Little egret

The little egret (Egretta garzetta) is a species of small heron in the family Ardeidae. The genus name comes from the Provençal French Aigrette, "egret", a diminutive of Aigron," heron". The species epithet garzetta is from the Italian name for this bird, garzetta or sgarzetta.[2]

It is a white bird with a slender black beak, long black legs and, in the western race, yellow feet. As an aquatic bird, it feeds in shallow water and on land, consuming a variety of small creatures. It breeds colonially, often with other species of water birds, making a platform nest of sticks in a tree, bush or reed bed. A clutch of bluish-green eggs is laid and incubated by both parents. The young fledge at about six weeks of age.

Its breeding distribution is in wetlands in warm temperate to tropical parts of Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia. A successful colonist, its range has gradually expanded north, with stable and self-sustaining populations now present in the United Kingdom.[3]

In warmer locations, most birds are permanent residents; northern populations, including many European birds, migrate to Africa and southern Asia to over-winter there. The birds may also wander north in late summer after the breeding season, and their tendency to disperse may have assisted in the recent expansion of the bird's range. At one time common in Western Europe, it was hunted extensively in the 19th century to provide plumes for the decoration of hats and became locally extinct in northwestern Europe and scarce in the south. Around 1950, conservation laws were introduced in southern Europe to protect the species and their numbers began to increase. By the beginning of the 21st century the bird was breeding again in France, the Netherlands, Ireland and Britain. Its range is continuing to expand westward, and the species has begun to colonise the New World; it was first seen in Barbados in 1954 and first bred there in 1994. The International Union for Conservation of Nature has assessed the bird's global conservation status as being of "least concern".

Little egret
Egretta garzetta - Sydney Olympic Park
E. g. garzetta
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Pelecaniformes
Family: Ardeidae
Genus: Egretta
Species:
E. garzetta
Binomial name
Egretta garzetta
(Linnaeus, 1766)
Subspecies

E. g. garzetta
E. g. immaculata
E. g. nigripes

EgrettaGarzettaIUVNver2018 2
Range of E. garzetta      Breeding      Resident      Non-breeding      Vagrant (seasonality uncertain)
Synonyms

Ardea garzetta Linnaeus, 1766

Subspecies

Depending on authority, two or three subspecies of little egret are currently accepted:[4]

  • E. g. garzetta(Linnaeus, 1766): nominate, found in Europe, Africa, and most of Asia except the south-east
  • E. g. nigripes(Temminck, 1840): found in Indonesia east to New Guinea
  • E. g. immaculata – Australia and (non-breeding) New Zealand, often considered synonymous with E. g. nigripes

Three other egret taxa have at times been classified as subspecies of the little egret in the past but are now regarded as two separate species. These are the western reef heron Egretta gularis which occurs on the coastline of West Africa (Egretta gularis gularis) and from the Red Sea to India (Egretta gularis schistacea), and the dimorphic egret Egretta dimorpha, found in East Africa, Madagascar, the Comoros and the Aldabra Islands.[5]

Description

Eastern great egret
In flight, showing yellow feet, at Pichavaram Mangrove Forest, South India
(video) Little egret in Japan, 2013

The adult little egret is 55–65 cm (22–26 in) long with an 88–106 cm (35–42 in) wingspan, and weighs 350–550 g (12–19 oz). Its plumage is normally entirely white, although there are dark forms with largely bluish-grey plumage.[6] In the breeding season, the adult has two long plumes on the nape that form a crest. These plumes are about 150 mm (6 in) and are pointed and very narrow. There are similar feathers on the breast, but the barbs are more widely spread. There are also several elongated scapular feathers that have long loose barbs and may be 200 mm (8 in) long. During the winter the plumage is similar but the scapulars are shorter and more normal in appearance. The bill is long and slender and it and the lores are black. There is an area of greenish-grey bare skin at the base of the lower mandible and around the eye which has a yellow iris. The legs are black and the feet yellow. Juveniles are similar to non-breeding adults but have greenish-black legs and duller yellow feet,[7] and may have a certain proportion of greyish or brownish feathers.[6] The subspecies nigripes differs in having yellow skin between the bill and eye, and blackish feet. During the height of courtship, the lores turn red and the feet of the yellow-footed races turn red.[6]

