Litre

The litre (international spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L, l[1] or ) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre.

The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume [2] — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,[3] although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre",[3] a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English.[a]

One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.[4]

Litre
CubeLitre
One litre is the volume of a
cube with 10 cm sides
General information
Unit systemNon-SI unit accepted for use with SI
Unit ofVolume
Symboll[1] (ℓ) or L[1]
In SI base units:1 L = 10−3 m3

Definition

Masskrug
Maßkrüge, one litre beer mugs, during the 2006 Oktoberfest in Germany

A litre is defined as a special name for a cubic decimetre or 10 centimetres × 10 centimetres × 10 centimetres, (1 L ≡ 1 dm3 ≡ 1000 cm3). Hence 1 L ≡ 0.001 m3 ≡ 1000 cm3, and 1 m3 (i.e. a cubic metre, which is the SI unit for volume) is exactly 1000 L.

From 1901 to 1964, the litre was defined as the volume of one kilogram of pure water at maximum density and standard pressure. The kilogram was in turn specified as the mass of a platinum/iridium cylinder held at Sèvres in France and was intended to be of the same mass as the 1 litre of water referred to above. It was subsequently discovered that the cylinder was around 28 parts per million too large and thus, during this time, a litre was about 1.000028 dm3. Additionally, the mass-volume relationship of water (as with any fluid) depends on temperature, pressure, purity and isotopic uniformity. In 1964, the definition relating the litre to mass was abandoned in favour of the current one. Although the litre is not an SI unit, it is accepted by the CGPM (the standards body that defines the SI) for use with the SI. CGPM defines the litre and its acceptable symbols.

A litre is equal in volume to the millistere, an obsolete non-SI metric unit customarily used for dry measure.

Explanation

Litres are most commonly used for items (such as fluids and solids that can be poured), which are measured by the capacity or size of their container, whereas cubic metres (and derived units) are most commonly used for items measured either by their dimensions or their displacements. The litre is often also used in some calculated measurements, such as density (kg/L), allowing an easy comparison with the density of water.

One litre of water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram when measured at its maximal density, which occurs at about 4 °C. Similarly: one millilitre (1 mL) of water has a mass of about 1 g; 1,000 litres of water has a mass of about 1,000 kg (1 tonne). This relationship holds because the gram was originally defined as the mass of 1 mL of water; however, this definition was abandoned in 1799 because the density of water changes with temperature and, very slightly, with pressure.

It is now known that the density of water also depends on the isotopic ratios of the oxygen and hydrogen atoms in a particular sample. Modern measurements of Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water, which is pure distilled water with an isotopic composition representative of the average of the world’s oceans, show it has a density of 0.999975 ±0.000001 kg/L at its point of maximum density (3.984 °C) under one standard atmosphere (760 Torr, 101.325 kPa) of pressure.[5]

SI prefixes applied to the litre

The litre, though not an official SI unit, may be used with SI prefixes. The most commonly used derived unit is the millilitre, defined as one-thousandth of a litre, and also often referred to by the SI derived unit name "cubic centimetre". It is a commonly used measure, especially in medicine, cooking and automotive engineering. Other units may be found in the table below, where the more often used terms are in bold. However, some authorities advise against some of them; for example, in the United States, NIST advocates using the millilitre or litre instead of the centilitre.[6]

