This page features lists of extinct species, organisms that have become extinct, either in the wild or completely disappeared from Earth. In practice, a species not definitely located in the wild in the last 50 years is called extinct.
In biology, extinction is the termination of a kind of organism or of a group of kinds (taxon), usually a species. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point. Because a species' potential range may be very large, determining this moment is difficult, and is usually done retrospectively. This difficulty leads to phenomena such as Lazarus taxa, where a species presumed extinct abruptly "reappears" (typically in the fossil record) after a period of apparent absence.
More than 99 percent of all species, amounting to over five billion species, that ever lived on Earth are estimated to have died out. Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million, of which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86 percent have not yet been described. In 2016, scientists reported that 1 trillion species are estimated to be on Earth currently with only one thousandth of one percent described.Through evolution, species arise through the process of speciation—where new varieties of organisms arise and thrive when they are able to find and exploit an ecological niche—and species become extinct when they are no longer able to survive in changing conditions or against superior competition. The relationship between animals and their ecological niches has been firmly established. A typical species becomes extinct within 10 million years of its first appearance, although some species, called living fossils, survive with little to no morphological change for hundreds of millions of years.
Mass extinctions are relatively rare events; however, isolated extinctions are quite common. Only recently have extinctions been recorded and scientists have become alarmed at the current high rate of extinctions. Most species that become extinct are never scientifically documented. Some scientists estimate that up to half of presently existing plant and animal species may become extinct by 2100. A 2018 report indicated that the phylogenetic diversity of 300 mammalian species erased during the human era since the Late Pleistocene would require 5 to 7 million years to recover.According to the 2019 Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services by IPBES, the biomass of wild mammals has fallen by 82%, natural ecosystems have lost about half their area and a million species are at risk of extinction—all largely as a result of human actions. Twenty-five percent of plant and animal species are threatened with extinction.In June 2019, one million species of plants and animals were at risk of extinction. At least 571 species are lost since 1750 but likely many more. The main cause of the extinctions is the destruction of natural habitats by human activities, such as cutting down forests and converting land into fields for farming.A dagger symbol (†) placed next to the name of a species or other taxon normally indicates its status as extinct.List of Asian animals extinct in the Holocene
The list of extinct animals of Asia features the animals that have become extinct along the history in the Asian Continent. This list only involves extinctions of the Holocene epoch.List of South American animals extinct in the Holocene
This is a list of extinct animals of South America. Animals that became extinct in the Holocene period in South America.List of extinct and endangered species of Italy
This is a list of extinct and endangered species of Italy.List of extinct and endangered species of Lithuania
This is a list of extinct, endangered and threatened animals of Lithuania. Collection of this list started in 1959 and the current version (2003) contains 815 species: 23 mammals, 75 birds, 128 insects, 224 flowering plants, 199 fungi and lichen.List of extinct animals of Australia
Following is a list of Australian animal extinctions from the arrival of the first European colonists in 1788, until the present. There are 24 birds (though just 1 from the mainland), 7 frogs, and 27 mammal species or subspecies strongly believed to have become extinct in Australia since European settlement.
Extinctions are recorded under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.
Several invertebrate species have also been listed as extinct by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN); however, this list is less exhaustive, as invertebrates are more difficult to survey and are less well studied.List of extinct animals of Catalonia
This is a list of extinct and extirpated animals of Spain.List of extinct animals of Caucasus
This is a list of extinct animals of Caucasus.List of extinct animals of Europe
This list of extinct animals in Europe features the animals that have become extinct on the European continent and some in other dependent territories of European countries. While most of the animals in the recent Holocene have a human-caused extinction, Pleistocene extinctions and early Holocene extinctions are contested. Many theories of the cause of their extinction have been presented; some human-caused while others as a product of climate change. The K-T extinction is also contested, with the major cause being either both volcano and meteor or just a meteorite that caused the extinction of the dinosaurs.
Many of the extinct animals were subspecies or color morphs such as the pied raven or disputed species like the tarpan or the gravenche. Most extinctions occurred in prehistoric times. The species gone extinct in the last 500 years were mostly from peripheral regions of Europe like the Caucasus, the North Atlantic or Mediterranean islands. Except for molluscs, the only species extinct in the heartland of Europe in the last 500 years is the aurochs, which survives in the form of primitive cattle breeds that possess similar physical features.List of extinct animals of India
This is a list of extinct animals of India.