Blue beak little egret
Blue beak little egret

Little egrets are mostly silent but make various croaking and bubbling calls at their breeding colonies and produce a harsh alarm call when disturbed. To the human ear, the sounds are indistinguishable from the black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) and the cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) with which it sometimes associates.[7]

Distribution and habitat

Little egret at Varkala beach 11
Little egret at Varkala beach, Kerala, India
Egretta garzetta tree Greece
Egretta garzetta standing in a tree, Greece
Little Egret flying with neck retracted
E. g. garzetta flying with neck retracted, India

The breeding range of the western race (E. g. garzetta) includes southern Europe, the Middle East, much of Africa and southern Asia. Northern European populations are migratory, mostly travelling to Africa although some remain in southern Europe, while some Asian populations migrate to the Philippines. The eastern race, (E. g. nigripes), is resident in Indonesia and New Guinea, while E. g. immaculata inhabits Australia and New Zealand, but does not breed in the latter.[6] During the late twentieth century, the range of the little egret expanded northwards in Europe and into the New World, where a breeding population was established on Barbados in 1994. The birds have since spread elsewhere in the Caribbean region and on the Atlantic coast of the United States.[8]

The little egret's habitat varies widely, and includes the shores of lakes, rivers, canals, ponds, lagoons, marshes and flooded land, the bird preferring open locations to dense cover. On the coast it inhabits mangrove areas, swamps, mudflats, sandy beaches and reefs. Rice fields are an important habitat in Italy, and coastal and mangrove areas are important in Africa. The bird often moves about among cattle or other hoofed mammals.[6]

Flying Egeret
Flying Pattern of a Little Egret

Behaviour

Little egrets are sociable birds and are often seen in small flocks. Nevertheless, individual birds do not tolerate others coming too close to their chosen feeding site, though this depends on the abundance of prey. They use a variety of methods to procure their food; they stalk their prey in shallow water, often running with raised wings or shuffling their feet to disturb small fish, or may stand still and wait to ambush prey. They make use of opportunities provided by cormorants disturbing fish or humans attracting fish by throwing bread into water. On land they walk or run while chasing their prey, feed on creatures disturbed by grazing livestock and ticks on the livestock, and even scavenge. Their diet is mainly fish, but amphibians, small reptiles, mammals and birds are also eaten, as well as crustaceans, molluscs, insects, spiders and worms.[6]

Little Egret (Egretta garzetta)- In Breeding plumage-actively catching prey in Kolkata I IMG 7962

Chasing prey in shallow water, Kolkata, India

Egretta garzetta eating goby

eating small fish (Acanthogobius flavimanus)

Little egrets nest in colonies, often with other wading birds. On the coasts of western India these colonies may be in urban areas, and associated birds include cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis), black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) and black-headed ibises (Threskiornis melanocephalus). In Europe, associated species may be squacco herons (Ardeola ralloides), cattle egrets, black-crowned night herons and glossy ibises (Plegadis falcinellus). The nests are usually platforms of sticks built in trees or shrubs, or in reed beds or bamboo groves. In some locations such as the Cape Verde Islands, the birds nest on cliffs. Pairs defend a small breeding territory, usually extending around 3 to 4 m (10 to 13 ft) from the nest. The three to five eggs are incubated by both adults for 21 to 25 days before hatching. They are oval in shape and have a pale, non-glossy, blue-green shell colour. The young birds are covered in white down feathers, are cared for by both parents and fledge after 40 to 45 days.[6][7]

Aigrette garzette MHNT

egg

Egretta garzetta (juvenile s3)

juvenile

Egretta garzetta (nest with juvenile s3)

feeding for juvenile

Conservation

Globally, the little egret is not listed as a threatened species and has in fact expanded its range over the last few decades.[5] The International Union for Conservation of Nature states that their wide distribution and large total population means that they are a species that cause them "least concern".[1]