Multiple Name Symbols Equivalent volume Submultiple Name Symbols Equivalent volume
100 L litre l L dm3 cubic decimetre    
101 L decalitre dal daL 101 dm3 ten cubic decimetres 10−1 L decilitre dl dL 102 cm3 hundred cubic centimetres
102 L hectolitre hl hL 102 dm3 hundred cubic decimetres 10−2 L centilitre cl cL 101 cm3 ten cubic centimetres
103 L kilolitre kl kL m3 cubic metre 10−3 L millilitre ml mL cm3 cubic centimetre
106 L megalitre Ml ML dam3 cubic decametre 10−6 L microlitre μl μL mm3 cubic millimetre
109 L gigalitre Gl GL hm3 cubic hectometre 10−9 L nanolitre nl nL 106 μm3 million cubic micrometres
1012 L teralitre Tl TL km3 cubic kilometre 10−12 L picolitre pl pL 103 μm3 thousand cubic micrometres
1015 L petalitre Pl PL 103 km3 thousand cubic kilometres 10−15 L femtolitre fl fL μm3 cubic micrometre
1018 L exalitre El EL 106 km3 million cubic kilometres 10−18 L attolitre al aL 106 nm3 million cubic nanometres
1021 L zettalitre Zl ZL Mm3 cubic megametre 10−21 L zeptolitre zl zL 103 nm3 thousand cubic nanometres
1024 L yottalitre Yl YL 103 Mm3 thousand cubic megametres 10−24 L yoctolitre yl yL nm3 cubic nanometre

Non-metric conversions

Metric
unit

Approximate value
Non-metric unit
Non-metric unit
Metric equivalency
1 L ≈ 0.87987699 Imperial quart 1 Imperial quart ≡ 1.1365225 L
1 L ≈ 1.056688 U.S. quarts 1 U.S. quart ≡ 0.946352946 L
1 L ≈ 1.75975326 Imperial pints 1 Imperial pint ≡ 0.56826125 L
1 L ≈ 2.11337641 U.S. pints 1 U.S. pint ≡ 0.473176473 L
1 L ≈ 0.21997 Imperial gallon 1 Imperial gallon ≡ 4.54609 L
1 L ≈ 0.2641720523 U.S. gallon 1 U.S. gallon ≡ 3.785411784 L
1 L ≈ 0.0353146667 cubic foot 1 cubic foot ≡ 28.316846592 L
1 L ≈ 61.023744 cubic inches 1 cubic inch ≡ 0.016387064 L
1 L ≈ 35.1950 Imperial fluid ounces 1 Imperial fluid ounce ≡ 28.4130625 mL
1 L ≈ 33.8140 U.S. fluid ounces 1 U.S. fluid ounce ≡ 29.5735295625 mL
See also Imperial units and US customary units

Rough conversions

One litre is slightly more than one US liquid quart and slightly less than one imperial quart or one US dry quart. A mnemonic for its volume relative to the imperial pint is ‘a litre of water's a pint and three quarters’.

A litre is the volume of a cube with sides of 10 cm, which is slightly less than a cube of sides 4 inches (or one-third of a foot). One cubic foot would contain exactly 27 such cubes (four inches on each side), making one cubic foot approximately equal to 27 litres. One cubic foot has an exact volume of 28.316846592 litres, which is within 5% of the 27-litre approximation.

A litre of liquid water has a mass almost exactly equal to one kilogram. An early definition of the kilogram was set as the mass of one litre of water. Because volume changes with temperature and pressure, and pressure uses units of mass, the definition of a kilogram was changed. At standard pressure, one litre of water has a mass of 0.999975 kg at 4 °C, and 0.997 kg at 25 °C.[7]

Symbol

Originally, the only symbol for the litre was l (lowercase letter L), following the SI convention that only those unit symbols that abbreviate the name of a person start with a capital letter. In many English-speaking countries, however, the most common shape of a handwritten Arabic digit 1 is just a vertical stroke; that is, it lacks the upstroke added in many other cultures. Therefore, the digit "1" may easily be confused with the letter "l". Further, on some typewriters, particularly older ones, the unshifted L key had to be used to type the numeral 1. Even in some computer typefaces, the two characters are barely distinguishable. This caused some concern, especially in the medical community.

