powers of a non-metropolitan county and district council combined. It provides a full range of local government services including Council Tax billing, libraries, social services, processing planning applications, waste collection and disposal, and it is a local education authority. The council was first elected on 1 May 2008, a year before coming into its powers on 1 April 2009. After an election in May 2019, no party holds overall control.

Community school (England and Wales)

A community school in England and Wales is a type of state-funded school in which the local education authority employs the school's staff, is responsible for the school's admissions and owns the school's estate.In the mid-19th century, government involvement in schooling consisted of annual grants to the National Society for Promoting Religious Education and the British and Foreign School Society to support the "voluntary schools" that they ran, and monitoring inspections of these schools. The Elementary Education Act 1870 imposed stricter standards on schools, and provided for the setting up of locally elected school boards in boroughs and parishes across England and Wales, empowered to set up elementary-level board schools where voluntary provision was insufficient.

A number of voluntary schools, especially those of the BFSS, chose to become board schools. Parents were still required to pay fees, though the fees of the poorest were paid by the board.The Education Act 1902 abolished school boards, transferring their functions to counties and boroughs acting as local education authorities. The board schools were thus renamed county schools. The act also introduced county secondary schools, which were greatly expanded during the 20th century. The schools were renamed community schools in the School Standards and Framework Act 1998. In 2008 approximately 61% of the state-funded primary and secondary schools in England were community schools.

East Riding of Yorkshire Council

East Riding of Yorkshire Council is the local authority of the East Riding of Yorkshire. It is a unitary authority, having the powers of a non-metropolitan county and district council combined. It provides a full range of local government services including Council Tax billing, libraries, social services, processing planning applications, waste collection and disposal, and it is a local education authority.

Expulsion (education)

Expulsion, or permanent exclusion, refers to the removal or banning of a student from a school system or university due to persistent violation of that institution's rules, or in extreme cases, for a single offense of marked severity. Laws and procedures regarding expulsion vary between countries and states.

Various colloquialisms refer to this practice (for example, being kicked out of school or sent down). The alleged practice of pressuring parents to voluntarily withdraw their child from an educational institution is a comparable exercise.

Foundation school

In England and Wales, a foundation school is a state-funded school in which the governing body has greater freedom in the running of the school than in community schools.

Foundation schools were set up under the School Standards and Framework Act 1998 to replace grant-maintained schools, which were funded directly by central government.

Grant-maintained schools that had previously been voluntary controlled or county schools (but not voluntary aided) usually became foundation schools.

Foundation schools are a kind of "maintained school", meaning that they are funded by central government via the local education authority, and do not charge fees to students.

As with voluntary controlled schools, all capital and running costs are met by the government.

As with voluntary aided schools, the governing body employs the staff and has responsibility for admissions to the school, subject to rules imposed by central government.

Pupils follow the National Curriculum.Some foundation schools, also called trust schools, have a foundation or trust that owns the land and buildings.

Otherwise the land and buildings are owned by the governing body.

The foundation usually appoints about a quarter of the school governors, as in voluntary controlled schools, but in some cases it appoints the majority of governors, as in voluntary aided schools.Within the maintained sector in England, approximately 2% of primary schools and 15% of secondary schools are foundation schools. Almost all of these are non-faith schools.

The proportion is considerably smaller in Wales, where four primary schools and eight secondary schools have foundation status.

Inner London Education Authority

The Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) was an ad hoc local education authority for the City of London and the 12 Inner London boroughs from 1965 until its abolition in 1990. The authority was reconstituted as a directly elected body corporate on 1 April 1986.

List of grammar schools in England

This is a list of the current 163 state-funded fully selective schools (grammar schools) in England, as enumerated by Statutory Instrument. The 1998 Statutory Instrument listed 166 such schools. However, in 2000 Bristol Local Education Authority, following consultation, implemented changes removing selection by 11+ exam from the entry requirements for two of the schools on this original list. This list does not include former direct grant grammar schools which elected to remain independent, often retaining the title "grammar school". For such schools see the list of direct grant grammar schools.

