Livestock

Livestock is commonly defined as domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool. The term is sometimes used to refer solely to those that are bred for consumption, while other times it refers only to farmed ruminants, such as cattle and goats.[1] Horses are considered livestock in the United States.[2]

The breeding, maintenance, and slaughter of livestock, known as animal husbandry, is a component of modern agriculture that has been practiced in many cultures since humanity's transition to farming from hunter-gatherer lifestyles. Animal husbandry practices have varied widely across cultures and time periods. Originally, livestock were not confined by fences or enclosures, but these practices have largely shifted to intensive animal farming, sometimes referred to as "factory farming". Now, over 99% of livestock are raised on factory farms.[3] These practices increase yield of the various commercial outputs, but have also led to negative impacts on animal welfare and the environment. Livestock production continues to play a major economic and cultural role in numerous rural communities.

20150728 xl P1000804 Leck mich Zaertlichkeit der Rinder
Cattle on a pasture in Germany

Etymology

Give Way To Stock (6759026099)
This Australian road sign uses the less common term "stock" for livestock.

Livestock as a word was first used between 1650 and 1660, as a merger between the words "live" and "stock".[4] In some periods, "cattle" and "livestock" have been used interchangeably. Today, the modern meaning of cattle is domesticated bovines, while livestock has a wider sense.[5]

United States federal legislation defines the term to make specified agricultural commodities eligible or ineligible for a program or activity. For example, the Livestock Mandatory Reporting Act of 1999 (P.L. 106-78, Title IX) defines livestock only as cattle, swine, and sheep, while the 1988 disaster assistance legislation defined the term as "cattle, sheep, goats, swine, poultry (including egg-producing poultry), equine animals used for food or in the production of food, fish used for food, and other animals designated by the Secretary."[6]

Deadstock is defined in contradistinction to livestock as "animals that have died before slaughter, sometimes from illness". It is illegal in many countries, such as Canada, to sell or process meat from dead animals for human consumption.[7]

History

Animal-rearing originated during the cultural transition to settled farming communities from hunter-gatherer lifestyles. Animals are domesticated when their breeding and living conditions are controlled by humans. Over time, the collective behaviour, lifecycle and physiology of livestock have changed radically. Many modern farm animals are unsuited to life in the wild.

The dog was domesticated early; dogs appear in Europe and the Far East from about 15,000 years ago.[8] Goats and sheep were domesticated in multiple events sometime between 11,000 and 5,000 years ago in Southwest Asia.[9] Pigs were domesticated by 8,500 BC in the Near East[10] and 6,000 BC in China.[11] Domestication of the horse dates to around 4000 BC.[12] Cattle have been domesticated since approximately 10,500 years ago.[13] Chickens and other poultry may have been domesticated around 7000 BC.[14]

Types

The term "livestock" is nebulous and may be defined narrowly or broadly. Broadly, livestock refers to any breed or population of animal kept by humans for a useful, commercial purpose. This can mean domestic animals, semidomestic animals, or captive wild animals. Semidomesticated refers to animals which are only lightly domesticated or of disputed status. These populations may also be in the process of domestication.

Animal / Type Domestication status Wild ancestor Time of first captivity, domestication Area of first captivity, domestication Current commercial uses Picture Ref
Alpaca
Mammal, herbivore
domestic Vicuña Between 5000 BC and 4000 BC Andes Alpaca fiber, meat Corazon Full
Addax
Mammal, herbivore
domestic Addax 2500 BCE Egypt Meat, hides Addax-1-Zachi-Evenor
Bali cattle
Mammal, herbivore
domestic Banteng Unknown Southeast Asia, Bali Meat, milk, draught Balinese cow
Bison
Mammal, herbivore
captive (see also Beefalo) N/A Late 19th century North America Meat, leather American bison k5680-1
Camel
Mammal, herbivore
domestic Wild dromedary and Bactrian camel Between 4000 BC and 1400 BC Asia Mount, pack animal, meat, milk, camel hair Chameau de bactriane
Cattle
Mammal, herbivore
domestic Aurochs 6000 BC Southwest Asia, South Asia, North Africa Meat (beef, veal), milk, leather, draught Cow female black white
Capybara
Mammal, herbivore
captive Capybara Unknown South America Meat, skins, pet Capybara Hattiesburg Zoo (70909b-42) 2560x1600
Collared peccary
Mammal, omnivore
captive Collared peccary Unknown Brazil Meat, skins, pet Collared peccary02 - melbourne zoo
Deer
Mammal, herbivore
captive N/A First century AD UK Meat (venison), leather, antlers, antler velvet Silz cerf22
Donkey
Mammal, herbivore
domestic African wild ass 4000 BC Egypt Mount, pack animal, draught, meat, milk Donkey 1 arp 750px
Eland
Mammal, herbivore
domestic Common eland, Giant eland Unknown South Africa, Kenya, Zimbabwe, West Africa Meat, milk, leather, hides, horns Taurotragus oryx
Elk
Mammal, herbivore
captive Elk 1990s North America Meat, antlers, leather, hides Rocky Mountain Bull Elk
Fallow deer
Mammal, herbivore
semidomestic Fallow deer 9th century BC Mediterranean Basin Meat, antlers, hides, ornamentation Fallow deer, Dyrham - geograph.org.uk - 1346340
Gayal
Mammal, herbivore
domestic Gaur Unknown Southeast Asia Meat, draught Mithun
Goat
Mammal, herbivore
domestic Wild goat 8000 BC Southwest Asia Milk, meat, wool, leather, light draught Capra, Crete 4
Guinea pig
Mammal, herbivore
domestic Cavia tschudii 5000 BC South America Meat, pet Caviaklein
Greater cane rat
Mammal, herbivore
captive Greater cane rat Unknown West Africa Meat Thryonomys swinderianus1.jpeg
Greater kudu
Mammal, herbivore
captive Greater kudu Unknown South Africa Meat, hides, horns, leather, pet Male greater kudu
Horse
Mammal, herbivore
domestic Wild horse 4000 BC Eurasian Steppes Mount, draught, milk, meat, pet, pack animal Nokota Horses cropped
Llama
Mammal, herbivore
domestic Guanaco 3500 BC Andes Pack animal, draught, meat, fiber Pack llamas posing near Muir Trail
Mule
Mammal, herbivore
domestic Sterile Hybrid offspring of Jack donkey x mare (female horse)     Mount, pack animal, draught 09.Moriles Mula
Moose
Mammal, herbivore
domestic Moose 1940s Russia, Sweden, Finland, Alaska Meat, milk, antlers, research, draft Moose-Gustav
Muskox
Mammal, herbivore
domestic Muskox 1960s Alaska Meat, wool, milk Ovibos moschatus qtl3
Pig
Mammal, omnivore
domestic Wild boar 7000 BC Eastern Anatolia Meat (pork), leather, pet, mount, research Sow with piglet
Rabbit
Mammal, herbivore
domestic Wild rabbit AD 400-900 France Meat, fur, leather, pet, research Miniature Lop - Side View
Reindeer
Mammal, herbivore
semidomestic Reindeer 3000 BC Northern Russia Meat, leather, antlers, milk, draught Caribou using antlers
Sika deer
Mammal, herbivore
domestic Sika deer Unknown Japan, China Meat, antlers, hides, leather, pet, tourism Sikahjort
Scimitar oryx
Mammal, herbivore
domestic Scimitar oryx 2320-2150 BC Egypt Meat, sacrifice, horns, hides, leather Scimitar oryx1
Sheep
Mammal, herbivore
domestic Asiatic mouflon sheep Between 11000 and 9000 BC Southwest Asia Wool, milk, leather, meat (lamb and mutton) Pair of Icelandic Sheep
Thorold's deer
Mammal, herbivore
captive Thorold's deer Unknown China Meat, antlers CervusAlbirostris2
White-tailed deer
Mammal, herbivore
captive White-tailed deer Unknown West Virginia, Florida, Colombia Meat, antlers, hides, pet White-tailed deer
Water buffalo
Mammal, herbivore
domestic Wild Asian water buffalo (Arni) 4000 BC South Asia Mount, draught, meat, milk BUFFALO159
Yak
Mammal, herbivore
domestic Wild yak 2500 BC Tibet, Nepal Meat, milk, fiber, mount, pack animal, draught Bos grunniens - Syracuse Zoo
Zebu
Mammal, herbivore
domestic Aurochs 8000 BC India Meat, milk, draught, hides Gray Zebu Bull