As a result, L (uppercase letter L) was adopted as an alternative symbol for litre in 1979. The United States National Institute of Standards and Technology now recommends the use of the uppercase letter L,[8] a practice that is also widely followed in Canada and Australia. In these countries, the symbol L is also used with prefixes, as in mL and μL, instead of the traditional ml and μl used in Europe. In the UK and Ireland as well as the rest of Europe, lowercase l is used with prefixes, though whole litres are often written in full (so, "750 ml" on a wine bottle, but often "1 litre" on a juice carton). In 1990, the CIPM stated that it was too early to choose a single symbol for the litre.[9]

Prior to 1979, the symbol (script small l, U+2113), came into common use in some countries; for example, it was recommended by South African Bureau of Standards publication M33 and Canada in the 1970s. This symbol can still be encountered occasionally in some English-speaking and European countries like Germany, and its use is ubiquitous in Japan and South Korea. Fonts covering the CJK characters usually include not only the script small ℓ but also four precomposed characters: ㎕, ㎖, ㎗ and (U+3395 to U+3398) for the microlitre, millilitre, decilitre and kilolitre.

History

The first name of the litre was "cadil"; standards are shown at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris.[10]

The litre was introduced in France in 1795 as one of the new "republican units of measurement" and defined as one cubic decimetre.[11] One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, due to the gram being defined in 1795 as one cubic centimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice.[4] The original decimetre length was 44.344 lignes, which was revised in 1798 to 44.3296 lignes. This made the original litre 1.000974 of today's cubic decimetre. It was against this litre that the kilogram was constructed.

In 1879, the CIPM adopted the definition of the litre, with the symbol l (lowercase letter L).

In 1901, at the 3rd CGPM conference, the litre was redefined as the space occupied by 1 kg of pure water at the temperature of its maximum density (3.98 °C) under a pressure of 1 atm. This made the litre equal to about 1.000028 dm3 (earlier reference works usually put it at 1.000027 dm3).

In 1964, at the 12th CGPM conference, the original definition was reverted to, and thus the litre was once again defined in exact relation to the metre, as another name for the cubic decimetre, that is, exactly 1 dm3.[12]

In 1979, at the 16th CGPM conference, the alternative symbol L (uppercase letter L) was adopted. It also expressed a preference that in the future only one of these two symbols should be retained, but in 1990 said it was still too early to do so.[9]

Colloquial and practical usage

In spoken English, the symbol "mL" (for millilitre) is sometimes pronounced as "mil", which is potentially confusing as this could also be interpreted as:

  1. millimetre, a unit of length equal to one-thousandth of a metre
  2. thousandth of an inch
  3. mil, a Scandinavian unit of length equal to 10 kilometres
  4. angular mil, unit of angular measurement

Generally, these various meanings do not create confusion because the context is usually sufficient—one being a volume, the others linear or angular measurement.

The abbreviation cc (for cubic centimetre, equal to a millilitre or mL) is a unit of the cgs system, that preceded the MKS system, that later evolved into the SI system. The abbreviation cc is still commonly used in many fields including medical dosage and sizing for small combustion engine displacement, such as those used in motorcycles.

The microlitre (μL) has been known in the past as the lambda (λ), but this usage is now discouraged.[13] In the medical field the microlitre is sometimes abbreviated as mcL on test results.[14]

In the SI system, use of prefixes for powers of 1,000 is preferred and all other multiples discouraged. However, in countries where the metric system was established well before the adoption of the SI standard other multiples were already established, their use remains common. In particular, use of the centi (10−2), deci (10−1), deca (10+1) and hecto (10+2) prefixes are still common. For example, in many European countries, the hectolitre is the typical unit for production and export volumes of beverages (milk, beer, soft drinks, wine, etc.) and for measuring the size of the catch and quotas for fishing boats; decilitres are common in Switzerland and Scandinavia and sometimes found in cookbooks; centilitres indicate the capacity of drinking glasses and of small bottles. In colloquial Dutch in Belgium, a "vijfentwintiger" and a "drieëndertiger" (literally "twenty-fiver" and "thirty-threer") are the common beer glasses, the corresponding bottles mention 25 cL or 33 cL. Bottles may also be 75 cL or half size at 37.5 cL for 'artisanal' brews or 70 cL for wines or spirits. Cans come in 25 cL, 33 cL and 50 cL.

