Little stint

The little stint (Calidris minuta) (or Erolia minuta), is a very small wader. It breeds in arctic Europe and Asia, and is a long-distance migrant, wintering south to Africa and south Asia. It occasionally is a vagrant to North America and to Australia. The genus name is from Ancient Greek kalidris or skalidris, a term used by Aristotle for some grey-coloured waterside birds. The specific minuta is Latin for "small.[2]

Little stint
Little Stint (Calidris minuta) (1)
Adult in September
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Charadriiformes
Family: Scolopacidae
Genus: Calidris
Species:
C. minuta
Binomial name
Calidris minuta
(Leisler, 1812)
Synonyms

Erolia minuta

Little stint Calidris minuta and dunlin Calidris alpina
Little stint (on the left) and dunlin in the mouth of the Reda river in Puck Bay in Poland.

Description

Its small size, fine dark bird, dark legs and quicker movements distinguish this species from all waders except the other dark-legged stints. It can be distinguished from these in all plumages by its combination of a fine bill tip, unwebbed toes and long primary projection. The call is a sharp "stit".

The breeding adult has an orange wash to the breast, a white throat and a strong white V on its back. In winter plumage identification is difficult. Juveniles have pale crown stripes and a pinkish breast.

An apparent hybrid between this species and Temminck's stint has been reported from the Netherlands.[3]

Population dynamics

The numbers of this species (and of curlew sandpiper) depend on the population of lemmings. In poor lemming years, predatory species such as skuas and snowy owls take Arctic-breeding waders instead.

It is gregarious in winter, sometimes forming large flocks with other Calidris waders, particularly dunlin, on coastal mudflats or the edges of inland pools.

The little stint is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies.

Nesting

This bird nests on a scrape in bare ground, laying 3–5 eggs. It is polygamous, and male and female may incubate separate clutches.

Calidris minuta MWNH 0155
Egg, Collection Museum Wiesbaden, Germany

Food

Food is small invertebrates picked off the mud.

Gallery

Liitle Stint

Little stint, non breeding in February, Vasai, Maharashtra, India.

Little Stint (Calidris minuta) 2

Non-breeding adult in Egypt.

Terek Sandpiper & Little Stint (Calidris minuta) W3 IMG 6891

Mixed flock with the larger Terek sandpiper in Andhra Pradesh, India.

References

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Calidris minuta". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 84, 256. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  3. ^ Jonsson, Lars (1996). "Mystery stint at Groote Keeten: First known hybrid between Little and Temminck's Stint?". Dutch Birding. 18: 24–28.

Further reading

Identification

External links

C. minuta

C. minuta may refer to:

Calidris minuta, the little stint, a very small wader species

Calluella minuta, a frog species endemic to Malaysia

Catocala minuta, the little underwing, a moth species found the United States

Chiltonia minuta, an amphipod crustacean species endemic to New Zealand

Calidris

Calidris is a genus of Arctic-breeding, strongly migratory wading birds. The genus name is from Ancient Greek kalidris or skalidris, a term used by Aristotle for some grey-coloured waterside birds.This genus is closely related to other calidrids.

These birds form huge mixed flocks on coasts and estuaries in winter. They are the typical "sandpipers", small to medium-sized, long-winged and relatively short-billed.

Their bills have sensitive tips which contain numerous corpuscles of Herbst. This enables the birds to locate buried prey items, which they typically seek with restless running and probing.

Carrick Roads

Carrick Roads (Cornish: Dowr Carrek, meaning "rock anchorage") is the estuary of the River Fal on the south coast of Cornwall in England, United Kingdom. It joins the English Channel at its southern end near Falmouth.

Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary

Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary is a wildlife sanctuary and estuary situated in Andhra Pradesh, India.

It is the second largest stretch of mangrove forests in India with 24 mangrove tree species and more than 120 bird species. It is home to the critically endangered white-backed vulture and the long billed vulture.

In a mangrove ecosystem the water bodies of the ocean/sea and the river meet together at a certain point.

Curlew sandpiper

The curlew sandpiper (Calidris ferruginea) is a small wader that breeds on the tundra of Arctic Siberia. The genus name is from Ancient Greek kalidris or skalidris, a term used by Aristotle for some grey-coloured waterside birds. The specific ferruginea is from Latin ferrugo, ferruginis, "iron rust" referring to its colour in breeding plumage.It is strongly migratory, wintering mainly in Africa, but also in south and southeast Asia and in Australia and New Zealand. It is a vagrant to North America.

False Bay Park

False Bay Park, a Ramsar site wetland since 2015, is a nature reserve that protects the western shores of the freshwater bay, False Bay, and is situated near the coast of northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. False Bay is connected to Lake St. Lucia and both are included in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park. Located on the Cape Flats, it includes the lakes known as Rondevlei and Zeekoevlei. It covers 1,500 hectares and is located at 34° 4′ S, 18° 30′ E.