Status in northwestern Europe

Historical research has shown that the little egret was once present, and probably common, in Ireland and Great Britain, but became extinct there through a combination of over-hunting in the late mediaeval period and climate change at the start of the Little Ice Age. The inclusion of 1,000 egrets (among numerous other birds) in the banquet to celebrate the enthronement of George Neville as Archbishop of York at Cawood Castle in 1465 indicates the presence of a sizable population in northern England at the time, and they are also listed in the coronation feast of King Henry VI in 1429.[9][10] They had become scarce by the mid-16th century, when William Gowreley, "yeoman purveyor to the Kinges mowthe", "had to send further south" for egrets.[10] In 1804 Thomas Bewick commented that if it were the same bird as listed in Neville's bill of fare "No wonder this species has become nearly extinct in this country!"[11]

Thomas Bewick The Little Egret 1804
"The Little Egret" in Thomas Bewick's A History of British Birds, volume II, "Water Birds", 1804

Further declines occurred throughout Europe as the plumes of the little egret and other egrets were in demand for decorating hats. They had been used in the plume trade since at least the 17th century but in the 19th century it became a major craze and the number of egret skins passing through dealers reached into the millions.[12] Complete statistics do not exist, but in the first three months of 1885, 750,000 egret skins were sold in London, while in 1887 one London dealer sold 2 million egret skins.[13] Egret farms were set up where the birds could be plucked without being killed but most of the supply of so-called "Osprey plumes"[14] was obtained by hunting, which reduced the population of the species to dangerously low levels and stimulated the establishment of Britain's Royal Society for the Protection of Birds in 1889.[12]

By the 1950s, the little egret had become restricted to southern Europe, and conservation laws protecting the species were introduced. This allowed the population to rebound strongly; over the next few decades it became increasingly common in western France and later on the north coast. It bred in the Netherlands in 1979 with further breeding from the 1990s onward. About 22,700 pairs are thought to breed in Europe, with populations stable or increasing in Spain, France and Italy but decreasing in Greece.[15]

In Britain it was a rare vagrant from its 16th-century disappearance until the late 20th century, and did not breed. It has however recently become a regular breeding species and is commonly present, often in large numbers, at favoured coastal sites. The first recent breeding record in England was on Brownsea Island in Dorset in 1996, and the species bred in Wales for the first time in 2002.[16] The population increase has been rapid subsequently, with over 750 pairs breeding in nearly 70 colonies in 2008,[17] and a post-breeding total of 4,540 birds in September 2008.[18] Little egrets are especially common around the River Thames, and in summer can be noticed in large numbers at Port Meadow, Oxford. In Ireland, the species bred for the first time in 1997 at a site in County Cork and the population has also expanded rapidly since, breeding in most Irish counties by 2010. Severe winter weather in 2010–2012 proved to be only a temporary setback, and the species continues to spread.[19]

Status in Australia

Little Egret.6
E. g. immaculata in Northern Territory, Australia

In Australia, its status varies from state to state. It is listed as "Threatened" on the Victorian Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988.[20] Under this act, an Action Statement for the recovery and future management of this species has been prepared.[21] On the 2007 advisory list of threatened vertebrate fauna in Victoria, the little egret is listed as endangered.[22]

Colonisation of the New World

The little egret has now started to colonise the New World. The first record there was on Barbados in April 1954. The bird began breeding on the island in 1994 and now also breeds in the Bahamas.[15] Ringed birds from Spain provide a clue to the birds' origin.[8] The birds are very similar in appearance to the snowy egret and share colonial nesting sites with these birds in Barbados, where they are both recent arrivals. The little egrets are larger, have more varied foraging strategies and exert dominance over feeding sites.[8]

Little egrets are seen with increasing regularity over a wider area and have been observed from Suriname and Brazil in the south to Newfoundland, Quebec and Ontario in the north. Birds on the east coast of North America are thought to have moved north with snowy egrets from the Caribbean. In June 2011, a little egret was spotted in Maine, in the Scarborough Marsh, near the Audubon Center.[23]