In countries where the metric system was adopted as the official measuring system after the SI standard was established, common usage more closely follows contemporary SI conventions. For example, in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, consumer beverages are labelled almost exclusively using litres and millilitres. Hectolitres sometimes appear in industry, but centilitres and decilitres are rarely, if ever, used. An exception is in pathology, where for instance blood lead level may be measured in micrograms per decilitre. Larger volumes are usually given in cubic metres (equivalent to 1 kL), or thousands or millions of cubic metres.

Although kilolitres, megalitres, and gigalitres are commonly used for measuring water consumption, reservoir capacities and river flows, for larger volumes of fluids, such as annual consumption of tap water, lorry (truck) tanks, or swimming pools, the cubic metre is the general unit. It is also generally for all volumes of a non-liquid nature.

Usages to indicate capacity

Fields where the litre and millilitre are used as a measurement for non-liquid volumes, where the capacity of the container is indicated, include:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The Metric Conversion Act of 1985 gives the United States Secretary of Commerce the responsibility of interpreting or modifying the SI for use in the United States. The Secretary of Commerce delegated this authority to the Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) (Turner, 2008). In 2008, the NIST published the U.S. version (Taylor and Thompson, 2008a) of the English text of the eighth edition of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) publication Le Système International d' Unités (SI) (BIPM, 2006). In the NIST publication, the spellings 'meter', 'liter' and 'deka' are used rather than 'metre', 'litre' and 'deca' as in the original BIPM English text (Taylor and Thompson, 2008a, p. iii). The Director of the NIST officially recognized this publication, together with Taylor and Thompson (2008b), as the ‘legal interpretation’ of the SI for the United States (Turner, 2008).

References

  1. ^ a b c International Bureau of Weights and Measures (2006), The International System of Units (SI) (PDF) (8th ed.), p. 124, ISBN 92-822-2213-6, archived (PDF) from the original on 14 August 2017
  2. ^ Collins English Dictionary
  3. ^ a b Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, 2006, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.)
  4. ^ a b "Décret relatif aux poids et aux mesures du 18 germinal an 3 (7 avril 1795)" [Weights and measures decree dated 18 Germinal, Year 3 (7 April 1795)] (in French). Association Métrodiff. 7 April 1795. Gramme, le poids absolu d'un volume d'eau pure égal au cube de la centième partie du mètre , et à la température de la glace fondante. English translation: ‘Gramme: the absolute weight of a volume of pure water equal to the cube of the hundredth part of the meter, at the temperature of melting ice.’
  5. ^ Isotopic composition and temperature per London South Bank University’s "List of physicochemical data concerning water", density and uncertainty per NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69 (Retrieved: 2010-04-05)
  6. ^ Kenneth Butcher, Linda Crown, Elizabeth J. Gentry (2006), The International System of Units (SI) – Conversion Factors for General Use Archived 27 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine, NIST Special Publication 1038
  7. ^ "Online water density calculator". Antoine.frostburg.edu. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  8. ^ Non-SI units accepted for use with the SI by the CIPMNIST
  9. ^ a b "Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, 2006" (PDF). Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  10. ^ "Visite Générale au Musée des arts et métiers" (PDF). Paris: Musée des arts et métiers. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 November 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013. Comment s’est appelé cet étalon de mesure avant de s’appeler le litre ? - Le Cadil [What was the name of this measurement before called being called a litre? - a Cadil].
  11. ^ "Décret relatif aux poids et aux mesures du 18 germinal an 3 (7 avril 1795)" [Weights and measures decree dated 18 Germinal, Year 3 (7 April 1795)] (in French). Association Métrodiff. 7 April 1795. Litre, la mesure de capacité, tant pour les liquides que pour les matières sèches, dont la contenance sera celle du cube de la dixièrne partie du mètre. English translation: ‘Litre: unit of capacity for both liquids and solids which will be equivalent to a cube of [with sides] one tenth of a metre.’
  12. ^ "NIST, 2000". Ts.nist.gov. Archived from the original on 10 December 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  13. ^ Burtis, Carl A.; Bruns, David E. (2014). Tietz Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics (7. ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 114. ISBN 9780323292061.
  14. ^ "Units of Measurement - Mayo Medical Laboratories". www.mayomedicallaboratories.com. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
  15. ^ "Buying a car: Top 10 Estate Car buying tips". Which? / Consumer Association. 2012. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
  16. ^ [1]
  17. ^ "ASUS unveils headless Eee Box desktop PC - Hardware". Techworld. 13 August 2008. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  18. ^ "Energystar.gov Energy Star recognition criteria" (PDF).
  19. ^ "Refuse collection: Wheelie bins". Ealing Council. 2012. Retrieved 9 November 2012. The standard size wheelie bin (240 litre) ...
  20. ^ "Even in the USA, engine sizes are regularly expressed in litres". Retrieved 25 April 2013.

