Listerine

Listerine is a brand of antiseptic mouthwash product. It is promoted with the slogan "Kills germs that cause bad breath". Named after Joseph Lister, a pioneer of antiseptic surgery, Listerine was developed in 1879 by Joseph Lawrence, a chemist in St. Louis, Missouri.[1]

Originally marketed by the Lambert Pharmacal Company (which later became Warner-Lambert), Listerine has been manufactured and distributed by Johnson & Johnson since that company's acquisition of Pfizer's consumer healthcare division in late December 2006.

The Listerine brand name is also used in toothpaste, Listerine Whitening rinse, Listerine Fluoride rinse (Listerine Tooth Defense), Listerine SmartRinse (children's fluoride rinse), PocketPaks, and PocketMist. In September 2007, Listerine began selling its own brand of self-dissolving teeth-whitening strips.

Listerine
Listerine logo
Listerine products
Various Listerine products in Canada
Product typeMouthwash, toothpaste, fluoride rinse, quick-dissolving strips, breath spray, dental floss
OwnerMcNeil Consumer Healthcare division of Johnson & Johnson
CountryUnited States
Introduced1914
Related brandsPlax
Previous ownersLambert Pharmacal Company
Warner-Lambert
Pfizer
Tagline"Kills germs that cause bad breath"
"Bring Out the Bold"
Websitewww.listerine.com

History

Old Listerine bottle
Glass bottle with paper label. The screw top indicates that the bottle was manufactured post-1920s.

Inspired by Louis Pasteur's ideas on microbial infection, the English doctor Joseph Lister demonstrated in 1865 that use of carbolic acid on surgical dressings would significantly reduce rates of post-surgical infection. Lister's work in turn inspired St. Louis-based doctor Joseph Lawrence to develop an alcohol-based formula for a surgical antiseptic which included eucalyptol, menthol, methyl salicylate, and thymol (Its exact composition is a commercial secret). Lawrence named his antiseptic "Listerine" in honor of Lister.[2]

Lawrence hoped to promote Listerine's use as a general germicide as well as a surgical antiseptic, and licensed his formula to a local pharmacist named Jordan Wheat Lambert in 1881. Lambert subsequently started the Lambert Pharmacal Company, marketing Listerine.[2] Listerine was promoted to dentists for oral care in 1895[3] and was the first over-the-counter mouthwash sold in the United States, in 1914.[4] It became widely known and entered common household use after Jordan Wheat Lambert's son Gerard Lambert joined the company and promoted an aggressive marketing campaign.[2]

According to Steven D. Levitt and Stephen J. Dubner's book Freakonomics:[5]

Listerine, for instance, was invented in the nineteenth century as powerful surgical antiseptic. It was later sold, in distilled form, as both a floor cleaner and a cure for gonorrhea. But it wasn't a runaway success until the 1920s, when it was pitched as a solution for "chronic halitosis" — a then obscure medical term for bad breath. Listerine's new ads featured forlorn young women and men, eager for marriage but turned off by their mate's rotten breath. "Can I be happy with him in spite of that?" one maiden asked herself. Until that time, bad breath was not conventionally considered such a catastrophe. But Listerine changed that. As the advertising scholar James B. Twitchell writes, "Listerine did not make mouthwash as much as it made halitosis." In just seven years, the company's revenues rose from $115,000 to more than $8 million.

In 1955, Lambert Pharmacal merged with New York-based Warner-Hudnut and became Warner-Lambert Pharmaceutical Company and incorporated in Delaware with its corporate headquarters in Morris Plains, New Jersey.[6] In 2000, Pfizer acquired Warner-Lambert.[7] Among Lambert's assets was the original land for Lambert-St. Louis International Airport.[8]

From 1921 until the mid-1970s, Listerine was also marketed as preventive and remedy for colds and sore throats. In 1976, the Federal Trade Commission ruled that these claims were misleading, and that Listerine had "no efficacy" at either preventing or alleviating the symptoms of sore throats and colds. Warner-Lambert was ordered to stop making the claims, and to include in the next $10.2 million worth of Listerine ads specific mention that "Listerine will not help prevent colds or sore throats or lessen their severity."[9] The advertisement run by Listerine added the preamble "contrary to prior advertising".[10]