Farming practices

Goat family
Goat family with 1-week-old kid
Paridera Cueva del Río Piedra
Farrowing site in a natural cave in northern Spain

Traditionally, animal husbandry was part of the subsistence farmer's way of life, producing not only the food needed by the family but also the fuel, fertiliser, clothing, transport and draught power. Killing the animal for food was a secondary consideration, and wherever possible its products, such as wool, eggs, milk and blood (by the Maasai) were harvested while the animal was still alive.[15] In the traditional system of transhumance, people and livestock moved seasonally between fixed summer and winter pastures; in montane regions the summer pasture was up in the mountains, the winter pasture in the valleys.[16]

Animals can be kept extensively or intensively. Extensive systems involve animals roaming at will, or under the supervision of a herdsman, often for their protection from predators. Ranching in the Western United States involves large herds of cattle grazing widely over public and private lands.[17] Similar cattle stations are found in South America, Australia and other places with large areas of land and low rainfall. Ranching systems have been used for sheep, deer, ostrich, emu, llama and alpaca.[18] In the uplands of the United Kingdom, sheep are turned out on the fells in spring and graze the abundant mountain grasses untended, being brought to lower altitudes late in the year, with supplementary feeding being provided in winter.[19] In rural locations, pigs and poultry can obtain much of their nutrition from scavenging, and in African communities, hens may live for months without being fed, and still produce one or two eggs a week.[15] At the other extreme, in the more developed parts of the world, animals are often intensively managed; dairy cows may be kept in zero-grazing conditions with all their forage brought to them; beef cattle may be kept in high density feedlots;[20] pigs may be housed in climate-controlled buildings and never go outdoors;[21] poultry may be reared in barns and kept in cages as laying birds under lighting-controlled conditions. In between these two extremes are semi-intensive, often family run farms where livestock graze outside for much of the year, silage or hay is made to cover the times of year when the grass stops growing, and fertiliser, feed and other inputs are bought onto the farm from outside.[22]

Predation

Livestock farmers have suffered from wild animal predation and theft by rustlers. In North America, animals such as the gray wolf, grizzly bear, cougar, and coyote are sometimes considered a threat to livestock. In Eurasia and Africa, predators include the wolf, leopard, tiger, lion, dhole, Asiatic black bear, crocodile, spotted hyena, and other carnivores. In South America, feral dogs, jaguars, anacondas, and spectacled bears are threats to livestock. In Australia, the dingo, fox, and wedge-tailed eagle are common predators, with an additional threat from domestic dogs that may kill in response to a hunting instinct, leaving the carcass uneaten.[23][24]

Disease

Good husbandry, proper feeding, and hygiene are the main contributors to animal health on the farm, bringing economic benefits through maximised production. When, despite these precautions, animals still become sick, they are treated with veterinary medicines, by the farmer and the veterinarian. In the European Union, when farmers treat their own animals, they are required to follow the guidelines for treatment and to record the treatments given.[25] Animals are susceptible to a number of diseases and conditions that may affect their health. Some, like classical swine fever[26] and scrapie[27] are specific to one type of stock, while others, like foot-and-mouth disease affect all cloven-hoofed animals.[28] Where the condition is serious, governments impose regulations on import and export, on the movement of stock, quarantine restrictions and the reporting of suspected cases. Vaccines are available against certain diseases, and antibiotics are widely used where appropriate. At one time, antibiotics were routinely added to certain compound foodstuffs to promote growth, but this practice is now frowned on in many countries because of the risk that it may lead to antibiotic resistance.[29] Animals living under intensive conditions are particularly prone to internal and external parasites; increasing numbers of sea lice are affecting farmed salmon in Scotland.[30] Reducing the parasite burdens of livestock results in increased productivity and profitability.[31]

Transportation and marketing

Animal transport 6
Pigs being loaded into their transport

Since many livestock are herd animals, they were historically driven to market "on the hoof" to a town or other central location. The method is still used in some parts of the world.[32]

Truck transport is now common in developed countries.[33]

Local and regional livestock auctions and commodity markets facilitate trade in livestock. In other areas, livestock may be bought and sold in a bazaar, such as may be found in many parts of Central Asia.