References

  1. ^ a b BirdLife International (2015). "Egretta garzetta". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2015: e.T62774969A67367671. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T62774969A67367671.en. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
  2. ^ Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 143, 171. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  3. ^ Lock, Leigh; Cook, Kevin. "The Little Egret in Britain: a successful colonist" (PDF). britishbirds.co.uk. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  4. ^ "Egretta garzetta". Avibase.
  5. ^ a b del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J., eds. (1992). Handbook of the Birds of the World. 1. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. p. 412. ISBN 84-87334-10-5.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Hancock, James; Kushlan, James A. (2010). The Herons Handbook. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 175–180. ISBN 978-1-4081-3496-2.
  7. ^ a b c Witherby, H. F., ed. (1943). Handbook of British Birds, Volume 3: Hawks to Ducks. H. F. and G. Witherby Ltd. pp. 139–142.
  8. ^ a b c Kushlan James A. (2007). "Sympatric Foraging of Little Egrets and Snowy Egrets in Barbados, West Indies". Waterbirds. 30 (4): 609–612. doi:10.1675/1524-4695(2007)030[0609:sfolea]2.0.co;2. JSTOR 25148265.
  9. ^ Stubbs, F.J. (1910). "The Egret in Britain". Zoologist. 14 (4): 310–311.
  10. ^ a b Bourne, W.R.P. (2003). "Fred Stubbs, Egrets, Brewes and climatic change". British Birds. 96: 332–339.
  11. ^ Bewick, Thomas (1847) [1804]. A History of British Birds, Volume II, "Water Birds". R. E. Bewick. p. 44.
  12. ^ a b Haines, Perry (20 August 2002). "History repeats, once again RSPB fights the cause of the Little Egret". BirdGuides. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  13. ^ Cocker, Mark; Mabey, Richard (2005). Birds Britannica. Chatto & Windus. p. 50. ISBN 0-7011-6907-9.
  14. ^ "Birds and Millinery". Bird Notes and News. 2 (1): 29. 1906.
  15. ^ a b "Little egret". Avibirds. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
  16. ^ "UK RSPB information on the Little Egret spread into Britain". Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. Retrieved 16 January 2008.
  17. ^ Holling, M.; et al. (2010). "Rare breeding birds in the United Kingdom in 2008" (PDF). British Birds. 103: 482–538.
  18. ^ Calbrade, N.; et al. (2010). Waterbirds in the UK 2008/09. The Wetland Bird Survey. ISBN 978-1-906204-33-4.
  19. ^ Report of the Irish Rare Birds Breeding Panel 2013 Irish Birds Vol. 10 p.65
  20. ^ "Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act – Listed Taxa, Communities and Potentially Threatening Processes". Department of Sustainability and Environment, Victoria. Archived from the original on 12 March 2011.
  21. ^ "Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act: Index of Approved Action Statements". Department of Sustainability and Environment, Victoria. Archived from the original on 15 October 2008.
  22. ^ Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment (2007). Advisory List of Threatened Vertebrate Fauna in Victoria – 2007. East Melbourne, Victoria: Department of Sustainability and Environment. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-74208-039-0.
  23. ^ "Rare Bird Flies Into Scarborough". Wmtw.com. 30 June 2011. Retrieved 24 October 2015.

External links

Blake's Pools

Blake's Pools are a 4 hectare nature reserve owned by Environment Agency and leased by the Avon Wildlife Trust, on the banks of the Congresbury Yeo close to its mouth, near Kingston Seymour, Somerset, in South West England

The three freshwater and brackish pools were dug between 1983 and 1987 to attract wildlife. It forms part of the Severn Estuary Site of Special Scientific Interest, Special Protection Area and Ramsar site. In spring 2001 part of the sea wall protecting the outer pool collapsed, creating a tidal lagoon. To control water levels, sluice gates have been fitted into the two shallow pools. Reeds have also been planted around the largest pool.

Over 100 species of bird have visited the reserve, and shelduck, redshank and lapwing often nest. During periods of low tide the expansive areas of mud attract birds such as the little grebe and little egret. The two shallower pools attract wading birds, especially green and common sandpipers. In winter, and variety of wildfowl feed at the site including smew, scaup, black-necked grebe and dunlin.

Chinese egret

The Chinese egret or Swinhoe's egret (Egretta eulophotes) is a threatened species of egret from east Asia.

Colonisation (biology)

Colonisation or colonization is the process in biology by which a species spreads to new areas. Colonisation often refers to successful immigration where a population becomes integrated into a community, having resisted initial local extinction.One classic model in biogeography posits that species must continue to colonize new areas through its life cycle (called a taxon cycle) in order to achieve longevity. Accordingly, colonisation and extinction are key components of island biogeography, a theory that has many applications in ecology, such as metapopulations.

