List of war films and TV specials

This is a list of war films and TV specials such as documentaries, TV mini-series, and drama serials depicting aspects of historical wars.

War of Ancient Egypt (3050–332 BC)

War of Ancient Israel (1600–400 BC)

Trojan War (1193–1183 BC)

Greco-Persian Wars (499–450 BC)

Wars of Ancient China (476 BC – 1911 AD)

Warring States period (476–221 BC)

Chu–Han Contention (206–202 BC)

Han–Xiongnu War (133 BC – 89 AD)

Wars of the Three Kingdoms (220–280)

Wars of Tang dynasty (618–907)

Wars of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period (907–960)

Wars of Song dynasty (960–1279)

Qing conquest of the Ming (1618–1683)

Opium Wars: First Opium War (1839–1842) Second Opium War (1856–1860)

  • Ahen senso (1943), First Opium War
  • Eternity (1943), First Opium War
  • Huo shao yuan ming yuan (The Burning of the Imperial Palace) (1983) (TV miniseries), Second Opium War
  • The Opium War (1997), First Opium War

Taiping Rebellion (1850–1864)

First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895)

Boxer Rebellion (1899–1901)

Xinhai Revolution (1911–1912)

Wars of Alexander the Great (338–325 BC)

Wars of the Diadochi (322–275 BC)

Asoka the Great's conquests (ca. 304–232 BC)

Wars of the Roman Republic/Empire

Punic Wars (264–146 BC)

Servile Wars (135–75 BC)

Roman civil wars during the Late Republic (133–31 BC)

Jewish–Roman wars (63 BC – 135 AD)

Gallic Wars (58–50 BC)

War of Roman Britain (43–410)

  • Boudica (2003), fictionalized story of Boudicca, Queen of the Iceni of Britain and the revolt against Roman occupation.
  • Centurion (2010), Roman ninth Legion in 2nd century Britain
  • The Eagle (2011), Roman centurion in 2nd century Britain
  • Britannia (2018)

Dacian Wars (86–106)

Marcomanni War (167–180)

Roman civil wars during the Late Empire (306–398)

War with the Huns (395–453)

Fall of the Western Roman Empire (455–476)

Gothic War (367–554)

Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain(410–600)

Wars of the Francia (481–840)

Early Muslim conquests (622–751)

Spanish Reconquest (718–1492)

War during the Viking Age (789–1130)

Norman conquest of England (1066–1076)

Crusades (1095–1272)

Northern Crusades (1147–1410)

Mongol conquests (1206–1324)

First Barons' War (1215–1217)

Ottoman wars in Europe (1299–1922)

Byzantine–Ottoman Wars (1299–1479)

Ottoman Invasion of Serbia (1371–1459)

Ottoman–Hungarian Wars (1421–1566)

Skanderbeg's rebellion (1443–1468)

Ottoman invasion of Otranto (1480–1481)

Croatian–Slovene Peasant Revolt (1573)

Long Turkish War (1593–1606)

Polish-Ottoman War (1620–1699)

First Serbian Uprising (1804–1813)

  • Život i dela besmrtnog vožda Karađorđa (1911)
  • Pesma sa Kumbare (1955)
  • Roj (1966)
  • Vuk Karadžić (1987) (TV series)
  • Bitka na Čegru (2006)

Second Serbian Uprising (1815–1817)

Herzegovina uprising (1875–77)

Montenegrin–Ottoman War (1876–78)

Serbian–Ottoman War (1876–1878)

  • Sve će to narod pozlatiti (1995) (TV)

Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)

Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising (1903)

Balkan Wars (1912–1913)

  • Balkan Wars 1912–1913 (2016), Turkish documentary available on the official Youtube channel (with English subtitles) [1].
  • Kumanovska bitka (2012), Serbian documentary about the Battle of Kumanovo available on Youtube (in Serbian) [2]

Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922)

Wars of Scottish Independence (1296–1328), (1332–1357)

Hundred Years' War (1337–1453)

Hussite Wars (1419–1434)