In developing countries, providing access to markets has encouraged farmers to invest in livestock, with the result being improved livelihoods. For example, the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) has worked in Zimbabwe to help farmers make their most of their livestock herds.[34]

In stock shows, farmers bring their best livestock to compete with one another.[35]

Environmental impact

Bezerros de IATF
Livestock production requires large areas of land.

Animal husbandry has a significant impact on the world environment. It is responsible for somewhere between 20 and 33% of the fresh water usage in the world,[36] and livestock, and the production of feed for them, occupy about a third of the earth's ice-free land.[37] Livestock production is a contributing factor in species extinction, desertification,[38] and habitat destruction.[39] Animal agriculture contributes to species extinction in various ways. Habitat is destroyed by clearing forests and converting land to grow feed crops and for animal grazing, while predators and herbivores are frequently targeted and hunted because of a perceived threat to livestock profits; for example, animal husbandry is responsible for up to 91% of the deforestation in the Amazon region.[40] In addition, livestock produce greenhouse gases. Cows produce some 570 million cubic metres of methane per day,[41] that accounts for from 35 to 40% of the overall methane emissions of the planet.[42] Livestock is responsible for 65% of all human-related emissions of the powerful and long-lived greenhouse gas nitrous oxide.[42] As a result, ways of mitigating animal husbandry's environmental impact are being studied. Strategies include using biogas from manure.[43]

Economic and social benefits

Livestock of the World (cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, horses, pigs, chickens, ducks)
Global distribution data for cattle, buffaloes, horses, sheep, goats, pigs, chickens and ducks in 2010.

The value of global livestock production in 2013 has been estimated at about 883 billion dollars, (constant 2005-2006 dollars).[44]

Livestock provide a variety of food and nonfood products; the latter include leather, wool, pharmaceuticals, bone products, industrial protein, and fats. For many abattoirs, very little animal biomass may be wasted at slaughter. Even intestinal contents removed at slaughter may be recovered for use as fertilizer. Livestock manure helps maintain the fertility of grazing lands. Manure is commonly collected from barns and feeding areas to fertilize cropland. In some places, animal manure is used as fuel, either directly (as in some developing countries), or indirectly (as a source of methane for heating or for generating electricity). In regions where machine power is limited, some classes of livestock are used as draft stock, not only for tillage and other on-farm use, but also for transport of people and goods. In 1997, livestock provided energy for between an estimated 25 and 64% of cultivation energy in the world's irrigated systems, and that 300 million draft animals were used globally in small-scale agriculture.[45]

Although livestock production serves as a source of income, it can provide additional economic values for rural families, often serving as a major contributor to food security and economic security. Livestock can serve as insurance against risk[46] and is an economic buffer (of income and/or food supply) in some regions and some economies (e.g., during some African droughts). However, its use as a buffer may sometimes be limited where alternatives are present,[47] which may reflect strategic maintenance of insurance in addition to a desire to retain productive assets. Even for some livestock owners in developed nations, livestock can serve as a kind of insurance.[48] Some crop growers may produce livestock as a strategy for diversification of their income sources, to reduce risks related to weather, markets and other factors.[49][50]

Many studies have found evidence of the social, as well as economic, importance of livestock in developing countries and in regions of rural poverty, and such evidence is not confined to pastoral and nomadic societies.[46][51][52][53][54]

Social values in developed countries can also be considerable. For example, in a study of livestock ranching permitted on national forest land in New Mexico, USA, it was concluded that "ranching maintains traditional values and connects families to ancestral lands and cultural heritage", and that a "sense of place, attachment to land, and the value of preserving open space were common themes". "The importance of land and animals as means of maintaining culture and way of life figured repeatedly in permittee responses, as did the subjects of responsibility and respect for land, animals, family, and community."[55]

In the US, profit tends to rank low among motivations for involvement in livestock ranching.[56] Instead, family, tradition and a desired way of life tend to be major motivators for ranch purchase, and ranchers "historically have been willing to accept low returns from livestock production."[57]