Dimorphic egret

The dimorphic egret (Egretta dimorpha) is a species of heron in the family Ardeidae. It is found in Comoros, Kenya, Madagascar, Mayotte, Seychelles, and Tanzania.

The dimorphic egret is sometimes considered as a subspecies of the western reef egret (Egretta gularis) or as a subspecies of the little egret (Egretta garzetta).The dimorphic egret can sometimes be found on rooftops, finding insects in the gutters of houses.

Drigh Lake

Drigh Lake (Urdu: ڈرگ جھیل ‎) is situated in Qambar Shahdadkot District in Sindh, Pakistan, 29 kilometres (18 mi) from Larkana city and 7 kilometres (4 mi) from Qambar town. It has a surface area of 408 acres (165 ha) and the running length of the lake from North to South is about 5.64 Miles. Formed in the floods of 1814, 1815 and 1817. Drigh Lake is a favorable area for resident and winter migratory birds like night heron, grey heron, purple heron, great white egret, little egret, mallard, gadwal, pintail, shoveller, common teal, tufted duck, wigeon, osprey, marsh harrier, white breasted kingfisher, pied kingfisher, small blue kingfisher, purple galinule, white-breasted waterhen, moorhen, cormorant, common pochard, pied harrier, crow pheasant, darter, garganey, ferruginous duck, greater spotted eagle, moorhen, marbled teal and coot.Drigh Lake was declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1972 and was designated as a Ramsar site recognized by the united nation as A World Heritage site in 1976.

Drigh lake is a privately owned property belonging to the "Shaikh" family DRIGH lake is a joint property of the Sardar noor Muhammad khan Shaikh.

Dignitaries who have visited the Drigh Dhand Apart from King George the 5th and Queen Mary Of England in 1918, Yasir Arafat, Raza Shah Pehlwi of Iran, Hafiz al-Asad of Syria, Muammar Qaddafi of Libya, Queen Elizabeth II of England and her husband Prince Philip, Shaikh Zahid of UAE, King Hussein of Jordan and former Pakistani leaders President of the state Field Martial General Ayub Khan, Shaheed Zulifqar Ali Bhutto Prime minister of Pakistan, President General Yahya Khan, and General Ziaul Haq when he was chief of army staff in the tenure of Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto's Prime Minister ship.

Presently The Lake is under direct supervision of different members of the shaikh family.

Egret

Egrets are herons which have white or buff plumage, and develop fine plumes (usually milky white) during the breeding season. Egrets are not a biologically distinct group from the herons and have the same build.

Egretta

Egretta is a genus of medium-sized herons, mostly breeding in warmer climates. The genus name comes from the Provençal French for the little egret, aigrette, a diminutive of aigron, "heron".Representatives of this genus are found in most of the world, and the little egret, as well as being widespread throughout much of the Old World, has now started to colonise the Americas.

These are typical egrets in shape, long-necked and long-legged. A few plumage features are shared, although several have plumes in breeding plumage; a number of species are either white in all plumages, have a white morph (e.g. reddish egret), or have a white juvenile plumage (little blue heron).

The breeding habitat of Egretta herons is marshy wetlands in warm regions. They nest in colonies, often with other wading birds, usually on platforms of sticks in trees or shrubs.

These herons feed on insects, fish, and amphibians, caught normally by cautious stalking.

Halasal

Halasal is a village in Belgaum district in the southern state of Karnataka.

Halasal is a natural habitat for wildlife, including tigers, leopards, black panthers, elephants, gaur, deer, antelopes, and bears. Birds include the Indian spot-billed duck, pond heron, little egret, white-throated kingfisher, red-wattled lapwing, black-winged stilt, grey heron, eagle, bulbul, and wagtail. Some people visit Halasal to take part in jungle safaris.

Antarali Dagad or the "magic stone", a large stone resting on a small area, is a well-known tourist spot and popular for picnics.

Intermediate egret

The intermediate egret, median egret, smaller egret, or yellow-billed egret (Ardea intermedia) is a medium-sized heron. Some taxonomists put the species in the genus Egretta or Mesophoyx. It is a resident breeder from east Africa across the Indian subcontinent to Southeast Asia and Australia.

List of birds of Islamabad

This is a list of birds found in Islamabad, Pakistan. Seventy-two species of birds have been found in this area. The best places to watch are Margalla Hills and Rawal Lake.