Bibliography

Bentley

Bentley Motors Limited () is a British manufacturer and marketer of luxury cars and SUVs—and a subsidiary of the Volkswagen Group since 1998.Headquartered in Crewe, England, the company was founded as Bentley Motors Limited by W. O. Bentley in 1919 in Cricklewood, North London—and became widely known for winning the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1924, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, and 2003.

Prominent models extend from the historic sports-racing Bentley 4½ Litre and Bentley Speed Six; the more recent Bentley R Type Continental, Bentley Turbo R, and Bentley Arnage; to its current model line—including the Continental Flying Spur, Continental GT, Bentley Bentayga and the Mulsanne—which are marketed worldwide, with China as its largest market as of November 2012.Today most Bentleys are assembled at the company's Crewe factory, with a small number assembled at Volkswagen's Dresden factory, Germany, and with bodies for the Continental manufactured in Zwickau and for the Bentayga manufactured at the Volkswagen Bratislava Plant.

The joining and eventual separation of Bentley and Rolls-Royce followed a series of mergers and acquisitions, beginning with the 1931 purchase by Rolls-Royce of Bentley, then in receivership. In 1971, Rolls-Royce itself was forced into receivership and the UK government nationalised the company—splitting into two companies the aerospace division (Rolls-Royce Plc) and automotive (Rolls-Royce Motors Limited) divisions—the latter retaining the Bentley subdivision. Rolls-Royce Motors was subsequently sold to engineering conglomerate, Vickers and in 1998, Vickers sold Rolls-Royce to Volkswagen AG.

Intellectual property rights to both the name Rolls-Royce as well as the company's logo had been retained not by Rolls-Royce Motors, but by aerospace company, Rolls-Royce Plc, which had continued to license both to the automotive division. Thus the sale of "Rolls-Royce" to VW included the Bentley name and logos, vehicle designs, model nameplates, production and administrative facilities, the Spirit of Ecstasy and Rolls-Royce grille shape trademarks (subsequently sold to BMW by VW)—but not the rights to the Rolls-Royce name or logo. The aerospace company, Rolls-Royce Plc, ultimately sold both to BMW AG.

Drum (container)

A drum is a cylindrical container used for shipping bulk cargo. Drums can be made of steel, dense paperboard (commonly called a fiber drum), or plastics, and are generally used for the transportation and storage of liquids and powders. Drums are often certified for shipment of dangerous goods. Shipped goods must be matched with the make of drum necessary to comply with applicable regulations. Drums are also called barrels in common usage.

Ford Cortina

The Ford Cortina is a car that was built by Ford of Britain in various guises from 1962 to 1982, and was the United Kingdom's best-selling car of the 1970s.

The Cortina was produced in five generations (Mark I through to Mark V, although officially the last one was only the Cortina 80 facelift of the Mk IV) from 1962 until 1982. From 1970 onward, it was almost identical to the German-market Ford Taunus (being built on the same platform) which was originally a different car model. This was part of a Ford attempt to unify its European operations. By 1976, when the revised Taunus was launched, the Cortina was identical. The new Taunus/Cortina used the doors and some panels from the 1970 Taunus. It was replaced in 1982 by the Ford Sierra. In Asia and Australasia, it was replaced by the Mazda 626–based Ford Telstar, though Ford New Zealand did import British-made CKD kits of the Ford Sierra estate for local assembly from 1984.