Wars of the Roses (1455–1485)

Sengoku Period (1467–1573)

Italian Wars (1494–1559)

Battle of Mactan (1521)

  • Lapu Lapu (1955)
  • Lapu Lapu (2002)

French Wars of Religion (1562–1598)

Philippine Revolts Against Spain (1567–1872)

  • Dagohoy (1953)
  • Diego Silang (1951)
  • Gabriela Silang (1971)

Eighty Years' War (1568–1648)

Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)

Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98)

Polish–Muscovite War (1605–1618)

Thirty Years' War (1618–1648)

American Indian Wars (1622–1924)

English Civil War (1642–1651)

Ukraino-Russian Liberation War from Poland (1648–1654)

Polish Commonwealth Wars (1648–1672)

  • Ogniem i Mieczem (With Fire and Sword) (1999) civil war – Cossaks revolt 1648–1651
  • Potop (The Deluge) (1974) Second Northern War 1655–1660
  • Pan Wolodyjowski (Colonel Wolodyjowski) (1969) 1660–1672 – skirmishes with Tartars and the beginning of Turkish – Polish Commonwealth war 1672–1676

War of Louis XIV(1660 – 1715)

Scanian War (1675–1679)

Jacobite risings (1688–1746)

Great Northern War (1700–1721)

  • Karl XII (1925)
  • Pyotr perviy (Petr the First) (1937–1938) (Петр первый in Russia)
  • Kalabaliken i Bender (1983)
  • Sluga Gosudarev (The Sovereigns Servant) (2007) (СЛУГА ГОСУДАРЕВ in Russia)

Rákóczi's War of Independence (1703–1711)

  • Rákóczi nótája (1943) Hungarian film
  • Rákóczi hadnagya (1954) Hungarian film
  • Kard és kocka (1959) Hungarian film
  • A Tenkes kapitánya (1963) Hungarian TV-Series
  • Csínom Palkó (1973) Hungarian film
  • A menekülő herceg (1973) Hungarian TV-Movie
  • Rákóczi fogságai (2006) Hungarian TV-Movie

Hungary during Absolutism of the Habsburgs (1711–1848)

  • Kísértet Lublón (1976) Hungarian film
  • Vivát, Benyovszky! (1975) Hungarian tv-series
  • Die unfreiwilligen Reisen des Moritz August Benjowski (1975) German-Italian tv-series
  • A császár parancsára (1957) Hungarian film
  • Szegény gazdagok (1959) Hungarian film
  • A járvány (1975) Hungarian film

War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748)

Seven Years' War (1756–1763) and French and Indian War (1754–1763)

Pugachev's Rebellion (1773–1775)

American Revolutionary War (1775–1783)

French Revolutionary Wars (1792–1802)

First Barbary War (1801–1805)

Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815)

War of 1812

Italian unification (1815–1871)

Caucasian War (1817–1864)

Era of Hungarian Betyár (18–19th century)

  • Hajdúk (1974)
  • A trombitás (1979)
  • Rózsa Sándor (1971)
  • Talpuk alatt fütyül a szél (1976)
  • Rosszemberek (1979)
  • Sárga rózsa (1940)
  • Sobri (2002)

Texas War of Independence (1835–1836)

Mexican–American War (1846–1848)

Revolutions of 1848 (1848–1849)

Passive Resistance (Hungary) (1849–1867)

Crimean War (1853–1856)

Eureka Rebellion (1854)

Indian Rebellion of 1857 and subsequent colonial conflicts in India (1857)

American Civil War (1861–1865)

(Also see American Civil War films, Cinema and television about the American Civil War)

Franco-Mexican War (1861–1867)

Paraguayan War (1864–1870)

Second Schleswig War (1864)

Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871)

Satsuma Rebellion (1877)

Scramble for Africa (1879–1914)

Anglo-Zulu War (1879)

First Boer War (1880–1881)

  • Majuba (a.k.a. Hill of Doves) (1968)

Colonial conflicts in Northern Africa (1880s–1931)

Mahdist Sudanese War (1881–1899)