Little grebe, Tachybaptus ruficollis

Little cormorant, Microcarbo niger

Great cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo

Black-crowned night heron, Nycticorax nycticorax

Indian pond heron (Paddybird), Ardeola grayii

Cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis

Little egret, Egretta garzetta

Intermediate egret, Egretta intermedia

Grey heron, Ardea cinerea

Purple heron, Ardea purpurea

Common teal, Anas crecca

Black kite, Milvus migrans

Shikra, Accipiter badius

Long-legged buzzard, Buteo rufinus

Eurasian kestrel, Falco tinnunculus

Grey francolin, Francolinus pondicerianus

Common quail, Coturnix coturnix

Brown waterhen, Amaurornis akool

White-breasted waterhen, Amaurornis phoenicurus

Moorhen, Gallinula chloropus

Eurasian coot, Fulica atra

Red-wattled lapwing, Hoplopterus indicus

Common sandpiper, Actitis hypoleucos

Black-headed gull, Larus ridibundus

Feral pigeon, Columba livia

Wood pigeon, Columba palumbus

Collared dove, Streptopelia decaocto

Palm dove, Spilopelia senegalensis

Spotted dove, Spilopelia chinensis

Rose-ringed parakeet, Psittacula krameri

Common koel, Eudynamys scolopacea

Greater coucal, Centropus sinensis

House swift, Apus affinis

White-throated kingfisher, Halcyon smyrnensis

Pied kingfisher, Ceryle rudis

Hoopoe, Upupa epops

Lesser golden-backed woodpecker, Dinopium benghalense

Brown-fronted woodpecker, Dendrocopos auriceps

Crested lark, Galerida cristata

Small skylark, Alauda gulgula

Brown-throated sand martin, Riparia paludicola

Pale sand martin, Riparia diluta

Barn swallow, Hirundo rustica

Red-rumped swallow, Hirundo daurica

Paddyfield pipit, Anthus rufulus

Grey wagtail, Motacilla cinerea

White wagtail, Motacilla alba

Large pied wagtail, Motacilla maderaspatensis

Himalayan bulbul, Pycnonotus leucogenys

Red-vented bulbul, Pycnonotus cafer

Dark-grey bushchat, Saxicola ferrea

Blue rock thrush, Monticola solitarius

Blue whistling thrush, Myophonus caeruleus

Fan-tailed warbler, Cisticola juncidis

Tawny prinia, Prinia inornata

Yellow-bellied prinia, Prinia flaviventris

Hume's leaf warbler, Phylloscopus humei

White-throated fantail, Rhipidura albicollis

Black-chinned babbler, Stachyris pyrrhops

Common babbler, Turdoides caudatus

Jungle babbler, Turdoides striatus

Great tit, Parus major

Bar-tailed treecreeper, Certhia himalayana

Oriental white-eye, Zosterops palpebrosus

Rufous-backed shrike, Lanius schach

Black drongo, Dicrurus macrocercus

House crow, Corvus splendens

Brahminy starling, Sturnus pagodarum

Common myna, Acridotheres tristis

Bank myna, Acridotheres ginginianus

House sparrow, Passer domesticus

Alexandrine parakeet, Psittacula eupatria

Green bee-eater, Merops orientalis

Rufous treepie, Dendrocitta vagabunda

Indian robin, Saxicoloides fulicatus

List of birds of Jinja

This list of birds found in the area around the town of Jinja, Uganda, the area is on the edge of the fresh water Lake Victoria and fast flowing water of the Nile.