See also

References

  1. ^ "livestock". Britannica.com.
  2. ^ "Congress Clarifies That Horses are Not "Pets," Advances Landmark Livestock Health Measures". American Horse Council. Retrieved 2019-01-19.
  3. ^ "NASS - Census of Agriculture - Publications - 2012". USDA. Retrieved 2017-11-29.
  4. ^ "Livestock definition". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
  5. ^ "Merriam-Webster: Definition of Livestock". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved January 18, 2019.
  6. ^ "Agriculture: A Glossary of Terms, Programs, and Laws" (PDF). 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-12-10.
  7. ^ cbc.ca: "Police launch investigation into Aylmer Meat Packers", 28 Aug 2003
  8. ^ Larson, G.; Bradley, D. G. (2014). "How Much Is That in Dog Years? The Advent of Canine Population Genomics". PLOS Genetics. 10 (1): e1004093. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004093. PMC 3894154. PMID 24453989.
  9. ^ Chessa, B.; Pereira, F.; Arnaud, F.; Amorim, A.; Goyache, F.; Mainland, I.; Kao, R. R.; Pemberton, J. M.; Beraldi, D.; Stear, M. J.; Alberti, A.; Pittau, M.; Iannuzzi, L.; Banabazi, M. H.; Kazwala, R. R.; Zhang, Y.-p.; Arranz, J. J.; Ali, B. A.; Wang, Z.; Uzun, M.; Dione, M. M.; Olsaker, I.; Holm, L.-E.; Saarma, U.; Ahmad, S.; Marzanov, N.; Eythorsdottir, E.; Holland, M. J.; Ajmone-Marsan, P.; Bruford, M. W.; Kantanen, J.; Spencer, T. E.; Palmarini, M. (2009-04-24). "Revealing the History of Sheep Domestication Using Retrovirus Integrations". Science. 324 (5926): 532–536. Bibcode:2009Sci...324..532C. doi:10.1126/science.1170587. PMC 3145132. PMID 19390051.
  10. ^ Vigne, J. D.; Zazzo, A.; Saliège, J. F.; Poplin, F.; Guilaine, J.; Simmons, A. (2009). "Pre-Neolithic wild boar management and introduction to Cyprus more than 11,400 years ago". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 106 (38): 16135–8. Bibcode:2009PNAS..10616135V. doi:10.1073/pnas.0905015106. PMC 2752532. PMID 19706455.
  11. ^ Larson, Greger; Liu, Ranran; Zhao, Xingbo; Yuan, Jing; Fuller, Dorian; Barton, Loukas; Dobney, Keith; Fan, Qipeng; Gu, Zhiliang; Liu, Xiao-Hui; Luo, Yunbing; Lv, Peng; Andersson, Leif; Li, Ning (2010-04-19). "Patterns of East Asian pig domestication, migration, and turnover revealed by modern and ancient DNA". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (17): 7686–7691. Bibcode:2010PNAS..107.7686L. doi:10.1073/pnas.0912264107. PMC 2867865. PMID 20404179.
  12. ^ "Breeds of Livestock - Oklahoma State University". Ansi.okstate.edu. Retrieved 2011-12-10.
  13. ^ McTavish, E.J.; Decker, J. E.; Schnabel, R. D.; Taylor, J. F.; Hillis, D. M. (2013). "New World cattle show ancestry from multiple independent domestication events". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110 (15): E1398–406. Bibcode:2013PNAS..110E1398M. doi:10.1073/pnas.1303367110. PMC 3625352. PMID 23530234.
  14. ^ "History of chickens – India and China". 2017-06-12.
  15. ^ a b Webster, John (2013). Animal Husbandry Regained: The Place of Farm Animals in Sustainable Agriculture. Routledge. pp. 4–10. ISBN 978-1-84971-420-4.
  16. ^ Blench, Roger (17 May 2001). 'You can't go home again' – Pastoralism in the new millennium (PDF). Overseas Development Institute. p. 12.
  17. ^ Starrs, Paul F. (2000). Let the Cowboy Ride: Cattle Ranching in the American West. JHU Press. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-0-8018-6351-6.
  18. ^ Levinson, David; Christensen, Karen (2003). Encyclopedia of Community: From the Village to the Virtual World. Sage. p. 1139. ISBN 978-0-7619-2598-9.
  19. ^ Rebanks, James (2015). The Shepherd's Life. Penguin: Random House. p. 286. ISBN 978-0141-97936-6.
  20. ^ Silbergeld, Ellen K; Graham, Jay; Price, Lance B (2008). "Industrial food animal production, antimicrobial resistance, and human health". Annual Review of Public Health. 29: 151–69. doi:10.1146/annurev.publhealth.29.020907.090904. PMID 18348709.
  21. ^ Meyer, Vernon M.; Driggers, L. Bynum; Ernest, Kenneth; Ernest, Debra. "Swine Growing-Finishing Units" (PDF). Pork Industry handbook. Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service. Retrieved 17 May 2017.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  22. ^ Blount, W.P. (2013). Intensive Livestock Farming. Elsevier. pp. 360–62. ISBN 978-1-4831-9565-0.
  23. ^ Northern Daily Leader, 20 May 2010, Dogs mauled 30 sheep (and killed them), p.3, Rural Press
  24. ^ Simmons, Michael (2009-09-10). "Dogs seized for killing sheep - Local News - News - General - The Times". Victorharbortimes.com.au. Archived from the original on 2012-01-11. Retrieved 2011-12-10.
  25. ^ "Farmers". European Platform for the Responsible Use of Medicines in Animals. 2010. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  26. ^ "Classical swine fever" (PDF). The Center for Food Security and Public Health. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
  27. ^ "Scrapie Fact Sheet". National Institute for Animal Agriculture. 2001. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
  28. ^ "Foot-and-mouth". The Cattle Site. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
  29. ^ "feed (agriculture) | Antibiotics and other growth stimulants". Britannica.com. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  30. ^ Fraser, Douglas (14 February 2017). "Scottish salmon farming's sea lice 'crisis'". BBC. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
  31. ^ "Parasite control". Animal Health Ireland. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
  32. ^ Bonser, K. J. (1972). The Drovers. Who They Were and How They Went: An Epic of the English Countryside. Country Book Club.
  33. ^ Chambers, Philip G.; Grandin, Temple; Heinz, Gunter; Srisuvan, Thinnarat (2001). "Guidelines for Humane Handling, Transport and Slaughter of Livestock | CHAPTER 6: Transport of livestock". Food and Agriculture Organization. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  34. ^ Markets from research to outcomes Archived 2014-05-01 at WebCite, Farming Matters, Challenge Program on Water and Food, June 2013
  35. ^ Australian Screen: Agricultural shows
  36. ^ Mekonnen, Mesfin M.; Arjen Y. Hoekstra (2012). "A Global Assessment of the Water Footprint of Farm Animal Products" (PDF). Water Footprint Network.
  37. ^ "Livestock a major threat to environment". Food and Agriculture Organizations of the United Nations.
  38. ^ Whitford, Walter G. (2002). Ecology of desert systems. Academic Press. p. 277. ISBN 978-0-12-747261-4.
  39. ^ "Unit 9: Biodiversity Decline // Section 7: Habitat Loss: Causes and Consequences". Annenberg Learner.
  40. ^ Margulis, Sergio (2003). "Causes of Deforestation of the Brazilian Rainforest". Washington: World Bank Publications.
  41. ^ Ross, Philip (2013). "Cow farts have 'larger greenhouse gas impact' than previously thought; methane pushes climate change". International Business Times.
  42. ^ a b Steinfeld H.; Gerber P.; Wassenaar T.; Castel V.; Rosales M.; de Haan C. (2006). "Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options". FAO. Retrieved 13 December 2017.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  43. ^ Monteny, Gert-Jan; Andre Bannink; David Chadwick (2006). "Greenhouse Gas Abatement Strategies for Animal Husbandry, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment". Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 112 (2–3): 163–170. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2005.08.015. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
  44. ^ FAOSTAT. (Statistical database of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.) http://faostat3.fao.org/
  45. ^ de Haan, Cees; Steinfeld, Henning; Blackburn, Harvey (1997). Livestock & the environment: finding a balance. European Commission Directorate-General for Development.
  46. ^ a b Swanepoel, F., A. Stroebel and S. Moyo. (eds.) 2010. The role of livestock in developing communities: Enhancing multifunctionality. African Sun Media.
  47. ^ Fafchamps, Marcel; Udry, Christopher; Czukas, Katherine (1998). "Drought and saving in West Africa: are livestock a buffer stock?" (PDF). Journal of Development Economics. 55 (2): 273–305. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.198.7519. doi:10.1016/S0304-3878(98)00037-6. ISSN 0304-3878. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
  48. ^ Johannesen, Anne Borge; Skonhoft, Anders (2011). "Livestock as Insurance and Social Status: Evidence from Reindeer Herding in Norway" (PDF). Environmental and Resource Economics. 48 (4): 679–694. doi:10.1007/s10640-010-9421-2. ISSN 0924-6460. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
  49. ^ Bell, Lindsay W.; Moore, Andrew D. (2012). "Integrated crop–livestock systems in Australian agriculture: Trends, drivers and implications". Agricultural Systems. 111: 1–12. doi:10.1016/j.agsy.2012.04.003. ISSN 0308-521X. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
  50. ^ Kandulu, John M.; Bryan, Brett A.; King, Darran; Connor, Jeffery D. (2012). "Mitigating economic risk from climate variability in rain-fed agriculture through enterprise mix diversification". Ecological Economics. 79: 105–112. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.04.025. ISSN 0921-8009. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
  51. ^ Asresie, A.; Zemedu, L. (2015). "Contribution of livestock sector in Ethiopian economy: a review". Adv Life Sci Technol. 29: 79–90. ISSN 2225-062X. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
  52. ^ Bettencourt, Elisa Maria Varela; Tilman, Mário; Henriques, Pedro Damião de Sousa; Narciso, Vanda; Carvalho, Maria Leonor da Silva (2013). "The Economic and Sociocultural Role of Livestock in the Wellbeing of Rural Communities of Timor-Leste". hdl:10174/9347.
  53. ^ Khan, Nizamuddin; Rehman, Anisur; Salman, Mohd. Sadiq (2013). "Impactul creșterii animalelor asupra dezvoltării socio-economice în Nordul Indiei". Forum Geografic (in Romanian). XII (1): 75–80. doi:10.5775/fg.2067-4635.2013.084.i. ISSN 1583-1523. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
  54. ^ Ali, A.; Khan, M.A. (2013). "Livestock ownership in ensuring rural household food security in Pakistan" (PDF). J. Animal Plant Sci. 23 (1): 313–318. ISSN 1018-7081. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
  55. ^ McSweeney, A. M and C. Raish. 2012. Social, cultural and economic aspects of livestock ranching on the Santa Fe and Carson National Forests. USDA Forest Service RMRS-GTR 276.
  56. ^ Gentner, B.J.; Tanaka, J.A. (2006). "Classifying federal public land grazing permittees". Journal of Range Management. 55 (1). doi:10.2458/azu_jrm_v55i1_gentner. ISSN 0022-409X. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
  57. ^ Torell, L. Allen; Rimbey, Neil R.; Tanaka, John A.; Bailey, Scott A. (2001). "THE LACK OF A PROFIT MOTIVE FOR RANCHING: IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY ANALYSIS". In Torell, L. A.; Bartlett, E. T.; Larranaga, R. Current issues in rangeland economics. Proc. Symp. Western Regional Coordinating Committee on Rangeland Economics: WCC-55. N. M. State Univ. Res. Rep. 737. Retrieved 30 November 2018.