First Matabele War (1893–1894)

First Italo-Ethiopian War (1895–1896)

Second Boer War (1899–1902)

Timok Rebellion (1883)

Serbo-Bulgarian War (1885)

Philippine Revolution (1896–1898)

Spanish–American War (1898) – Cuban War of Independence (1895–1898)

Philippine–American War (1899–1902/1913)

Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905)

  • Port Arthur (1936)
  • Jack London (1943)
  • Kreiser Varyag (1946)
  • Nichiro sensô shôri no hishi: Tekichû ôdan sanbyaku-ri (1957)
  • Meiji tennô to nichiro daisenso (1958)
  • Nihonkai daikaisen (1969)
  • The Battle of Tsushima (1975) [documentary], depiction of the naval Battle of Tsushima
  • 203 kochi (1980), depiction of the Battle of Port Arthur
  • Nihonkai daikaisen: Umi yukaba (1983)
  • Lime-iro Senkitan (2003)
  • Bogatstvo (2004)
  • Saka no Ue no Kumo (2009) Japanese TV series

Taiwanese rebellions against Japanese rule (1907–1930)

Mexican Revolution (1910–1920) and Cristero War (1926–1929)

Xinhai Revolution (1911–1912)

US Intervention in Nicaragua / Nicaraguan Civil War (1912–1933)

World War I (1914–1918)

(See also: List of World War I films and World War I films)

Western Front (1914–1918)

Eastern Front (1914–1918)

Italian Front (1915–1918)

Middle Eastern theatre of World War I (1914–1918)

African theatre of World War I (1914–1918)

Serbian Campaign of World War I (1914–1918)

  • Sa verom u Boga (1932), Serbian silent film
  • Ultimatum (1938), the backdrop of the July Crisis, between the assassination of Archduke and the beginning of the First World War
  • March on the Drina (1964), Serbian victory over Austria-Hungary in the Battle of Cer in August 1914
  • Kolubarska bitka (1990), TV film about the Serbian victory against Austria-Hungary in the Battle of Kolubara in November 1914
  • Toplički ustanak (1991), TV documentary about the Serb rebellion in 1917 carried out by Serbian guerrillas against the Bulgarian occupation force in the eastern part of Serbia
  • Capitaine Conan (1996), French soldiers in Salonika and Bulgaria
  • Where the Yellow Lemon Blooms (2006), Serbia's exodus after a joint offensive by Germany, Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria in the winter of 1915/16
  • St. George Shoots the Dragon (2009)
  • Milunka Savić – heroina Velikog rata (2013), docu-drama about Milunka Savić, the most decorated female soldier of the Great War, veteran of three wars
  • Heroj 1914 (2014), docu-drama about the successful Serbian defense against Austria-Hungary in 1914
  • The Man Who Defended Gavrilo Princip (2014), true story of Rudolf Cestler, who defended members of the 'Young Bosnia' in court
  • Zaspanka za vojnika (2018)
  • King Peter I (2018)

Naval warfare of World War I (1914–1918)

Aviation in World War I (1915–1918)

Spy fiction in World War I

Russian Civil War (1917–1922)

Russian Revolution (1917)

Finnish Civil War (1918)

Latvian War of Independence (1918–1920)

Estonian War of Independence (1918–1920)

Hungarian–Romanian War (1919)

Polish–Soviet War (1919–1921)

Irish War of Independence (1919–1921) and Irish Civil War (1922–1923)

Chinese Civil War (1927–1949)

Communist insurgency (1927–1937)

Chinese Communist Revolution (1945–1949)

Chaco War (1932–1935)

Second Italo-Ethiopian War (1935–1939)

Spanish Civil War (1936–1939)

Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945)

Soviet–Japanese border conflicts (1939)

World War II (1939–1945)

Because World War II is the most documented war on film and TV, it is also recommended to see List of World War II films for a more detailed list of films. (also see World War II films)

Invasion of Poland (1939)

Norwegian Campaign (1940)

Battle of France (1940)