For a short time, beginning in 1927, the Lambert Pharmaceutical Company marketed Listerine Cigarettes.[11][12]

From the 1930s into the 1950s, advertisements claimed that applying Listerine to the scalp could prevent "infectious dandruff".[13]

Listerine was packaged in a glass bottle inside a corrugated cardboard tube for nearly 80 years before the first revamps were made to the brand: in 1992, Cool Mint Listerine was introduced in addition to the original Listerine Antiseptic formula and, in 1994, both brands were introduced in plastic bottles for the first time. In 1995, FreshBurst was added,[14] then in 2003 Natural Citrus. In 2006 a new addition to the "less intense" variety, Vanilla Mint, was released. Nine different kinds of Listerine are on the market in the U.S. and elsewhere: Original, Cool Mint, FreshBurst, Natural Citrus, Naturals, Soft Mint (Vanilla Mint), UltraClean (formerly Advanced Listerine), Tooth Defense (mint shield), and Whitening pre-brush rinse (clean mint).

Composition

The active ingredients listed on Listerine packaging are essential oils which are menthol (mint) 0.042%, thymol (thyme) 0.064%, methyl salicylate (wintergreen) 0.06%, and eucalyptol (eucalyptus) 0.092%.[15] In combination all have an antiseptic effect and there is some thought that methyl salicylate may have an anti inflammatory effect as well.[16] Ethanol, which is toxic to bacteria at concentrations of 40%, is present in concentrations of 21.6% in the flavored product and 26.9% in the original gold Listerine Antiseptic.[17] At this concentration, the ethanol serves to dissolve the active ingredients.[18]

The addition of the active ingredients means the ethanol is considered to be undrinkable, known as denatured alcohol, and it is therefore not regulated as an alcoholic beverage in the United States. (Specially Denatured Alcohol Formula 38-B, specified in Title 27, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 21, Subpart D) However, consumption of mouthwash to obtain intoxication does occur, especially among alcoholics and underage drinkers.[19]

Safety

There has been concern that the use of alcohol-containing mouthwash such as Listerine may increase the risk of developing oral cancer.[20][21] As of 2010, 7 meta-analyses have found no connection between alcohol-containing mouthwashes and oral cancer, and 3 have found increased risk.[22] In January 2009, Andrew Penman, chief executive of The Cancer Council New South Wales, called for further research on the matter.[21] In a March 2009 brief, the American Dental Association said "the available evidence does not support a connection between oral cancer and alcohol-containing mouthrinse".[23] In 2009, Johnson and Johnson launched a new alcohol-free version of the product called Listerine Zero.[24]

On April 11, 2007, McNeil-PPC disclosed that there were potentially contaminants in all Listerine Agent Cool Blue products sold since its launch in 2006, and that all bottles were being recalled.[25] The recall affected some 4,000,000 bottles sold since that time.[26] According to the company, Listerine Agent Cool Blue is the only product affected by the contamination and no other products in the Listerine family were under recall.[25]