External links

Agriculture

Agriculture is the science and art of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11,500 years ago. Pigs, sheep and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Plants were independently cultivated in at least 11 regions of the world. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture in the twentieth century came to dominate agricultural output, though about 2 billion people still depended on subsistence agriculture into the twenty-first.

Modern agronomy, plant breeding, agrochemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers, and technological developments have sharply increased yields, while causing widespread ecological and environmental damage. Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry have similarly increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal welfare and environmental damage. Environmental issues include contributions to global warming, depletion of aquifers, deforestation, antibiotic resistance, and growth hormones in industrial meat production. Genetically modified organisms are widely used, although some are banned in certain countries.

The major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers, fuels and raw materials (such as rubber). Food classes include cereals (grains), vegetables, fruits, oils, meat, milk, fungi and eggs. Over one-third of the world's workers are employed in agriculture, second only to the service sector, although the number of agricultural workers in developed countries has decreased significantly over the centuries.

Animal husbandry

Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products. It includes day-to-day care, selective breeding and the raising of livestock.

Husbandry has a long history, starting with the Neolithic revolution when animals were first domesticated, from around 13,000 BC onwards, antedating farming of the first crops. By the time of early civilisations such as ancient Egypt, cattle, sheep, goats and pigs were being raised on farms.

Major changes took place in the Columbian Exchange when Old World livestock were brought to the New World, and then in the British Agricultural Revolution of the 18th century, when livestock breeds like the Dishley Longhorn cattle and Lincoln Longwool sheep were rapidly improved by agriculturalists such as Robert Bakewell to yield more meat, milk, and wool.

A wide range of other species such as horse, water buffalo, llama, rabbit and guinea pig are used as livestock in some parts of the world. Insect farming, as well as aquaculture of fish, molluscs, and crustaceans, is widespread.