Western Front (1944–1945)

Axis occupation of Greece (1940–1944)

North African Campaign (1940–1943)

Pacific War (1941–1945)

Burma Campaign (1942–1945)

Italian Campaign (1943–1945)

Prisoner of war

Italian resistance movement (1943–1945)

French Resistance (1940–1944)

Dutch resistance (1940–1945)

Belgian resistance (1940–1944)

Polish resistance movement in World War II (1939–1945)

Denmark in World War II (1940–1945)

Spy fiction in ww2

Air warfare in Europe (1939–1945)

Battle of the Atlantic (1939–1945)

The Jews in WW2

Finnish war (1939–1944)

Eastern Front (World War II) (1941–1945)

World War II in Yugoslavia (1941–1945)

Ecuadorian–Peruvian War (1941–1942)

  • Open Wound ("Mono con gallinas" in Spanish) (2013)

Indonesian National Revolution (1945–1949)

Cold War (1945–1991)

(Also see Cold War films)

Greek Civil War (1946–1949)

Hukbalahap Insurgency (1946–1954)

  • Huk sa Bagong Pamumuhay (1953)
  • Huk! (1956)
  • Patayin Si Sec. Magsaysay (1957)

Indochina Wars (1946–1989)

First Indochina War (1946–1954)

Vietnam War (1955–1975)

(Also see Vietnam War in film and Vietnam War films)

Cambodian Civil War (1967–1975)

Sino-Vietnamese War (1979–1989)

Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts (1947–present)

Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 (1947)

Bengali Language Movement (1952)

Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 (1965)

  • Prem Pujari (1965)
  • Upkaar (1967)
  • Operation Dwarka Based on naval operation commenced by the Pakistan Navy to attack the Indian coastal town of Dwarka on 7 September 1965 (1998)

East Pakistan-West Pakistan War of 1971 (1971)

Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir (1989–present)

Kargil War (1999)

Arab–Israeli conflict (1948–present)

First Arab-Israeli War (1948–1949)

Second Arab–Israeli War (1956)

Third Arab–Israeli War (1967)

Fourth Arab–Israeli War (1973)

First Intifada (1987–1993)

Second Intifada (2000–2005)

2006 Lebanon War

Gaza War (2008–09)

Burmese insurgency (1948–present)

Malayan Emergency (1948–1960)

Korean War (1950–1953) and Korean DMZ Conflict (1966–present)

(Also see Korean War films)

Mau Mau Uprising (1952–1960)

Cuban Revolution (1953–1959)

Algerian War (1954–1962)

Hungarian Revolution of 1956

Cyprus Emergency (1955–1959)

Colombian conflict (1960–present)

Indian annexation of Goa (1961)

Dhofar Rebellion (1962–1976)

Sino-Indian War (1962)

Aden Emergency (1963–1967)

Modern Wars in Sub-Saharan Africa (1960–present )

Congo Crisis (1960–1966)

Eritrean War of Independence (1961–1991)

Guinea-Bissau War of Independence (1963–1974)

Rhodesian Bush War (1964–1979)

Chadian Civil War (1965–79)

Namibian War of Independence (1966–1990)

  • Namibia: The Struggle for Liberation (2007)

Nigerian Civil War (1967–1970)

Angolan Civil War (1975–2002)

Chadian–Libyan conflict (1978–1987)

Uganda–Tanzania War (1978–1979)

Second Sudanese Civil War (1983–2005)

Lord's Resistance Army insurgency in Uganda (1987–present)

Somali Civil War (1988–present)

First Liberian Civil War (1989–1997)

Rwandan Civil War (1990–1993)

Second Congo War (1998–2003)

Sierra Leone Civil War (1991–2002)

Second Liberian Civil War (1999–2003)

War in Darfur (2003–present)

Central African Republic Bush War (2003–2012)

Kivu conflict (2004–2013)

  • Blood Coltan (2008), documentary
  • Sniper: Reloaded (2011)
  • Kony, M23, and the Real Rebels of Congo (2012), VICE News documentary
  • War Witch (2012)

