Local council (Israel)

Local councils - (plural: מוֹעָצוֹת מְקוֹמִיּוֹת Mo'atzot Mekomiot[1] / singular: מוֹעָצָה מְקוֹמִית Mo'atza Mekomit[2]) are one of the three types of local government found in Israel, the other two being cities and regional councils. There are 265 local councils in Israel.[3]

Local councils should not be confused with local committees, which are lower-level administrative entities.

History

Local council status is determined by passing a minimum threshold, enough to justify operations as independent municipal units, although not large enough to be declared a city.[4][5] In general this applies to all settlements of over 2,000 people.[5]

The Israeli Interior Minister has the authority of deciding whether a locality is fit to become a municipal council (a city). The minister is expected to listen to the wishes of the residents of the locality in question, who may wish the locality to remain a local council even after achieving the requirements for a city (e.g. Ramat HaSharon, which did not become a city until 2002 due to its residents wanting to preserve its image as a small town), or a part of a regional council despite having achieved the criteria for a local one. Local councils also have an important role in town planning.[4]

The Union of Local Authorities in Israel (ULAI) is the umbrella organization of local councils in Israel. The union represents the local councils vis a vis the national government. ULAI was established in 1938, under the British Mandate, as the League of Local Councils.[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ https://milog.co.il/מוֹעָצוֹת מְקוֹמִיּוֹת
  2. ^ https://milog.co.il/מוֹעָצָה מְקוֹמִית
  3. ^ a b Union of Local Authorities in Israel Archived 2014-02-21 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ a b Mahler, Gregory S. Politics and Government in Israel: The Maturation of a Modern State. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 229.
  5. ^ a b Troen, Selwyn Ilan; Noah Lucas. Israel: The First Decade of Independence. SUNY Press. p. 496.

External links

City council (Israel)

A city council (Hebrew: עִירִיָּה, Iriya) is the official designation of a city within Israel's system of local government.

City status may be granted by the Interior Minister to a municipality, usually a local council, whose population surpasses 20,000 and whose character is urban, defined as having areas zoned for distinct land use like residential, commercial, and industrial areas.

City mayors and members of the city councils are elected every five years.

Jewish locality

A Jewish locality (Hebrew: יישוב יהודי‎, Yishuv Yehudi) is a class of settlement in Israel and the West Bank, referring to urban localities administered by regional councils. In 2012 there were 32 places classified as Jewish localities. The Central Bureau of Statistics divides them into two types by population; 2,000–4,999 residents and 5,000–9,999 residents.Localities numbering above 5,000 residents in Israel are typically given local council status. An exception is Atlit, a former local council, that was stripped of its status in 2003.

Population statistics for Israeli settlements in the West Bank

The population statistics for Israeli settlements in the West Bank are collected by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. As such, the data contains only population of settlements recognized by the Israeli authorities. Israeli outposts are not tracked, and their population is hard to establish. In addition to these, Nahal settlements are formally considered military outposts, and their population is counted, but not reported. Once a Nahal settlement becomes a civilian locality, it starts to be reported.

While all settlements in the West Bank were advised by the International Court of Justice to be unlawful in 2004, the construction of the West Bank Barrier keeps a significant number of settlements behind it. The largest settlements left beyond the barrier includes Kiryat Arba (population 7,593 in 2012), Kokhav Ya'akov (6,476), Beit El (5,897), Geva Binyamin (4,674), Eli, Mateh Binyamin (3,521), Ofra (3,489), Talmon (3,202), Shilo, Mateh Binyamin (2,706), Tekoa, Gush Etzion (2,518), and Mitzpe Yeriho (2,115). The total number of settlers east of the barrier lines in 2012 was at least 67,702, plus 11,528 in the Jordan Valley. By comparison, the number of Gaza Strip settlers in 2005 who refused to move voluntarily and be compensated, and that were forcibly evicted during the Israeli disengagement from Gaza was around 9,000. The total population of all settlements in the West Bank was nearly 400,000 in 2014, excluding East Jerusalem. As of December 2015, altogether over 800,000 Israeli Jews resided over the 1949 Armistice Lines (including east-Jerusalem neighborhoods), constituting approximately 13% of Israel's Jewish population.

Regional council (Israel)

Regional councils (plural: Hebrew: מוֹעָצוֹת אֵזוֹרִיּוֹת, Mo'atzot Azoriot / singular: Hebrew: מוֹעָצָה אֵזוֹרִית, Mo'atza Azorit) are one of the three types of Israel's local government entities, with the other two being cities and local councils. As of 2019, there were 54 regional councils, usually responsible for governing a number of settlements spread across rural areas. Regional councils include representation of anywhere between 3 and 54 communities, usually spread over a relatively large area within geographical vicinity of each other.Each community within a regional council usually does not exceed 2000 in population and is managed by a local committee. This committee sends representatives to the administering regional council proportionate to their size of membership and according to an index which is fixed before each election. Those settlements without an administrative council do not send any representatives to the regional council, instead being dealt by it directly. Representatives from those settlements which are represented directly are either chosen directly or through an election. The predominant form of communities represented on regional councils are kibbutzim and moshavim.

Yesud HaMa'ala

Yesud HaMa'ala (Hebrew: יְסוּד הַמַּעֲלָה‎) is a moshava and local council (Israel) in northern Israel. The moshava was the first modern Jewish community in the Hula Valley. Built in 1883, the community was among a series of agricultural settlements founded during the First Aliyah. In 2017 it had a population of 1,697.

Administrative jurisdiction types of Israel
First level
Second level
Third level
Articles on third-level administrative divisions of countries

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