Modern animal husbandry relies on production systems adapted to the type of land available. Subsistence farming is being superseded by intensive animal farming in the more developed parts of the world, where for example beef cattle are kept in high density feedlots, and thousands of chickens may be raised in broiler houses or batteries. On poorer soil such as in uplands, animals are often kept more extensively, and may be allowed to roam widely, foraging for themselves.

Most livestock are herbivores, except for pigs and chickens which are omnivores. Ruminants like cattle and sheep are adapted to feed on grass; they can forage outdoors, or may be fed entirely or in part on rations richer in energy and protein, such as pelleted cereals. Pigs and poultry cannot digest the cellulose in forage, and require cereals and other high-energy foods.

Environmental impact of meat production

The environmental impact of meat production varies because of the wide variety of agricultural practices employed around the world. All agricultural practices have been found to have a variety of effects on the environment. Some of the environmental effects that have been associated with meat production are pollution through fossil fuel usage, animal methane, effluent waste, and water and land consumption. Meat is obtained through a variety of methods, including organic farming, free range farming, intensive livestock production, subsistence agriculture, hunting, and fishing.

The 2006 report Livestock's Long Shadow, released by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, states that "the livestock sector is a major stressor on many ecosystems and on the planet as a whole. Globally it is one of the largest sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) and one of the leading causal factors in the loss of biodiversity, while in developed and emerging countries it is perhaps the leading source of water pollution." Removing all US agricultural animals would reduce US greenhouse gas emissions by 2.6%. (In this and much other FAO usage, but not always elsewhere, poultry are included as "livestock".) A 2017 study published in the journal Carbon Balance and Management found animal agriculture's global methane emissions are 11% higher than previous estimates based on data from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Some fraction of these effects is assignable to non-meat components of the livestock sector such as the wool, egg and dairy industries, and to the livestock used for tillage. Livestock have been estimated to provide power for tillage of as much as half of the world's cropland. According to production data compiled by the FAO, 74 percent of global livestock product tonnage in 2011 was accounted for by non-meat products such as wool, eggs and milk. Meat is also considered one of the prime factors contributing to the current sixth mass extinction. A July 2018 study in Science asserts that meat consumption will increase as the result of human population growth and rising individual incomes, which will increase carbon emissions and further reduce biodiversity.In November 2017, 15,364 world scientists signed a Warning to Humanity calling for, among other things, drastically diminishing our per capita consumption of meat.

Farm

A farm is an area of land that is devoted primarily to agricultural processes with the primary objective of producing food and other crops; it is the basic facility in food production. The name is used for specialised units such as arable farms, vegetable farms, fruit farms, dairy, pig and poultry farms, and land used for the production of natural fibres, biofuel and other commodities. It includes ranches, feedlots, orchards, plantations and estates, smallholdings and hobby farms, and includes the farmhouse and agricultural buildings as well as the land. In modern times the term has been extended so as to include such industrial operations as wind farms and fish farms, both of which can operate on land or sea.

Farming originated independently in different parts of the world, as hunter gatherer societies transitioned to food production rather than, food capture. It may have started about 12,000 years ago with the domestication of livestock in the Fertile Crescent in western Asia, soon to be followed by the cultivation of crops. Modern units tend to specialise in the crops or livestock best suited to the region, with their finished products being sold for the retail market or for further processing, with farm products being traded around the world.

Modern farms in developed countries are highly mechanized. In the United States, livestock may be raised on rangeland and finished in feedlots and the mechanization of crop production has brought about a great decrease in the number of agricultural workers needed. In Europe, traditional family farms are giving way to larger production units. In Australia, some farms are very large because the land is unable to support a high stocking density of livestock because of climatic conditions. In less developed countries, small farms are the norm, and the majority of rural residents are subsistence farmers, feeding their families and selling any surplus products in the local market.

Farmer

A farmer (also called an agriculturer) is a person engaged in agriculture, raising living organisms for food or raw materials. The term usually applies to people who do some combination of raising field crops, orchards, vineyards, poultry, or other livestock. A farmer might own the farmed land or might work as a laborer on land owned by others, but in advanced economies, a farmer is usually a farm owner, while employees of the farm are known as farm workers, or farmhands. However, in the not so distant past, a farmer was a person who promotes or improves the growth of (a plant, crop, etc.) by labor and attention, land or crops or raises animals (as livestock or fish).

Fodder

Fodder, a type of animal feed, is any agricultural foodstuff used specifically to feed domesticated livestock, such as cattle, rabbits, sheep, horses, chickens and pigs. "Fodder" refers particularly to food given to the animals (including plants cut and carried to them), rather than that which they forage for themselves (called forage). Fodder () is also called provender () and includes hay, straw, silage, compressed and pelleted feeds, oils and mixed rations, and sprouted grains and legumes (such as bean sprouts, fresh malt, or spent malt). Most animal feed is from plants, but some manufacturers add ingredients to processed feeds that are of animal origin.

The worldwide animal feed industry produced 873 million tons of feed (compound feed equivalent) in 2011, fast approaching 1 billion tonnes according to the International Feed Industry Federation, with an annual growth rate of about 2%. The use of agricultural land to grow feed rather than human food can be controversial; some types of feed, such as corn (maize), can also serve as human food; those that cannot, such as grassland grass, may be grown on land that can be used for crops consumed by humans. In many cases the production of grass for cattle fodder is a valuable intercrop between crops for human consumption, because it builds the organic matter in the soil. Some agricultural byproducts fed to animals may be considered unsavory by human consumers.

Grazing

Grazing is a method of feeding in which a herbivore feeds on plants such as grasses, or other multicellular organisms such as algae. In agriculture, grazing is one method used whereby domestic livestock are used to convert grass and other forage into meat, milk and other products.