Under the Tripartite System of secondary education in England between the 1940s and 1960s, approximately a quarter of children were selected by the eleven plus exam for entry to grammar schools, either "maintained" grammar schools fully funded by the state or direct grant grammar schools. Most of the maintained grammar schools were closed or converted to comprehensive schools in the 1960s and 1970s, though a few local authorities resisted this move and retained a selective system.

There are also a number of isolated grammar schools, which admit the candidates who score highest on their entry tests.The remaining 163 English state grammar schools are listed here grouped by region (from north to south) and Local Education Authority.

There are no remaining state grammar schools in North East England.

The gender indicated is that of the main school (ages 11–16). Several single-sex schools have sixth forms that also admit a small number of students of the opposite gender.

List of schools in Essex

This article lists all secondary schools in the Local Education Authority for Essex, England. Essex is the second largest Local Education Authority in England.

List of schools in Flintshire

This is a list of schools in Flintshire in Wales.

List of schools on the Isles of Scilly

This is a list of schools on the Isles of Scilly in the English county of Cornwall.

The Isles of Scilly is the second smallest Local Education Authority in the country. The LEA contains only one federated school.

Little Heath School

Little Heath School is a voluntary-aided co-educational comprehensive secondary school. The school is located in the Little Heath area of the Reading suburb of Tilehurst, in the English county of Berkshire.

Because of its location outside the Reading borough boundary, but in Reading, the school is managed by the West Berkshire Local Education Authority though it serves a catchment area that covers both sides of the borough boundary.

Little Heath has specialisms in Science and Mathematics. Attendance is approximately 1,700 students with 400 of these in the VI form. In March 2018, the school received a second successive 'Good' rating from an Ofsted formal Inspection.

North Lincolnshire Council

North Lincolnshire Council is the local authority of North Lincolnshire. It is a unitary authority, having the powers of a non-metropolitan county and district council combined. It provides a full range of local government services including Council Tax billing, libraries, social services, processing planning applications, waste collection and disposal, and it is a local education authority.

North Somerset Council

North Somerset Council is the local authority of North Somerset, England. It is a unitary authority, having the powers of a non-metropolitan county and district council combined. It provides a full range of local government services including Council Tax billing, libraries, social services, processing planning applications, waste collection and disposal, and it is a local education authority. The council meets at Weston-super-Mare Town Hall.

Portsmouth City Council

Portsmouth City Council is the local authority of the city of Portsmouth, Hampshire, England. It is a unitary authority, having the powers of a non-metropolitan county and district council combined. It provides a full range of local government services including Council Tax billing, libraries, social services, processing planning applications, waste collection and disposal, and it is a local education authority.

Poynton High School

Poynton High School and Performing Arts College is a mixed comprehensive secondary school located in Poynton, Cheshire East. The school is maintained by the Local Education Authority in England. It was founded in 1972, and was awarded Arts College status in 2002. It has 1,511 pupils between Years 7 and 13 (ages 11–18). This includes a sixth form of 285 pupils.

Ofsted have rated the school as "'Good" following their most recent inspection in December 2015. Poynton High School was previously ranked the best state school in Cheshire East Local Education Authority in 2012, and was rated as an 'outstanding school' by Ofsted at the previous inspections in October 2008.

It is non-denominational, although its roll is 96% white British and predominantly Anglican. It serves a relatively advantaged area where a high proportion of adults have received higher education. The proportion of students entitled to free school meals is small. The number of students with learning difficulties or disabilities is well below the national average. The number of students whose first language is not English is well below the national average.

Stockton-on-Tees Borough Council

Stockton-on-Tees Borough Council is the local authority of the Borough of Stockton-on-Tees. It is a unitary authority, having the powers of a non-metropolitan county and district council combined. It provides a full range of local government services including Council Tax billing, libraries, social services, processing planning applications, waste collection and disposal, and it is a local education authority.

Warrington Borough Council

Warrington Borough Council is the local authority of Warrington. It is a unitary authority, having the powers of a non-metropolitan county and district council combined. It provides a full range of local government services including Council Tax billing, libraries, social services, processing planning applications, waste collection and disposal, and it is a local education authority.

In September 2016, Warrington Borough Council became one of the first local councils in the UK to buy clean-tech bonds in Swindon Solar Park through its owner, specialist investment management firm Rockfire Capital.

Local government services in the United Kingdom

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