Long-toed stint

The long-toed stint, Calidris subminuta, is a small wader. The genus name is from Ancient Greek kalidris or skalidris, a term used by Aristotle for some grey-coloured waterside birds. The specific subminuta is from Latin sub, "near to" and minuta, "small" from its similarity to the little stint, Calidris minuta.It breeds across northern Asia and is strongly migratory, wintering in south and south east Asia and Australasia. It occurs in western Europe only as a very rare vagrant.

This bird has yellowish legs and a short thin dark bill. Breeding adults are a rich brown with darker feather centres above and white underneath. They have a light line above the eye and a brown crown. In winter, long-toed stints are grey above. The juveniles are brightly patterned above with rufous colouration and white mantle stripes.

This bird can be difficult to distinguish from other similar tiny waders which are known collectively as "peeps" or "stints". In particular, the long-toed stint is very similar to its North American counterpart, the least sandpiper. It differs from that species in its more slender, longer-necked appearance, longer toes, somewhat brighter colours, and weaker wingbar.

These birds forage on mudflats, picking up food by sight, sometimes by probing. They mainly eat small crustaceans, insects and snails. Little is known of the breeding habits of this species, although it nests on the ground, and the male has a display flight.

Muzhappilangad Beach

Muzhappilangad Drive-in Beach (5.5 km length) is a beach in the state of Kerala in southwestern India. It is located parallel to National Highway 66(formerly National Highway 17) between Thalassery and Kannur.

Müritz National Park

The Müritz National Park (German: Müritz-Nationalpark) is a national park situated roughly in the middle between Berlin and Rostock, in the south of the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. It extends over large portions of the Müritz lakeland in the district of Mecklenburgische Seenplatte. Müritz National Park was founded in 1990. The total area is 318 km2. Near the city of Waren visitors can get information on the national park at the Müritzeum.

Oare Marshes

Oare Marshes is a 71.4-hectare (176-acre) Local Nature Reserve north of Faversham in Kent. It is owned and managed by Kent Wildlife Trust. It is part of The Swale Nature Conservation Review site, Grade I, National Nature Reserve, Ramsar internationally important wetland site, Special Protection Area under the European Union Directive on the Conservation of Wild Birds, and Site of Special Scientific Interest.

Red-necked stint

The red-necked stint (Calidris ruficollis) is a small migratory wader. The genus name is from Ancient Greek kalidris or skalidris, a term used by Aristotle for some grey-coloured waterside birds. The specific ruficollis is from Latin rufus, "red" and collum, "neck".

Russky Island (Kara Sea)

Russky Island (Russian: Ру́сский о́стров, lit. 'Russian Island'), also spelt Russkyy and Russkiy, is an island in the Kara Sea. It is located in the Litke Islands subgroup of the Nordenskiöld Archipelago.

Saloum Delta

Saloum Delta or Sine-Saloum Delta is a river delta in Senegal at the mouth of the Saloum River where it flows into the North Atlantic Ocean. The delta covers 180,000 hectares. It extends 72.5 kilometers along the coastline and 35 kilometers inland.In 2011, a 145,811-hectare portion of the delta was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site. The site contains "brackish channels encompassing over 200 islands and islets, mangrove forest, an Atlantic marine environment, and dry forest." Saloum Delta National Park covers 76,000 hectares of the delta.

The bird species that breed or winter in the area include royal tern, greater flamingo, Eurasian spoonbill, curlew sandpiper, ruddy turnstone, and little stint. Aside from being a valued breeding ground for birds, the delta contains 218 shellfish mounds and artefacts unearthed at some 28 of the burial grounds have provided an important insight into the history of human occupation in the area.

Saloum Delta National Park

Saloum Delta National Park or Parc National du Delta du Saloum in Senegal, is a 76,000-hectare (190,000-acre) national park. Established in 1976, it is situated within the Saloum Delta at the juncture of the Saloum River and the North Atlantic.

The park, which forms part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a Ramsar Convention site, lies within a 180,000 ha (440,000-acre) biosphere reserve. Water comprises 61,000 ha (150,000 acres) of the park, intertidal mangroves and saltwater vegetation cover 7,000 ha (17,000 acres), and savannah and forest cover 8,000 ha (20,000 acres). It lies on the East Atlantic Flyway. The bird species that breed or winter in the area include royal tern, greater flamingo, Eurasian spoonbill, curlew sandpiper, ruddy turnstone, and little stint.