Many small selective herbivores follow larger grazers which skim off the highest, tough growth of grasses, exposing tender shoots. For terrestrial animals, grazing is normally distinguished from browsing in that grazing is eating grass or forbs, whereas browsing is eating woody twigs and leaves from trees and shrubs. Grazing differs from predation because the organism being grazed upon may not be killed. It differs from parasitism because the two organisms live together in a constant state of physical externality (i.e. low intimacy). Water animals that feed by rasping algae and other micro-organisms from stones are called grazers-scrapers.

Herding dog

A herding dog, also known as a stock dog or working dog, is a type of pastoral dog that either has been trained in herding or belongs to breeds developed for herding.

Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo

The Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo, also called RodeoHouston or abbreviated HLSR, is the largest livestock exhibitions and rodeo in the world. It includes one of the richest regular-season professional rodeo events. It has been held at NRG Stadium in Houston, Texas, since 2003. It was previously held in the Astrodome. It is considered to be the city's "signature event", much like New Orleans's Mardi Gras, Dallas's Texas State Fair, San Diego's Comic-Con and New York City's New Year's Eve at Times Square.In 2017, attendance reached a record high of 2,611,176 people and 33,000 volunteers. In 2007, the rodeo was deemed "the year of the volunteer." The event is 20 days long. It is kicked off by the Downtown Rodeo Roundup held near Houston City Hall, the Downtown Rodeo parade, and the ConocoPhillips Rodeo Run – a 10k and 5k walk & run and the World's Championship Bar-B-Que Contest. The show features championship rodeo action, livestock competitions, concerts, a carnival, pig racing, barbecue and the Rodeo Uncorked! International Wine Competition, shopping, sales and livestock auctions. Traditional trail rides, which start in different areas of Texas and end in Houston, precede the Rodeo events. The City of Houston celebrates this event with Go Texan Day, where residents are encouraged to dress in western wear the Friday before the rodeo begins.The rodeo has drawn some of the world's biggest recording artists, including Cardi B, Beyoncé, Selena Gomez, Selena, Fifth Harmony, Demi Lovato, Ariana Grande, Selena, Kiss, Dixie Chicks, Elvis Presley, Bob Dylan, Justin Bieber, Big Time Rush, Brooks & Dunn, George Strait, Janet Jackson, Garth Brooks, Willie Nelson, Kenny Chesney, Bon Jovi, ZZ Top, John Legend, Taylor Swift and Lynyrd Skynyrd, among others.

Intensive animal farming

Intensive animal farming or industrial livestock production, also known as factory farming, is a production approach towards farm animals in order to maximize production output, while minimizing production costs. Intensive farming refers to animal husbandry, the keeping of livestock such as cattle, poultry, and fish at higher stocking densities than is usually the case with other forms of animal agriculture—a practice typical in industrial farming by agribusinesses. The main products of this industry are meat, milk and eggs for human consumption. There are issues regarding whether factory farming is sustainable or ethical.Confinement at high stocking density is one part of a systematic effort to produce the highest output at the lowest cost by relying on economies of scale, modern machinery, biotechnology, and global trade. There are differences in the way factory farming techniques are practiced around the world. There is a continuing debate over the benefits, risks and ethical questions of factory farming. The issues include the efficiency of food production; animal welfare; and the environmental impact (e.g. agricultural pollution) and health risks.

Livestock guardian dog

A livestock guardian dog (LGD) is a type of pastoral dog bred for the purpose of protecting livestock from predators.

Livestock guardian dogs stay with the group of animals they protect as a full-time member of the flock or herd. Their ability to guard their herd is mainly instinctive as the dog is bonded to the herd from an early age. Unlike herding dogs which control the movement of livestock, LGDs blend in with them, watching for intruders within the flock. The mere presence of a guardian dog is usually enough to ward off some predators, and LGDs will confront predators by vocal intimidation, barking, and displaying very aggressive behavior. The dog may attack or fight with a predator if it is unable to drive away the predator. Livestock guardians may actively look for predators within protected territory to catch and destroy them, and there are known cases of dogs luring coyotes to a source of food in order to hunt them.

Molosser

Molosser is a category of solidly built, large dog breeds that all descend from the same common ancestor. The name derives from Molossia, an area of ancient Epirus, where the large shepherd dog was known as a Molossus.Molossers typically have heavy bones, pendant ears, and a relatively short and well-muscled neck, with a short, broad muzzle.

Mule

A mule is the offspring of a male donkey (jack) and a female horse (mare). Horses and donkeys are different species, with different numbers of chromosomes. Of the two first generation hybrids between these two species, a mule is easier to obtain than a hinny, which is the offspring of a female donkey (jenny) and a male horse (stallion).

The size of a mule and work to which it is put depend largely on the breeding of the mule's female parent (dam). Mules can be lightweight, medium weight or when produced from draft horse mares, of moderately heavy weight. Mules are reputed to be more patient, hardy and long-lived than horses and are described as less obstinate and more intelligent than donkeys.

Pastoral dog

Pastoral dogs are a broad type of dog used by humans to assist in the rearing of livestock. Pastoral dog breeds are predominantly divided into two main functional groupings, those used to protect livestock from wild predators and human theft, the livestock guardian dogs, and those used assist in controlling livestock, the herding dogs. Typically, livestock guardian dog breeds are large and historically fierce whilst the herding dog breeds tend to be smaller and more biddable.

Pastoralism

Pastoralism is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock. It is animal husbandry: the care, tending and use of animals such as cattle, camels, goats, yaks, llamas, reindeers, horses and sheep.

"Pastoralism" often has a mobile aspect but this can take many forms and be at different scales. Sedentary pastoralism is becoming more common as the hardening of political borders, expansion of crop agriculture, and building of fences reduces ability to move. Mobile pastoralism includes moving herds distances in search of fresh pasture and water, something that can occur daily or even within a few hours, to transhumance, where animals are moved seasonally, to nomadism, where pastoralists and families move with the animals year-round. In sedentary pastoralism, or pastoral farming, pastoralists grow crops and improve pastures for their livestock. One example is a savanna area where pastoralists and their animals gather when rainwater is abundant and the pasture is rich, then scatter during the drying of the savanna. . Another is the movement of livestock from summer pastures in lowlands, to montane pastures in the summer where grass is green and plentiful during the dry season . Grazing in woodlands and forests may be referred to as silvopastoralism .