The name was inspired by the name of the Italian ski resort Cortina d'Ampezzo, site of the 1956 Winter Olympics. As a publicity stunt, several Cortinas were driven down the Cortina olympic bobsled run at the resort which was called Cortina Auto-Bobbing.

Ford Fiesta

The Ford Fiesta is a supermini marketed by Ford since 1976 over seven generations, including in United Kingdom, Germany, Valencia, Australia, Brazil, Argentina, Venezuela, Mexico, China, India, Thailand, and South Africa. It has been manufactured in many countries.

In 2008, the seventh generation Fiesta (Mark VII) was introduced worldwide, making it the first Fiesta model to be sold in North America since the Fiesta Mark I was discontinued at the end of 1980.

Ford has sold over 16 million Fiestas since 1976, making it one of the best selling Ford marques behind the Escort and the F-Series.

Ford Focus (third generation)

The Ford Focus (third generation), also known as the Focus Mk III, (Code name: C346) debuted at the 2010 North American International Auto Show as a 2012 model. The cars shown were a 4-door sedan and 5-door hatchback, also debuting a new 2.0L direct injection I4 engine. A 5-door estate (wagon) was previewed at the Geneva auto show a month later.This generation of Focus would be the first Ford vehicle designed under the tenure of CEO Alan Mulally and his "One Ford" plan, which aimed to leverage Ford's global resources into creating more competitive vehicles that could be sold globally in each segment with minimal changes.The "One Ford" plan would reunite the North American and global Focus line. The previous North American version was thus discontinued, and the new model was launched simultaneously in North America and Europe on 2 March 2011, both having started production near the end of 2010. Production in Asia, Africa, and South America followed later.

Ford debuted the all-electric Ford Focus Electric at the Consumer Electronics Show in 2011 to compete with the Nissan Leaf and the Chevrolet Volt and announced the hot hatch ST model at the Paris Motor Show in September 2010.

The Ford Focus was the best-selling car in the world for 2012.

Formula Two

Formula Two, abbreviated to F2, is a type of open wheel formula racing first codified in 1948. It was replaced in 1985 by Formula 3000, but revived by the FIA from 2009–2012 in the form of the FIA Formula Two Championship. The name returned in 2017 when the former GP2 Series became known as the FIA Formula 2 Championship.

Fuel tax

A fuel tax (also known as a petrol, gasoline or gas tax, or as a fuel duty) is an excise tax imposed on the sale of fuel. In most countries the fuel tax is imposed on fuels which are intended for transportation. Fuels used to power agricultural vehicles, and/or home heating oil which is similar to diesel are taxed at a different, usually lower rate. The fuel tax receipts are often dedicated or hypothecated to transportation projects so that the fuel tax is considered by many a user fee. In other countries, the fuel tax is a source of general revenue. Sometimes, the fuel tax is used as an ecotax, to promote ecological sustainability. Fuel taxes are often considered regressive taxes.

Gasoline and diesel usage and pricing

The usage and pricing of gasoline (or petrol) results from factors such as crude oil prices, processing and distribution costs, local demand, the strength of local currencies, local taxation, and the availability of local sources of gasoline (supply). Since fuels are traded worldwide, the trade prices are similar. The price paid by consumers largely reflects national pricing policy. Some regions, such as Europe and Japan, impose high taxes on gasoline (petrol); others, such as Saudi Arabia and Venezuela, subsidize the cost. Western countries have among the highest usage rates per person. The largest consumer is the United States, which used an average of 368 million US gallons (1.46 gigalitres) each day in 2011.