African darter - Anhinga rufa

Common bulbul - Pycnonotus barbatus

Pink-backed pelican - Pelecanus rufescens

Yellow-billed kite - Milvus aegyptius

Red bishop - Euplectes orixCormorant

Reed cormorant - Microcarbo africanus

White-breasted cormorant - Phalacrocorax lucidus

Crane

Grey crowned crane - Balearica regulorumCrow

Pied crow - Corvus albusDucks and geese

Egyptian goose - Alopochen aegyptiacuHamerkop

Hamerkop - Scopus umbrettaHerons and egrets

Grey heron - Ardea cinerea

Great egret - Ardea alba

Cattle egret - Bubulcus ibis

Little egret - Egretta garzettaHornbill

African grey hornbill - Tockus nasutus

Black-and-white-casqued hornbill - Bycanistes subcylindricus

Abyssinian ground hornbill - Bucorvus abyssinicusIbis

African sacred ibis - Threskiornis aethiopicus

Hadeda ibis - Bostrychia hagedashKingfisher

Pied kingfisher - Ceryle rudis

Woodland kingfisher - Halcyon senegalensis

Old World flycatchers

White-browed robin-chat - Cossypha heugliniPelicans

Great white pelican - PelecanusStorks

African openbill - Anastomus lamelligerus

Marabou stork - Leptoptilos crumeniferShrikes

Crimson-breasted shrike - Laniarius atrococcineusSunbirds

Northern double-collared sunbird - Cinnyris reichenowiTuraco

Eastern plantain-eater - Crinifer zonurus

Ross's turaco - Musophaga rossaeWagtail

African pied wagtail - Motacilla aguimp

Cape wagtail - Motacilla capensisWeavers

Yellow-mantled weaver - Ploceus tricolor

Lotus Pond

Lotus Pond is a small water body Inside MLA Colony, Jubilee Hills, Hyderabad, India. The pond is surrounded by lush green flora and a 1.2 kilometer path.

Lotus Pond is home to more than 20 species of birds. A few of them are pied kingfisher, white wagtail, common moorhen, little grebe, sunbirds, common coot, and little egret.

The pond is maintained by the Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC).

The Lotus Pond was conceived to be an eco-conservation project bringing natural elements into the concept of the project without disturbing the ecosystem and conserving the natural rocks and pond.

The launch of the construction of the project was on 20 November 1999. The work was completed in late 2001.

Maenporth

Maenporth (Cornish: Meyn Borth, meaning stones cove) is a cove and beach in west Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. It is situated approximately two miles (3 km) south-southwest of Falmouth on the estuary of the River Fal.Maenporth cove faces east across Falmouth Bay with views towards Pendennis Castle and the lighthouse on St Anthony Head.

The South West Coast Path runs through Maenporth. Behind the cove, wetland supports varied birdlife including the grey heron and the little egret.

The beach shelves gently and at low water leaves an area of shallow water that is safe for swimming. The beach has facilities for launching boats, scuba diving and sea kayaking. Other facilities include car parking, a cafe and public toilets. On the hill above the beach is modern holiday accommodation in the Maenporth Estate. Neighbouring beaches include Swanpool and Gyllyngvase.

Putrajaya Wetlands Park

Putrajaya Wetlands Park (Malay: Taman Wetland) in Putrajaya, Malaysia is believed to be the largest constructed freshwater wetlands in the tropics. It is the first man-made wetland in Malaysia, which includes a Wetland Park (138 hectares) and the wetland areas (1977 hectares). Putrajaya Wetlands consists of 24 wetland cells, Wetlands Park (Taman Wetland) and the other Wetlands areas. The Wetland now is also a wildlife sanctuary which attracts a huge variety of animals to the combined terrestrial-aquatic wetland environment.Several species of local marshland birds and water birds including the little egret, the little green heron and cinnamon bittern, and migratory birds form Northern Hemisphere have been spotted there. Binoculars will come in handy for bird watching. The visitors can also enjoy a leisurely walk, jog or cycle along its bicycle track.

Satchinez swamps

The Satchinez swamps (or Banat delta; Romanian: Mlaștinile Satchinez) form a ornithological nature reservation that spreads over 242 hectares (600 acres) near Satchinez, in Timiș County, Romania. It was founded in 1942, at Dionisie Linția's proposal. The reservation was expanded to cover 1,194 hectares (2,950 acres) in 2002. The swamps of Satchinez were declared as a protected area in 1999, during the project Life Natura. The European Commission invested 3.5 million lei in the area.

This natural habitat is a reminiscence of the old swamps that covered these lands until the 8th century. The lush vegetation represents a very good camouflage during the nesting season, and the reservation is home to large numbers of protected birds including the pied avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta), the little egret (Egretta garzetta), the great egret (Egretta alba), the black-winged stilt (Himantopus himantopus), the grey heron (Ardea cinerea), the squacco heron (Ardeola ralloides), the little bittern (Ixobrychus minutus), the purple heron (Ardea purpurea) and the black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax). Foxes, rabbits, deers and wild boars can also be seen.