References

  1. ^ Newton, David (2008). Trademarked : a history of well-known brands, from Aertex to Wright's Coal Tar. Stroud: Sutton Publishing. ISBN 978-0750945905.
  2. ^ a b c Hicks, Jesse. "A Fresh Breath". Thanks to Chemistry. Chemical Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on July 12, 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
  3. ^ "Prescribe Listerine for Patients". The Pacific Dental Journal. 5 (2): 58. 1895. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
  4. ^ Casey, Wilson (2009). Firsts: Origins of Everyday Things That Changed the World. New York: Penguin. p. 155. ISBN 978-1101159460. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
  5. ^ Levitt, Steven D.; Dubner, Stephen J. (2009). Freakonomics : A Rogue Economist Explores The Hidden Side Of Everything. New York: HarperCollins. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-06-073133-5. OCLC 502013083.
    Note that previous editions of Freakonomics incorrectly described halitosis as a "faux medical term", which this Wikipedia article previously reflected.
  6. ^ "Warner-Hudnut, Inc. ( Early Warner-Lambert Company )". GoAntiques.com. Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved February 25, 2010.
  7. ^ "2000: Pfizer joins forces with Warner-Lambert". Pfizer. Retrieved February 5, 2010.
  8. ^ Mary Delach Leonard (Dec 25, 2016). "Lambert airport traces its history to an aviation visionary who knew how to sell mouthwash". St. Louis Public Radio. Archived from the original on 2017-02-18. Retrieved 2018-04-28.
  9. ^ "Three by the FTC". Time. Jan 5, 1976. Retrieved 2006-12-05.
  10. ^ Business Its Legal, Ethical, and Global Environment by Marianne M. Jennings 8th edition page 324, Given these safeguards, we believe the preamble "Contrary to prior advertising" is not necessary.
  11. ^ Gardiner, Phillip (2004). "The African Americanization of menthol cigarette use in the United States" (PDF). Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 6: S55–65. doi:10.1080/14622200310001649478. PMID 14982709.
  12. ^ "LISTERINE Cigarettes". Tobacco Documents Online. Archived from the original on 2011-06-15. Retrieved 2009-09-25.
  13. ^ Lambert Pharmacal (1930). "Listerine gets rid of dandruff". Popular Science. 116 (5): 17. ISSN 0161-7370.
  14. ^ "Article: Warner-Lambert reenters the dentrifice business". Chain Drug Review. 1995-07-31. Retrieved 2014-08-16.
  15. ^ Materials Safety Data Sheet for Listerine Antiseptic Mouthwash, Original-05/22/2008
  16. ^ Mason, L.; Moore, R. A.; Edwards, J. E.; McQuay, H. J.; Derry, S.; Wiffen, P. J. (2004). "Systematic review of efficacy of topical rubefacients containing salicylates for the treatment of acute and chronic pain". BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.). 328 (7446): 995. doi:10.1136/bmj.38040.607141.EE. PMC 404501. PMID 15033879.
  17. ^ Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation. Seymour, Stanton, & Block. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Jan 1, 2001 § pp 238
  18. ^ "Alcohol". Listerine Professional. Retrieved 2018-04-30.
  19. ^ Cathleen Terhune Alty (March 12, 2014). "Do you want that mouthwash straight up or on the rocks?". RDH.
  20. ^ McCullough, Michael; Farah, C.S. (December 2008). "The role of alcohol in oral carcinogenesis with particular reference to alcohol-containing mouthwashes". Australian Dental Journal. 53 (4): 302–305. doi:10.1111/j.1834-7819.2008.00070.x. PMID 19133944. Retrieved 2009-01-12.
  21. ^ a b Weaver, Clair (January 10, 2009). "Mouthwash linked to cancer". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 12 January 2009.
  22. ^ La Vecchia, C (2009). "Mouthwash and oral cancer risk: An update". Oral Oncology. 45 (3): 198–200. doi:10.1016/j.oraloncology.2008.08.012. PMID 18952488.
  23. ^ Science brief on alcohol-containing mouthrinses and oral cancer, American Dental Association, March 2009
  24. ^ Listerine cancer claim triggers court battle, The Guardian, 27 August 2011
  25. ^ a b "McNeil-PPC, Inc. today issues voluntary nationwide consumer recall of Listerine Agent Cool Blue plaque-detecting rinse products" (Press release). McNeil-PPC. 2007-04-11. Retrieved 2014-04-10.
  26. ^ "Contamination prompts J&J recall of Listerine Agent Cool Blue plaque-detecting rinse". NBC News. Associated Press. 2007-04-12. Retrieved Aug 15, 2014.

External links

1991 British Touring Car Championship

The 1991 Esso RAC British Touring Car Championship season was the 34th British Touring Car Championship (BTCC) season and marked the first year of the Super Touring era.

2018 Station Square Derailment

The 2018 Station Square Derailment happened in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States, on the afternoon of August 5, 2018. The incident composed of 46 double-stack intermodal containers, and 23 well cars. The train was a Norfolk Southern, carrying Listerine and Pampers. The cars fell onto the Port Authority of Allegheny County tracks, blocking the line. The accident was caught on tape.

Abe Burrows

Abe Burrows (December 18, 1910 – May 17, 1985) was an American humorist, author, and director for radio and the stage. He won a Tony Award.