Holden Special Vehicles

Holden Special Vehicles (HSV) is the officially designated performance vehicle partner of Australian marque, Holden. Established in 1987 and based in Clayton, Victoria, the company modified Holden models such as the standard wheelbase Commodore, long wheelbase Caprice and commercial Ute for domestic and export sale. Holden Special Vehicles also modified other non-Holden cars within the General Motors portfolio in low volumes.

Vehicles produced by Holden Special Vehicles have, in the main, been marketed under the HSV brand name. However, in the early years, some retailed under the Holden brand in Australia whereas most cars for export (other than in New Zealand and Singapore) retailed under different names (namely, Vauxhall and Chevrolet Special Vehicles).

Jaguar Cars

Jaguar (UK: , US: ) is the luxury vehicle brand of Jaguar Land Rover, a British multinational car manufacturer with its headquarters in Whitley, Coventry, England. Jaguar Cars was the company that was responsible for the production of Jaguar cars until its operations were fully merged with those of Land Rover to form Jaguar Land Rover on 1 January 2013.

Jaguar's business was founded as the Swallow Sidecar Company in 1922, originally making motorcycle sidecars before developing bodies for passenger cars. Under the ownership of S. S. Cars Limited the business extended to complete cars made in association with Standard Motor Co, many bearing Jaguar as a model name. The company's name was changed from S. S. Cars to Jaguar Cars in 1945. A merger with the British Motor Corporation followed in 1966, the resulting enlarged company now being renamed as British Motor Holdings (BMH), which in 1968 merged with Leyland Motor Corporation and became British Leyland, itself to be nationalised in 1975.

Jaguar was spun off from British Leyland and was listed on the London Stock Exchange in 1984, becoming a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index until it was acquired by Ford in 1990. Jaguar has, in recent years, manufactured cars for the British Prime Minister, the most recent delivery being an XJ in May 2010. The company also holds royal warrants from Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Charles.In 1990 Ford acquired Jaguar Cars and it remained in their ownership, joined in 2000 by Land Rover, till 2008. Ford then sold both Jaguar and Land Rover to Tata Motors. Tata created Jaguar Land Rover as a subsidiary holding company. At operating company level, in 2013 Jaguar Cars was merged with Land Rover to form Jaguar Land Rover Limited as the single design, manufacture, sales company and brand owner for both Jaguar and Land Rover vehicles.

Since the Ford ownership era, Jaguar and Land Rover have used joint design facilities in engineering centres at Whitley in Coventry and Gaydon in Warwickshire and Jaguar cars have been assembled in plants at Castle Bromwich and Solihull.

Jaguar Mark 2

The Jaguar Mark 2 is a medium-sized saloon car built from late 1959 to 1967 by Jaguar in Coventry, England. The outmoded Jaguar 2.4 Litre and 3.4 Litre models made between 1955 and 1959 are identified as Mark 1 Jaguars.The Mark 2 was a fast and capable saloon in line with Sir William Lyons' 1950s advertising slogan: Grace . . . Space . . . Pace.

Production of the 3.8 ended in the (northern) autumn of 1967. At the same time the smaller Mark 2 cars were replaced by run-out versions named 240 and 340 sold at reduced prices. The 340 was built until the new XJ6 was available in September 1968. The 240 remained available until April 1969.

Lagonda

Lagonda is a British luxury car marque established in 1906, which has been owned by Aston Martin since 1947. The marque has had a non-continuous presence in the luxury car market, being dormant for several times during its existence, most recently from 1995 to 2008 and 2010 to 2013.

List of BMW vehicles

The following is a list of BMW automobiles and motorcycles, ordered by year of introduction.

List of North American Volkswagen engines

This list of North American Volkswagen engines details internal combustion engines found in the Volkswagen Passenger Cars and Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles marques, as sold in the North American markets.Volkswagen Group engines are not widely known by "engine families" in the same way some other manufacturers do. VW Group engines are commonly known by the type of fuel they use, their displacement, and their rated motive power output. VW Group does have names of engine series, and individual engines are identified by an "ID code" (early codes were one or two letters/numbers, later IDs were generally three letters, and their very latest engines now use four letters) - but they have been known to apply many different ID codes to seemingly identical engines.