The reservation can be visited between 15 April and 15 September, and during mild autumns, the reservation can be visited until October.

Snowy egret

The snowy egret (Egretta thula) is a small white heron. The genus name comes from the Provençal French for the little egret aigrette, a diminutive of aigron, "heron". The species name thula is the Araucano for the Black-necked Swan, applied to this species in error by Chilean naturalist Juan Ignacio Molina in 1782.The snowy egret is the American counterpart to the very similar Old World little egret, which has established a foothold in the Bahamas. At one time, the beautiful plumes of the snowy egret were in great demand by market hunters as decorations for women's hats. This reduced the population of the species to dangerously low levels. Now protected in the United States by law, under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, this bird's population has rebounded.

Vaduvoor Bird Sanctuary

Vaduvoor Bird Sanctuary is a bird sanctuary located in the town of Vaduvur in Tiruvarur District in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Vaduvur was located 22 KM away from Thanjavur on the Thanjavur-Mannargudi state highway. The irrigation tank receives water from November to April every year which attracts a numerous foreign birds from Europe and America. The main attraction is the fertile wetlands in the region. There are also numerous lakes which provides the most required variety of fishes for the birds. The sanctuary is free for Visitors and the government has provided basic facilities for an overnight stay. There are two towers located in the sanctuary for the ease of visitors. More than 38 species of water birds are found here.

Bird migration is a seasonal phenomenon and when the temperature escalates in Europe and in the North America, the birds starts seeing for a location that will be suitable for survival. The wetlands in this region is quite suitable for the migratory birds as it provides suitable environment for food, shelter and reproduction. The farmers of this region also love the arrival of migratory birds as the irrigation water becomes fertile once it was enriched with the excretory of the birds. The state government had appointed officers for prevention of both hunting and poaching. Poaching and hunting is illegal and a punishable offence. The villagers were aware of this and a friendly environment for the shelter of the birds prevails. The small town is a good agricultural land and rice is grown in plenty.

The state government has provided facilities for sight seeing and relaxation. Public transport is also available 24X7 from both Thanjavur and Mannargudi. The entire sanctuary was a protected area and the birds can be seen only from towers or from the nearby location. The pleasant sound that arises from the variety of birds is pleasant and warming.

There is also a famous Ramar Kovil (Ram Temple) in the small town. Kothandaramaswamy is the name of the god in the temple.

20,000 birds from 38 different species visit the sanctuary every year. They include Open bill stork, Cattle egret, Little egret, Pelicans, Grey Pelicans, Darter, Little Cormorants, Common coots, Little tern, Pond heron, Night heron, Painted stork, Common keat, Kingfisher among others. The ideal time to visit the sanctuary is in the early morning before 6.30 p.m or in the late evening after 05.30 p.m. However, a large group of bird can be seen throughout the day.

Western reef heron

The western reef heron (Egretta gularis) also called the western reef egret, is a medium-sized heron found in southern Europe, Africa and parts of Asia. It has a mainly coastal distribution and occurs in several plumage forms: a slaty-grey plumage in which it can only be confused with the rather uncommon dark morph of the Little Egret (Egretta garzetta); a white form which can look very similar to the little egret although the bill tends to be paler and larger and the black form with white throat E. g. gularis of West Africa. There are also differences in size, structure and foraging behaviour. There have been suggestions that the species hybridizes with the Little Egret, and based on this, some authors treat schistacea and gularis as subspecies of Egretta garzetta. Works that consider the Western Reef Heron as a valid species include the nominate gularis and schistacea as subspecies.

Yuhui UAV

Yuhui UAVs are Chinese UAVs developed by Chengdu Elm to Draw (Yu-Hui, or Yuhui) Information Technology Co., Ltd. (YHIT, 成都榆绘信息技术有限公司), mainly for aerial survey and surveillance applications. Some of the UAVs are jointly developed with other Chinese UAV developers, but all UAVs utilize the same ground station (GCS) that is capable of controlling different types of UAVs. The GCS is very light with weight less than a kilogram, and has a compact size of 65 cm x 35 cm x 16.5 cm. The adaptation of a general purpose UAV has greatly reduced the cost of operation.

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