Arthur Sarnoff

Arthur Sarnoff (born 1912 in Brooklyn, New York, died 2000 in Boca Raton, Florida) was an American artist. Prior to working as an illustrator, Sarnoff studied at the Industrial School and the Grand Central School of Art in New York City. He was a member of the Society of Illustrators and exhibited widely including the National Academy of Design.Sarnoff was a student of John Clymer and Andrew Wyeth. His portfolio includes extensive commercial work for weekly magazines and his art appeared in a variety of advertising campaigns including Karo Syrup, Dextrose, Lucky Strike, Coors, Camay, Sal Hepatica, Listerine, Vick's Vapo Rub, Meds, and Ipana. He also made an album cover for the American punk band Butthole Surfers for their third album, Locust Abortion Technician, which portrays two clowns playing with a dog. During his career Sarnoff provided illustrations for McCall's, American Weekly, Collier's, Woman's Home Companion, Redbook, The American Magazine, Cosmopolitan, Esquire, and Good Housekeeping.

His work was whimsical and engaging and relied heavily upon themes of Americana and slapstick humour. One of his paintings, "The Hustler", was one of the best-selling prints of the 1950s. He was also known to have painted portraits of famous individuals such as Bob Hope and John F. Kennedy.Sarnoff usually signed art using his full name, or "Sarnoff", or just "AS."

His best known work is a painting of dogs playing pool entitled "Jack the Ripper"

Bad breath

Bad breath, also known as halitosis, is a symptom in which a noticeably unpleasant breath odour is present. It can result in anxiety among those affected. It is also associated with depression and symptoms of obsessive compulsive disorder.The concerns of bad breath may be divided into genuine and non-genuine cases. Of those who have genuine bad breath, about 85% of cases come from inside the mouth. The remaining cases are believed to be due to disorders in the nose, sinuses, throat, lungs, esophagus, or stomach. Rarely, bad breath can be due to an underlying medical condition such as liver failure or ketoacidosis. Non-genuine cases occur when someone feels they have bad breath but someone else cannot detect it. This is estimated to make up between 5% and 72% of cases.The treatment depends on the underlying cause. Initial efforts may include tongue cleaning, mouthwash, and flossing. Tentative evidence supports the use of mouthwash containing chlorhexidine or cetylpyridinium chloride. While there is tentative evidence of benefit from the use of a tongue cleaner it is insufficient to draw clear conclusions. Treating underlying disease such as gum disease, tooth decay, or gastroesophageal reflux disease may help. Counselling may be useful in those who falsely believe that they have bad breath.Estimated rates of bad breath vary from 6% to 50% of the population. Concern about bad breath is the third most common reason people seek dental care, after tooth decay and gum disease. It is believed to become more common as people age. Bad breath is viewed as a social taboo and those affected may be stigmatized. People in the United States spend more than $1 billion per year on mouthwash to treat the condition.

List of BTCC champions

The title of BTCC champion is awarded to the driver who scores the most points overall in a British Touring Car Championship season. From 1992–present a separate championship was awarded to the winning 'independent' (not officially manufacturer backed) driver, and from 2000-2003 the Production class had its own championship for the best 'class B' driver.

List of Pixar shorts

Beginning with Pixar's second film A Bug's Life, all subsequent Pixar feature films, except Coco, have been shown in theaters along with a Pixar-created original short film, known as a "short." Other Pixar shorts, released only on home media, were created to showcase what Pixar can do (either technologically or cinematically), or were created specifically for a client.

Pixar's ideas and technical capabilities have developed by producing shorts since the 1980s. The first shorts were made while Pixar was still a computer hardware company, when John Lasseter was the only professional animator in the company's tiny animation department. Starting with Geri's Game, after Pixar had turned into an animation studio, all later shorts have been produced with a larger crew and budget.

In 1991, Pixar made four CGI shorts produced for the TV series Sesame Street. The shorts illustrates different weights and directions starring Luxo Jr. and Luxo — Light & Heavy (1990), Surprise (1991), Up and Down (1993), and Front and Back (1994).Also, beginning with A Bug's Life, Pixar has created extra content for each of their films that is not part of the main story. For their early theatrical releases, this content was in the form of outtakes and appeared as part of the film's credits. For each of their films, this content was a short made exclusively for the DVD release of the film.