Indian aurochs (Bos primigenius namadicus)
Sunderban dwarf rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus inermis)List of extinct animals of Martinique and Guadeloupe
The list of extinct animals in Martinique and Guadeloupe features the animals of the French Overseas Departments of Martinique and Guadeloupe that have become extinct. Several of the bird species listed are hypothetical. Assuming these birds were true species, 9 animal extinctions have occurred in Martinique, and 9 animal extinction in Guadeloupe. The Lesser Antillean macaw (Ara guadeloupensis) may have been found in both Guadeloupe and Martinique, which makes a total of 17 recent animal extinction in these two French overseas departments.List of extinct animals of Réunion
The list of extinct animals in Réunion features the animals that have become extinct on the island of Réunion. Réunion is one of the 18 régions of France with much the same status as those situated on the European mainland. At least 19 animal extinctions have occurred on Réunion Island.List of extinct animals of the Hawaiian Islands
This is an incomplete list of extinct animals of the Hawaiian Islands.List of extinct animals of the Nordics
This is a list of extinct animals of the Nordics (including Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland). The list consists of common name, Latin name, known geographical range, and approximate extinction date, with the "†" symbol indicating the species is considered extinct worldwide.List of extinct animals of the Philippines
The Philippines had a large and diverse group of mammalian species in the past. They are widely distributed across the archipelago. However, they became extinct due to several factors. There are at least eight mammalian species that have been extinct since the Pleistocene Epoch. A fossil species of Sirenia has been found on Palawan and went extinct during the Miocene. Other unknown species of extinct deer, buffalo, pig and small mammals are only known from incomplete fossil remains known from Pleistocene. The Asian elephant was introduced to the Philippines, originally transported to the Sultanate of Sulu and Maguindanao, but became extinct on those areas or were transported back to Sabah for unknown reasons sometime during the 13th to 16th(?) century. One former species of bat known as Acerodon lucifer was thought to be extinct, but is now synonymous with the giant golden-crowned flying fox. Thus, the species still thrives in the archipelago, but is locally extinct on the island of Panay.
Paleontological and archeological findings yielded information regarding the extinct Mammalian species found in the Philippines through the excavation of various sites in the country.List of extinct flora of Australia
This is a list of recently extinct flora of Australia, that is plants that are considered to have become extinct since the European colonisation of Australia in 1788. Within Australia there are mechanisms for registering an extinction at the federal, state and territory levels. Federal and state listings may vary due to regional extinctions or because of differing definitions of extinction in the various pieces of legislation.List of extinct plants of the Nordics
This is a list of extinct plants of the Nordics (including Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland). The list consists of common name, Latin name, known geographical range, and approximate extinction date, with the ”†” symbol indicating that the species is considered extinct worldwide.Lists of extinct animals
The following are lists of extinct animals:
By regionList of extinct animals of Africa
List of extinct animals of Réunion
List of extinct animals of Asia
List of extinct animals of India
List of extinct animals of the Philippines
List of extinct animals of Europe
List of extinct animals of Catalonia
List of extinct animals of Caucasus
List of extinct animals of the British Isles
Extinct animals from the Isle of Man
List of extinct and endangered species of Italy
List of extinct and endangered animals of Lithuania
List of extinct animals of the Netherlands
List of extinct animals of the Nordics
List of extinct animals of Romania
List of extinct animals of North America
List of extinct animals of Martinique and Guadeloupe
List of extinct animals of Oceania
List of extinct animals of Australia
List of extinct animals of New Zealand
List of extinct animals of the Hawaiian Islands
List of extinct animals of South AmericaBy taxonList of extinct birds
List of extinct mammals
List of extinct cetaceans
List of extinct arachnids
List of extinct insects
List of extinct butterfliesFossil taxaList of dinosaur genera
List of fossil bird genera
List of fossil primatesRecent extinctionList of North American animals extinct in the Holocene
List of bird extinctions by year
List of recently extinct mammals
List of recently extinct birds
List of recently extinct invertebrates
List of recently extinct reptiles
List of recently extinct amphibians
List of extinct dog breeds
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