Peugeot 205

The Peugeot 205 is a supermini car produced by the French manufacturer Peugeot from 1983-1998.

It was declared "car of the decade" by CAR Magazine in 1990. It also won What Car?'s Car of the Year for 1984.

Straight-three engine

A straight-three engine, also known as an inline-triple, or inline-three (abbreviated I3 or L3), is a reciprocating piston internal combustion engine with three cylinders arranged in a straight line or plane, side by side.

Toyota Avensis

The Toyota Avensis is a mid-size/large family car built in Derbyshire, United Kingdom by Japanese automaker Toyota from October 1997 to August 2018. It was the direct successor to the European Carina E and was available as a four-door saloon, five-door liftback and estate. In Japan, the Avensis is available at all Japanese network dealerships, and serves as the top level vehicle offered.

A large MPV called the Toyota Avensis Verso (Toyota Ipsum in Japan and previously the Toyota Picnic in other markets) was built in Japan on a separate platform. The Avensis was not sold in North America, where the Corolla shared the same platform, and the larger Camry is also available. It is related to the Scion tC coupe. It also shared a platform with the Toyota Premio and the Toyota Allion.

The Toyota Avensis was introduced in 1997, to create a more modern name when compared with the Toyota Carina E. The Avensis proved a sales success for Toyota Europe. Over the years, the Toyota Avensis has advanced in size, technology, power, and economy to challenge its worldwide known rivals, such as the Mazda6, Ford Mondeo, Volkswagen Passat, Opel/Vauxhall Insignia, Citroën C5, Peugeot 508 and Škoda Superb.The Avensis name is derived from the French term avancer, meaning "to advance." Avensis also means "to carry away" in Latin.

Volkswagen 1-litre car

The Volkswagen XL1 (VW 1-litre) is a two-person limited production diesel-powered plug-in hybrid produced by Volkswagen. The XL1 car was designed to be able to travel 100 km on 1 litre of diesel fuel (280 mpg‑imp; 240 mpg‑US), while being both roadworthy and practical. To achieve such economy, it is produced with lightweight materials, a streamlined body and an engine and transmission designed and tuned for economy. The concept car was modified first in 2009 as the L1 and again in 2011 as the XL1.A limited production of 250 units began by mid 2013 and pricing starts at €111,000 (~ US$146,000). The Volkswagen XL1 plug-in diesel-electric hybrid is available only in Europe and its 5.5 kWh lithium-ion battery delivers an all-electric range of 50 km (31 mi), has a fuel economy of 0.9 l/100 km (260 mpg‑US; 310 mpg‑imp) under the NEDC cycle and produces emissions of 21 g/km of CO2. The XL1 was released to retail customers in Germany in June 2014.

Volkswagen Passat

The Volkswagen Passat (listen ) is a large family car manufactured and marketed by Volkswagen since 1973, and now in its eighth generation. It has been marketed variously as the Dasher, Santana, Quantum, Magotan, Corsar and Carat. The successive generations of the Passat carry the Volkswagen internal designations B1, B2, etc. Originally these designations paralleled those of the Audi 80 and A4 with which the Passat shared platforms, however this is no longer the case.

In 2008, Volkswagen launched Passat CC, a "four-door coupé" variant of the Passat.

Volkswagen currently markets two variants of the Passat globally. In January 2011, Volkswagen announced that the new mid-size sedan (NMS) being built at the Volkswagen Chattanooga Assembly Plant for the North American market would be named the Passat. Shanghai Volkswagen Automotive also manufactures the Passat NMS in its Nanjing factory. The NMS is sold in the North American, South Korean, Chinese, and Middle Eastern markets. The Volkswagen Passat NMS won the 2012 Motor Trend Car of the Year. A new Passat model entered production in Europe in 2014, based on the MQB platform.

Base units
Derived units
with special names
Other accepted units
See also

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.