Methyl salicylate

Methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen or wintergreen oil) is an organic compound with the formula C6H4(OH)(CO2CH3). It is the methyl ester of salicylic acid. It is a colorless, viscous liquid with a sweet odor. It is produced by many species of plants, particularly wintergreens. It is also synthetically produced, used as a fragrance, in foods and beverages, and in liniments.

Patricia Bermudez-Hizon

Patricia Bermudez-Hizon (born September 5, 1977) is a sportscaster and television host in the Philippines. She is the current head of Sports5 last January 2016 replacing Chot Reyes. She is the first ever female basketball television and radio anchor in the country. She started as a courtside reporter for the PBA in 2002 with the NBN and was the only female basketball courtside analyst with ABC. She is also the only Filipino on the elite list of presenters for the London Speaker Bureau, the largest speaker bureau in Europe, Africa, the Middle East and Asia.

After anchoring for Radyo PBA, she was eventually given the opportunity to anchor the Philippine Basketball League games in 2008-2009 - a first on Philippine Television history and eventually went on to anchor the PBA games. She also has covered the FIBA Asia Championships for Solar Network - Solar TV and Basketball TV. She is currently an anchor for the PBA on Fox Sports and made history with her husband Vince Hizon as the first husband and wife tandem to commentate on a PBA game. She is also one of the sportscasters for Sports 5. She recently anchored the network's Sochi Winter Olympics coverage.

Patricia Bermudez Hizon has covered the Summer Olympic Games in 2000 and 2008, numerous South East Asian Games, Asian Games and also has covered a number of national sporting events such as the Tour Pilipinas for both television and radio, Palarong Pambansa, to name a few.

She was a courtside reporter for a game on June 8, 2003 when basketball player Vince Hizon proposed to her on the basketball court of the historic Araneta Coliseum during halftime. That unique and memorable proposal was witnessed by thousands of spectators and millions of television viewers.

She started as a newscaster in 1999 for the government station, PTV, and hosted numerous public affairs shows, election coverage, and a show with the First Gentleman Mike Arroyo. She also ventured into lifestyle shows and travel shows and documentaries for Lakbay TV, Isla Channel and Living Asia Channel. She also hosted the TV-shopping show Venta 5 on ABC5 (now TV5).

Hizon is also the founder of the Everyday Is Your Birthday Foundation, and the Director for the High Five Hope Foundation and has been recognized for her charity work. She is also an advocate for the Beauty, Brains and Breastfeeding campaign for UNICEF. On top of that, she is also the Associate Executive Director for the Philippine Popular Music Festival of the Philpop MusicFest Foundation, the country's premier songwriting competition.

She has had a number of product endorsements and commercials (Listerine, Dove, Huggies, PhilAm insurance,Dove Men with her husband, and Pizza Hut with her entire family, etc.), and is a popular events host.

Bermudez-Hizon is also a motivational speaker and also is the only Filipino on the list of presenters for the London Speaker Bureau.

She was also the Editor-At-Large for the Baller Magazine, writer for several travel and lifestyle magazines, and is set to release her book series "So Can You".

Pullulan

Pullulan is a polysaccharide polymer consisting of maltotriose units, also known as α-1,4- ;α-1,6-glucan'. Three glucose units in maltotriose are connected by an α-1,4 glycosidic bond, whereas consecutive maltotriose units are connected to each other by an α-1,6 glycosidic bond. Pullulan is produced from starch by the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. Pullulan is mainly used by the cell to resist desiccation and predation. The presence of this polysaccharide also facilitates diffusion of molecules both into and out of the cell.As an edible, mostly tasteless polymer, the chief commercial use of pullulan is in the manufacture of edible films that are used in various breath freshener or oral hygiene products such as Listerine Cool Mint of Johnson and Johnson (USA) and Meltz Super Thin Mints of Avery Bio-Tech Private Ltd. (India). As a food additive, it is known by the E number E1204.

Ray Bellm

Ray Bellm (born 20 May 1950) is an auto racing driver from Britain.