Pastoralist herds interact with their environment, and mediate human relations with the environment as a way of turning uncultivated plants like wild grass into consumable, high quality, food. In many places, grazing herds on savannas and woodlands can help maintain the biodiversity of the savannas and prevent them from evolving into dense shrublands or forests. Grazing and browsing at the appropriate levels often can increase biodiversity in Mediterranean climate regions , . Pastoralists may also use fire to make ecosystems more suitable for grazing and browsing animals. For instance, the Turkana people of northwest Kenya use fire to prevent the invasion of the savanna by woody plant species. Biomass of the domesticated and wild animals was increased by a higher quality of grass.Pastoralism is found in many variations throughout the world, generally where enviornmental charactersitics such as aridity, poor soils, cold or hot temperature, and lack of water make crop growing difficult or impossible. Pastoralism remains a way of life in Africa, the Tibetan plateau, the Eurasian steppes, the Andes, Patagonia, the Pampas, Australia, and other many other places. Composition of herds, management practices, social organization and all other aspects of pastoralism vary between areas and between social groups. Many traditional practices have also had to adapt to the changing circumstance of the modern world, including climatic conditions affecting the availability of grasses and the loss of mobility over large landscapes. Ranches of the United States and sheep stations and cattle stations of Australia are seen by some as modern variations.

Plagues of Egypt

The Plagues of Egypt (Hebrew: מכות מצרים, Makot Mitzrayim) were ten calamities inflicted on Egypt by Yahweh, the god of Israel, in order to force Pharaoh to allow the Israelites to depart from slavery:

blood

frogs

gnats (or lice or mosquitoes or other small insects)

flies (or swarms of insects; some have "wild beasts")

pestilence of livestock

boils

hail

locusts

darkness

death of the firstborn (of Egypt).The traditional number of ten is not actually mentioned in Exodus, and other sources differ - Psalms 78 and 105 seem to list only seven or eight and in a different order. Discrepancies such as the reappearance of the Egyptian livestock in the seventh plague after they have been wiped out in the fifth have led scholars to the conclusion that the author has drawn on several sources, although the story has an overall unity.The many popular-level attempts to find natural explanations for the plagues (e.g., a volcanic eruption to explain the "darkness" plague) have been dismissed by biblical scholars. There is no indication that the Israelites ever lived in Ancient Egypt, and there is an almost universal consensus is that the Exodus story is best understood as myth.

Ranch

A ranch is an area of land, including various structures, given primarily to the practice of ranching, the practice of raising grazing livestock such as cattle or sheep for meat or wool. The word most often applies to livestock-raising operations in Mexico, the Western United States and Western Canada, though there are ranches in other areas. People who own or operate a ranch are called ranchers, cattlemen, or stockgrowers. Ranching is also a method used to raise less common livestock such as elk, American bison or even ostrich, emu, and alpaca.

Ranches generally consist of large areas, but may be of nearly any size. In the western United States, many ranches are a combination of privately owned land supplemented by grazing leases on land under the control of the federal Bureau of Land Management or the United States Forest Service. If the ranch includes arable or irrigated land, the ranch may also engage in a limited amount of farming, raising crops for feeding the animals, such as hay and feed grains.

Ranches that cater exclusively to tourists are called guest ranches or, colloquially, "dude ranches." Most working ranches do not cater to guests, though they may allow private hunters or outfitters onto their property to hunt native wildlife. However, in recent years, a few struggling smaller operations have added some dude ranch features, such as horseback rides, cattle drives or guided hunting, in an attempt to bring in additional income. Ranching is part of the iconography of the "Wild West" as seen in Western movies and rodeos.

Sheep

Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammals typically kept as livestock. Like most ruminants, sheep are members of the order Artiodactyla, the even-toed ungulates. Although the name sheep applies to many species in the genus Ovis, in everyday usage it almost always refers to Ovis aries. Numbering a little over one billion, domestic sheep are also the most numerous species of sheep. An adult female sheep is referred to as a ewe (), an intact male as a ram or occasionally a tup, a castrated male as a wether, and a younger sheep as a lamb.

Sheep are most likely descended from the wild mouflon of Europe and Asia. One of the earliest animals to be domesticated for agricultural purposes, sheep are raised for fleeces, meat (lamb, hogget or mutton) and milk. A sheep's wool is the most widely used animal fiber, and is usually harvested by shearing. Ovine meat is called lamb when from younger animals and mutton when from older ones in Commonwealth countries, and lamb in the United States (including from adults). Sheep continue to be important for wool and meat today, and are also occasionally raised for pelts, as dairy animals, or as model organisms for science.

Sheep husbandry is practised throughout the majority of the inhabited world, and has been fundamental to many civilizations. In the modern era, Australia, New Zealand, the southern and central South American nations, and the British Isles are most closely associated with sheep production.

Sheepraising has a large lexicon of unique terms which vary considerably by region and dialect. Use of the word sheep began in Middle English as a derivation of the Old English word scēap; it is both the singular and plural name for the animal. A group of sheep is called a flock, herd or mob. Many other specific terms for the various life stages of sheep exist, generally related to lambing, shearing, and age.

Being a key animal in the history of farming, sheep have a deeply entrenched place in human culture, and find representation in much modern language and symbology. As livestock, sheep are most often associated with pastoral, Arcadian imagery. Sheep figure in many mythologies—such as the Golden Fleece—and major religions, especially the Abrahamic traditions. In both ancient and modern religious ritual, sheep are used as sacrificial animals.

Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University

Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (TANUVAS) is a veterinary university founded in 1989 in Madhavaram Milk Colony, Chennai, India. It is composed of the Madras Veterinary College, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Namakkal, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Tirunelveli ; Veterinary College and Research Institute, Orathanadu and the Institute of Food and Dairy Technology, Koduvalli, Chennai-52. Research farms are for leprosy bacteria, for prawn and edible fish culture, and for animal feed safety.

General
History
Types
Categories

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.