Stanton's Pit

Stanton's Pit is an 8.05-hectare Local Nature Reserve situated between Little Bytham and Witham-on-the-Hill, villages in the South Kesteven district of Lincolnshire. It is owned and managed by Lincolnshire Wildlife Trust. The reserve mostly comprises a disused sand pit with adjacent grasslands which was donated by its former owner to the Lincolnshire Wildlife Trust so that it could be classified as a Local Nature Reserve. It has been designated as such on the basis of its ornithological interest, with 50 species of birds recorded visiting the site and 19 breeding, including little grebe, little ringed plover, sand martin, turtle dove and lesser whitethroat. Wading birds known to occupy the site in autumn include little stint, ruff and spotted redshank, greenshank, and common, curlew, green and wood sandpipers. Stanton's Pit is suspected to be situated on a migratory route from The Wash to Rutland Water. The site is bounded to the north by a minor road between Little Bytham and Witham-on-the-Hill, to the south and west by farmland and to the east by Bush Lees wood.

Stint

A stint is one of several very small waders in the paraphyletic "Calidris" assemblage – often separated in Erolia – which in North America are known as peeps. They are scolopacid waders much similar in ecomorphology to their distant relatives, the charadriid plovers.

Some of these birds are difficult to identify because of the similarity between species, and various breeding, non-breeding, juvenile, and moulting plumages. In addition, some plovers are also similarly patterned, especially in winter. With a few exceptions, stints usually have a fairly stereotypical color pattern, being brownish above and lighter – usually white – on much of the underside. They often have a lighter supercilium above brownish cheeks.

Temminck's stint

Temminck's stint (Calidris temminckii) is a small wader. This bird's common name and Latin binomial commemorate the Dutch naturalist Coenraad Jacob Temminck. The genus name is from Ancient Greek kalidris or skalidris, a term used by Aristotle for some grey-coloured waterside birds.Temminck's stint is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies.

Wader

Waders are birds commonly found along shorelines and mudflats that wade in order to forage for food (such as insects or crustaceans) in the mud or sand. They are called shorebirds in North America, where the term "wader" is used to refer to long-legged wading birds such as storks and herons. Waders are members of the order Charadriiformes, which includes gulls, auks and their allies.

There are about 210 species of wader, most of which live in wetland or coastal environments. Many species of Arctic and temperate regions are strongly migratory, but tropical birds are often resident, or move only in response to rainfall patterns. Some of the Arctic species, such as the little stint, are amongst the longest distance migrants, spending the non-breeding season in the southern hemisphere.

Many of the smaller species found in coastal habitats, particularly but not exclusively the calidrids, are often named as "sandpipers", but this term does not have a strict meaning, since the upland sandpiper is a grassland species.

The smallest member of this group is the least sandpiper, small adults of which can weigh as little as 15.5 grams and measure just over 13 cm (5.1 in). The largest species is believed to be the Far Eastern curlew, at about 63 cm (25 in) and 860 grams (1.90 pounds), although the beach thick-knee is the heaviest at about 1 kg (2.2 lb).

In the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy, waders and many other groups are subsumed into a greatly enlarged Ciconiiformes order. However, the classification of the Charadriiformes is one of the weakest points of the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy, as DNA–DNA hybridization has turned out to be incapable of properly resolving the interrelationships of the group. Formerly, the waders were united in a single suborder Charadrii, but this has turned out to be a "wastebasket taxon", uniting no less than four charadriiform lineages in a paraphyletic assemblage. However, it indicated that the plains wanderer actually belonged into one of them. Following recent studies (Ericson et al., 2003; Paton et al., 2003; Thomas et al., 2004a, b; van Tuinen et al., 2004; Paton & Baker, 2006), the waders may be more accurately subdivided as follows:

Suborder Scolopaci

Family Scolopacidae: snipe, sandpipers, phalaropes, and allies

Suborder Thinocori

Family Rostratulidae: painted snipe

Family Jacanidae: jacanas

Family Thinocoridae: seedsnipe

Family Pedionomidae: plains wanderer

Suborder Chionidi

Family Burhinidae: thick-knees

Family Chionididae: sheathbills

Family Pluvianellidae: Magellanic plover

Suborder Charadrii

Family Ibidorhynchidae: ibisbill

Family Recurvirostridae: avocets and stilts

Family Haematopodidae: oystercatchers

Family Charadriidae: plovers and lapwingsIn keeping more in line with the traditional grouping, the Thinocori could be included in the Scolopaci, and the Chionidi in the Charadrii. However, the increasing knowledge about the early evolutionary history of modern birds suggests that the assumption of Paton et al. (2003) and Thomas et al. (2004b) of 4 distinct "wader" lineages (= suborders) already being present around the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary is correct.

Wildlife of Senegal

The wildlife of Senegal consists of the flora and fauna of this nation in West Africa. Senegal has a long Atlantic coastline and a range of habitat types, with a corresponding diversity of plants and animals. Senegal has 188 species of mammals and 674 species of bird.

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