He began his racing career in 1980, running in Historic racing series and winning the British Historic 2L GT class in 1983 and 1984 driving his Chevron B19 sports car. He made the move to modern sports car racing in 1984, driving for Gordon Spice. The pair would found Spice Engineering in 1985 and construct Group C chassis.

As part of the Spice team, Bellm would win the World Sportscar C2 Championship in 1985, 1986 and 1988. He was also able to share a Le Mans win with Gordon Spice in each of those three years, before finally leaving the team in 1990.In the early 1990s he moved to the British Touring Car Championship, driving for Vic Lee Motorsport, finishing fifth overall in 1991. Following Lee's arrest and imprisonment for drug trafficking, Bellm and Steve Neal co-founded Team Dynamics in 1993, eventually selling his share in the company to Neal. He won the International GT championship in 1994, and the BPR Global GT Series in 1996 driving a McLaren F1 GTR to 11 wins in two years. He also won the 1991 Willhire 24 Hour at Snetterton in a BMW M3 co-driven with Kurt Luby and Will Hoy.

Since then he has returned to Historics, including running the Le Mans Classic in 2004 and 2006. He also turned to rallying coming sixth in the 2000 London-Sydney Rally and in 2005 won three rounds of the British Historic Rally Championship in a Mk1 Ford Escort. In 2005 he contested the British round of the World Rally Championship in Group N classed car finishing seventh. In 2006 he finished sixth in Finland and twelfth in Rally Great Britain.

He has served as chairman of the British Racing Drivers' Club (BRDC) from 2004 to 2005, and was responsible for negotiations with Formula One Management which resulted in the successful resigning of the British Grand Prix in 2005.

Bellm also owned and ran the Silverstone based motorsport equipment retailer, Grand Prix Racewear, having bought a majority stake in 1994.In 2011, Bellm started the 106 Drivers Club, an event based company to run social road car tours for owners of the iconic 3 seater Mclaren F1. Celebrating milestone anniversaries, the 20th and 25th anniversaries attracted 22 chassis of the 103 that remain.

Rueben Thevandran

Rueben Thevandran s/o Ramanath (born April 9, 1982), better known by his stage name Burn, is a Malaysian radio personality, television host, singer and voice-over. He is the host of Aktifpedia, a sports educational show, and Grandstand Ahad, a live review and update of the latest sport happenings in Malaysia, on Astro Arena and Forum throughout Malaysia. On the radio, Burn used to be a radio announcer for X-Fresh before moving to Era FM.

Scope (mouthwash)

Scope is a brand of mouthwash made by Procter & Gamble. It was introduced in 1966, and for many years has been positioned in the marketplace as the purportedly better-tasting alternative to Listerine, the longtime dominant mouthwash product.

The Joy of Cooking

Joy of Cooking, often known as "The Joy of Cooking", is one of the United States' most-published cookbooks. It has been in print continuously since 1936 and has sold more than 18 million copies. It was published privately during 1931 by Irma S. Rombauer (1877-1962), a homemaker in St. Louis, Missouri, after her husband's suicide the previous year. Rombauer had 3,000 copies printed by A.C. Clayton, a company which had printed labels for fancy St. Louis shoe companies and for Listerine mouthwash, but never a book. Beginning 1936, the book was published by a commercial printing house, the Bobbs-Merrill Company. With eight editions, Joy of Cooking is considered the most popular American cookbook.

Theraflu

Theraflu is a brand of American over-the-counter cold and flu medicines from GSK Consumer Healthcare that contain different groupings of various cold and flu symptom medications. The original version of Theraflu contained acetaminophen (paracetamol) (1000 mg), chlorpheniramine maleate (4 mg), dextromethorphan hydrobromide (30 mg), and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (60 mg). The Canadian and Swiss version is sold as NeoCitran.

In the UK, GSK sell similar products as Night Nurse and Beechams. Reckitt Benckiser, markets a similar product as Lemsip (Lemsip is available in a variety of flavours and strengths containing up to 1,000 mg of paracetamol, and 12.2 mg phenylephrine hydrochloride). They also sell Theraflu Warming Relief in day and nighttime varieties, which contain alcohol and acetaminophen.