Chadian Civil War (2005–10)

Central African Republic conflict (2012–present)

  • The Devil Tried to Divide Us (2014), VICE News documentary

Tuareg rebellion (2012)

South Sudanese Civil War (2013–2015)

  • Saving South Sudan (2014), VICE News documentary

Indonesian killings of 1965–66

Naxalite–Maoist insurgency in India (1967–present)

Communist Insurgency of the Philippines (1969–present)

  • Ama Namin (1998)
  • Huk! (1956)
  • Ex-Army
  • Ultimatum Ceasefire (1987)

The Troubles in Northern Ireland (1969–2005)

Islamic Insurgency of the Philippines (1970–present)

Yugoslav counter-insurgency against Bugojno group (1972)

  • Brisani prostor (1985), TV series
  • Balkanska pravila (1997)

Turkish invasion of Cyprus (1974)

Indonesian invasion of East Timor (1975–1976)

Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990)

First Lebanon War (1982)

War of the Camps (1985–1988)

Operation Entebbe (1976)

Nicaraguan Civil War (1979–1992)

Soviet–Afghan War (1979–1989) and Afghan Civil War (1992–1996)

Internal conflict in Peru (1980–present)

Iran–Iraq War (1980–1988)

Salvadoran Civil War (1980–1992)

Falklands War (1982)

Sri Lankan Civil War (1983–2009)

US Invasion of Grenada (1983)

Al-Anfal Campaign (1986–1989)

South Yemen Civil War (1986)

Nagorno-Karabakh War (1988–1994)

United States invasion of Panama (1989–1990)

Gulf War (1990–1991)

(Also see Gulf War films)

Algerian Civil War (1991–2002)

Yugoslav Wars (1991–1999)

Ten-Day War in Slovenia (1991)

Croatian War of Independence (1991–1995)

Bosnian War (1992–1995)

Kosovo War (1998–1999)

NATO bombing of Yugoslavia (1999)

Civil war in Tajikistan (1992–1997)

  • Mama (1998)
  • Nikto, krome nas... (2008)
  • Silent Border Post («Тихая застава» in Russian) (2011)
  • The Death of Innocents ("Марги бегунох" in Tajik) (2013)

War in Abkhazia (1992–93)

First Chechen War (1994–1996)

  • Prisoner of the Mountains (1996)
  • Damned and Forgotten (1997), documentary («Прокляты и забыты» in Russian)
  • Purgatory (1997) («Чистилище» in Russian)
  • Checkpoint (1998) («Блокпост» in Russian)
  • Proof of Life (1998)
  • Man's work (2001 TV series) («Мужская работа» in Russian)
  • House of Fools (2002)
  • The Storm Gate (2006 TV miniseries) («Грозовые ворота» in Russian)
  • 12 (2007)

East Timorese crisis (1999)

Second Chechen War (1999–2000)

  • War (2002)
  • It is an honor («Честь имею» in Russian), miniseries (2004)
  • Breakthrough («Прорыв» in Russian) (2006)
  • Alexandra (2007)
  • Captive (2008)
  • Russian sacrifice («Русская жертва» in Russian) (2008)
  • The Search (2014)

Insurgency in the Republic of Macedonia (2001)

  • How I Killed a Saint (Како убив светец) (2004)
  • Bal-Can-Can (2005)

War on Terrorism (2001–present)

September 11 attacks (2001)

War in Afghanistan (2001–present)

Iraq War (2003–2011)

Covert special operations in Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia etc.