Because pseudoephedrine is used in the production of methamphetamine, the original formula has been removed from production and a number of alternative formulations have been brought to market. In addition, the FDA has severely limited medications that contain over 350 mg of acetaminophen in a single dosage, due to liver toxicity. The primary difference between the old versions and the new is the substitution of phenylephrine hydrochloride for the pseudoephedrine.

Theraflu is produced in several forms and flavors, but is best known for its original powder form which is mixed with hot water and then consumed as a beverage. Other forms include "SoftGel", syrup, and strips similar to breath fresheners like Listerine PocketPaks and Meltz Super Thin Mints.

Thin-film drug delivery

Thin-film drug delivery uses a dissolving film or oral drug strip to administer drugs via absorption in the mouth (buccally or sublingually) and/or via the small intestines (enterically). A film is prepared using hydrophilic polymers that rapidly dissolves on the tongue or buccal cavity, delivering the drug to the systemic circulation via dissolution when contact with liquid is made.

Thin-film drug delivery has emerged as an advanced alternative to the traditional tablets, capsules and liquids often associated with prescription and OTC medications. Similar in size, shape and thickness to a postage stamp, thin-film strips are typically designed for oral administration, with the user placing the strip on or under the tongue (sublingual) or along the inside of the cheek (buccal). These drug delivery options allow the medication to bypass the first pass metabolism thereby making the medication more bioavailable. As the strip dissolves, the drug can enter the blood stream enterically, buccally or sublingually. Evaluating the systemic transmucosal drug delivery, the buccal mucosa is the preferred region as compared to the sublingual mucosa.

Different buccal delivery products have been marketed or are proposed for certain diseases like trigeminal neuralgia, Meniere's disease, diabetes, and addiction. There are many commercial non-drug product to use thin films like Mr. Mint and Listerine PocketPaks breath freshening strips. Since then, thin-film products for other breath fresheners, as well as a number of cold, flu, anti-snoring and gastrointestinal medications, have entered the marketplace. There are currently several projects in development that will deliver prescription drugs using the thin-film dosage form.Formulation of oral drug strips involves the application of both aesthetic and performance characteristics such as strip-forming polymers, plasticizers, active pharmaceutical ingredient, sweetening agents, saliva stimulating agent, flavoring agents, coloring agents, stabilizing and thickening agents. From the regulatory perspectives, all excipients used in the formulation of oral drug strips should be approved for use in oral pharmaceutical dosage forms.

Warner–Lambert

Warner–Lambert was an American pharmaceutical company. Formerly two separate entities, the first company was started in 1856, when William R. Warner founded a drug store in Philadelphia. Warner went on to invent a tablet coating process gaining him a place in the Smithsonian Institution. The second half of the name came from Jordan Wheat Lambert, founder of the Lambert Pharmacal Company, the makers of Listerine. The two companies merged in 1955, to form Warner–Lambert.

Over the years, the company expanded through many mergers and acquisitions to become an international competitor in several businesses. In 1976, Warner–Lambert took over Parke-Davis, which was founded in Detroit in 1866, by Hervey Parke and George Davis. This was followed by acquisitions of Wilkinson Sword in March 1993, and Agouron Pharmaceuticals in January 1999.Its subsidiary Parke-Davis marketed the antidiabetic drug Rezulin, which had FDA approval from January 1997 to 2000.

In the end of the 1990s, Warner–Lambert formed an alliance with Pfizer to bring its drug, Lipitor, to market. Lipitor launched in January 1997 to resounding success, reaching $1B in domestic sales within its first twelve months on the market. In February 2000, Pfizer bought Warner Lambert along with all of its subsidiary companies. The headquarters of Warner–Lambert in Morris Plains, New Jersey, subsequently used by Pfizer and Johnson & Johnson, is now being used as the headquarters of Honeywell as of 2018.

Wintergreen

Wintergreen is a group of aromatic plants. The term "wintergreen" once commonly referred to plants that remain green (continue photosynthesis) throughout the winter. The term "evergreen" is now more commonly used for this characteristic.

Most species of the shrub genus Gaultheria demonstrate this characteristic and are called wintergreens in North America, the most common generally being the American wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens). Wintergreens in the genus Gaultheria contain an aromatic compound, methyl salicylate, and are used as a mintlike flavoring.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.