Insurgency in Saudi Arabia (2003–present)

Insurgency in the Maghreb (2002–present)

Joint Chiefs of Staff operations

  • E-Ring (2005–2006) (TV series)

Operation Enduring Freedom – Philippines (2002–2015)

Terrorist Sleeper cells

War on Terror in Pakistan

2004 unrest in Kosovo

  • UNMIK Titanik (2004), documentary
  • Kosovo: Can You Imagine? (2009), documentary
  • Enclave (2015)

Mexican Drug War (2006–present)

  • Breaking Bad (TV series) (2008–2013)
  • El Sicario, Room 164 (2010), A documentary about an anonymous Ciudad Juárez Sicario known to have killed hundreds
  • Miss Bala (2011), A beauty contestant is kidnapped by a cartel and forced to do drug missions in wartorn Mexico
  • Savages (2012), Small-time pot growers search for their lover, kidnapped by a cartel they refused to work with
  • Snitch (2012), His son arrested, a concerned father makes a deal with a US attorney to infiltrate a Mexican cartel and ends up trapped in a war zone
  • End of Watch (2012), The Sinaloa Cartel declares war on 2 LAPD officers arrest who raid a safe house
  • The Last Stand (2013), A border-town Sheriff's Department takes on a powerful drug lord and his private army
  • The Mexican Mormon War (2012), Vice documentary on the Mormon vigilante militia fighting a drug cartel in Chihuahua
  • Narco Cultura (2013), A documentary film that explores the cultural glorification of modern drug traffickers
  • El Velador/The Night Watchman (2013), A documentary portraying the quieter, less obvious impact of the drug war
  • Metástasis (TV series) (2015)
  • Sicario (2015), An idealistic FBI agent is enlisted by an elected government task force to aid in the escalating war against drugs at the border area between the U.S. and Mexico

South Ossetia War (2008)

2011 Libyan Civil War

  • Benghazi Rising (2011), documentary
  • Qaddafi: Our Best Enemy (2011), documentary
  • First to Fall (2014), documentary
  • War Story (2014)
  • A Private War (2018)

Factional violence in Libya (2011–14)

  • 13 Hours: The Secret Soldiers of Benghazi (2016)

Syrian Civil War (2011–present)

Iraqi Civil War (2014–2017)

  • The Road to Mosul (2015), VICE News documentary
  • The Road to Fallujah (2016), VICE News documentary
  • Reseba (2016)

War in Donbass (2014–present)

  • War correspondent ("Военный корреспондент" in Russian) (2014)
  • The Guard (2015 TV series) ("Гвардiя" in Ukrainian) (2015), TV series
  • Frost (2017)
  • Cyborgs: Heroes Never Die (2017)

Yemeni Civil War (2015–present)

Battle of Marawi (2017)

Mercenaries in the third world

(See also: Mercenaries in popular culture: Films)

See also

References

  1. ^ https://www.allmovie.com/movie/mulan-rise-of-a-warrior-v583864
  2. ^ https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0141966/?ref_=nv_sr_1
  3. ^ Philippino War Dance (1903), imdb.com. ( [sic]—The correct term is "Filipino")
  4. ^ https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0065688/
  5. ^ https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0314733/
  6. ^ http://figafilms.com/?p=3698
  7. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4r-dinTpvlk)
  8. ^ https://www.allmovie.com/movie/overlord-v689954
  9. ^ Saigo no Tokkōtai on IMDB
  10. ^ https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0398093/
  11. ^ http://www.mrqe.com/movies/m100008276?s=1
  12. ^ https://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p=D6144D28E123CE6D&search_query=the+hamburg+cell+movie
Behold a Pale Horse (film)

Behold a Pale Horse is a 1964 film directed by Fred Zinnemann and starring Gregory Peck, Omar Sharif and Anthony Quinn. The film is based on the novel Killing a Mouse on Sunday by Emeric Pressburger, which loosely details the life of the Spanish anarchist guerrilla Francesc Sabaté Llopart.

List of films featuring the United States Marine Corps

This is a list of films featuring the United States Marine Corps.

List of historical period drama films and series set in Near Eastern and Western civilization

The historical period drama is a film genre in which stories are based upon historical events and famous people. Some historical dramas are docudramas, which attempt an accurate portrayal of a historical event or biography, to the degree that the available historical research will allow. Other historical dramas are fictionalized tales that are based on an actual person and their deeds, such as Braveheart, which is loosely based on the 13th-century knight William Wallace's fight for Scotland's independence.

Due to the sheer volume of films included in this genre and in the interest of continuity, this list is primarily focused on films pertaining to the history of Near Eastern and Western civilization.

For films pertaining to the history of East Asia, Central Asia, and South Asia, please refer also to the list of Asian historical drama films.

Lists of films

This is an index of lists of films.

Merah Putih (2009 film)

Merah Putih ("Red [and] White") is a movie, directed by Yadi Sugandi (director of photography for Laskar Pelangi and the Photograph), brought out in Indonesia in 2009.

Outline of war

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to war:

War – organised and often prolonged armed conflict that is carried out by states and/or non-state actors – is characterised by extreme violence, social disruption, and economic destruction. War should be understood as an actual, intentional and widespread armed conflict between political communities, and therefore is defined as a form of political violence or intervention.Warfare – refers to the common activities and characteristics of types of war, or of wars in general.

Spanish Civil War

The Spanish Civil War (Spanish: Guerra Civil Española) took place from 1936 to 1939. Republicans loyal to the left-leaning Second Spanish Republic, in alliance with the Anarchists and Communists, fought against the Nationalists, an alliance of Falangists, Monarchists, Carlists, and Catholics, led by a military clique among whom General Francisco Franco soon achieved a preponderant role. Due to the international political climate at the time, the war had many facets, and different views saw it as class struggle, a war of religion, a struggle between dictatorship and republican democracy, between revolution and counterrevolution, between fascism and communism. The Nationalists won the war in early 1939 and ruled Spain until Franco's death in November 1975.

The war began after a pronunciamiento (a declaration of military opposition) against the Republican government by a group of generals of the Spanish Republican Armed Forces, originally under the leadership of José Sanjurjo. The government at the time was a moderate, liberal coalition of Republicans, supported in the Cortes by communist and socialist parties, under the leadership of centre-left President Manuel Azaña. The Nationalist group was supported by a number of conservative groups, including the Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups (Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas, or CEDA), monarchists, including both the opposing sides of Alfonsists and the religious conservative Carlists, and the Falange Española de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista (FE y de las JONS), a fascist political party. Sanjurjo was killed in an aircraft accident while attempting to return from exile in Portugal, whereupon Franco emerged as the leader of the Nationalists.

The coup was supported by military units in the Spanish protectorate in Morocco, Pamplona, Burgos, Zaragoza, Valladolid, Cádiz, Córdoba, and Seville. However, rebelling units in some important cities—such as Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Bilbao, and Málaga—did not gain control, and those cities remained under the control of the government. Spain was thus left militarily and politically divided. The Nationalists and the Republican government fought for control of the country. The Nationalist forces received munitions, soldiers, and air support from Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, while the Republican side received support from the Soviet Union and Mexico. Other countries, such as the United Kingdom, France, and the United States, continued to recognise the Republican government, but followed an official policy of non-intervention. Notwithstanding this policy, tens of thousands of citizens from non-interventionist countries directly participated in the conflict. They fought mostly in the pro-Republican International Brigades, which also included several thousand exiles from pro-Nationalist regimes.

The Nationalists advanced from their strongholds in the south and west, capturing most of Spain's northern coastline in 1937. They also besieged Madrid and the area to its south and west for much of the war. After much of Catalonia was captured in 1938 and 1939, and Madrid cut off from Barcelona, the Republican military position became hopeless. Madrid and Barcelona were occupied without resistance, Franco declared victory and his regime received diplomatic recognition from all non-interventionist governments. Thousands of leftist Spaniards fled to refugee camps in southern France. Those associated with the losing Republicans were persecuted by the victorious Nationalists. With the establishment of a dictatorship led by General Franco in the aftermath of the war, all right-wing parties were fused into the structure of the Franco regime.The war became notable for the passion and political division it inspired and for the many atrocities that occurred, on both sides. Organised purges occurred in territory captured by Franco's forces so they could consolidate their future regime. A significant number of killings also took place in areas controlled by the Republicans. The extent to which Republican authorities took part in killings in Republican territory varied.

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