This is a list of the most populous urban areas in the 2011 census, as defined by the Office for National Statistics (ONS), although the basis for the sourced list is Citypopulation.de because its data is more readily available.
The methodology used by ONS in 2011 is set out in 2011 Built-up Areas – Methodology and Guidance, published in June 2013. When ONS reported the results of the 2011 UK census, it used the term "built-up area" rather than the term "urban area" as used in previous censuses. ONS states, however, that the criteria used to define "built-up area" have not changed:
the definition follows a ‘bricks and mortar’ approach, with areas defined as built-up land with a minimum area of 20 hectares (200,000 m2), while settlements within 200 metres of each other are linked. Built-up area sub-divisions are also identified to provide greater detail in the data, especially in the larger conurbations.
In reporting the 2001 census, ONS gave a clearer definition of the term "built-up" as follows:
This comprises permanent structures and the land on which they are situated, including land enclosed by or closely associated with such structures; transportation corridors such as roads, railways and canals which have built up land on one or both sides, or which link built-up sites which are less than 200 metres apart; transportation features such as airports and operational airfields, railway yards, motorway service areas and car parks; mine buildings, excluding mineral workings and quarries; and any area completely surrounded by builtup sites. Areas such as playing fields and golf courses are excluded unless completely surrounded by builtup sites...
The list below shows the most populated urban areas in the United Kingdom as defined by the Office for National Statistics (ONS), but as readily referenced at Citypopulation.de. The list includes all urban areas with a population in excess of 100,000 at the 2011 census.
|Area (km²)||Density (People/km²)||Major subdivisions||Metropolitan Area||Notable changes between 2001 and 2011 censuses  [note 1]|
|1||Greater London Built-up Area||9,787,426||1,737.9||5,630||London boroughs, Hemel Hempstead, Watford, Woking, Harlow, St Albans, Bracknell||London||The addition of Guildford, Harlow, Bracknell and St Albans|
|2||Greater Manchester Built-up Area||2,553,379||630.3||4,051||Manchester, Salford, Bolton, Stockport, Oldham, Rochdale, Bury, Trafford, Tameside||Manchester||The addition of Golborne, Glossop and Newton-le-Willows|
|3||West Midlands Built-up Area||2,440,986||598.9||4,076||Birmingham, Wolverhampton, West Bromwich, Dudley, Walsall, Solihull||Birmingham|
|4||West Yorkshire Built-up Area||1,777,934||487.8||3,645||Leeds, Bradford, Wakefield, Huddersfield, Dewsbury, Keighley, Halifax||Leeds-Bradford||The addition of Halifax|
|5||Greater Glasgow Built-up Area||1,209,143||368.5||3,390||Glasgow, Paisley, Clydebank||Glasgow|
|6||Liverpool Built-up Area||864,122||199.6||4,329||Liverpool, Bootle, Litherland, Crosby, Prescot, St. Helens, Ashton-in-Makerfield||Liverpool/Birkenhead||The addition of Ashton-in-Makerfield|
|7||South Hampshire Built-up Area||855,569||192.0||4,455||Southampton, Portsmouth, Eastleigh, Gosport, Fareham, Havant, Horndean||Southampton-Portsmouth||Portsmouth Urban Area and Southampton Urban Area combined into one.|
|8||Tyneside Built-up Area||774,891||180.5||4,292||Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead, South Shields, Tynemouth, Wallsend, Whitley Bay, Jarrow||Newcastle-Sunderland||Washington, Chester-Le-Street, Hetton-le-Hole and Houghton-le-Spring are no longer part of the built-up area.|
|9||Nottingham Built-up Area||729,977||176.4||4,139||Nottingham, Beeston, Carlton, West Bridgford, Ilkeston, Hucknall||Nottingham-Derby|
|10||Sheffield Built-up Area||685,368||167.5||4,092||Sheffield, Rotherham, Rawmarsh||Sheffield|
|11||Bristol Built-up Area||617,280||144.4||4,274||Bristol, Filton, Pill, Frampton Cotterell, Kingswood, Warmley, Mangotsfield, Winterbourne||Bristol|
|12||Belfast Urban Area||595,879||Belfast, Castlereagh, Greenisland, Holywood, Lisburn, Newtownabbey, Milltown||Belfast|
|13||Leicester Built-up area||508,916||109.4||4,653||Leicester, Wigston, Oadby, Syston, Blaby, Birstall, Narborough, Enderby||Leicester||Ratby no longer part of the built-up area.|
|15||Brighton and Hove Built-up area||474,485||89.4||5,304||Brighton and Hove, Worthing, Littlehampton, Shoreham-by-Sea||Brighton||Rottingdean, Saltdean and Findon are no longer part of the built-up area.|
|16||Bournemouth/Poole Built-up area||466,266||131.0||3,559||Bournemouth, Poole, Christchurch, Ferndown, New Milton, Wimborne Minster||Bournemouth/Poole||Ferndown and Wimborne Minster now part of the built-up area.|
|17||Cardiff Built-up area||447,287||102.3||4,370||Cardiff, Caerphilly, Penarth, Pontypridd||Cardiff-Newport||Caerphilly and Pontypridd now part of the built-up area.|
|18||Teesside Built-up area||376,633||108.2||3,482||Middlesbrough, Stockton-On-Tees, Billingham, Redcar||Middlesbrough||Eston & Southbank now part of Middlesbrough sub-division, no longer counted as separate sub-division|
|19||Stoke-on-Trent Built-up Area||372,775||103.9||3,588||Stoke-on-Trent, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Kidsgrove||Stoke-on-Trent|
|20||Coventry Built-up area||359,262||81.3||4,420||Coventry, Bedworth||Coventry|
|21||Sunderland Built-up area||335,415||83.5||4,018||Sunderland, Washington, Chester-Le-Street, Hetton-le-Hole, Houghton-le-Spring||Newcastle-Sunderland||Addition of Washington, Chester-Le-Street, Hetton-le-Hole and Houghton-le-Spring|
|22||Birkenhead Built-up area||325,264||88.2||3,687||Birkenhead, Wallasey, Ellesmere Port, Bebington||Liverpool/Birkenhead|
|23||Reading Built-up area||318,014||83.7||3,800||Reading, Wokingham, Woodley, Crowthorne||London||Bracknell no longer part of the built-up area.|
|24||Kingston upon Hull Built-up area||314,018||82.6||3,802||Kingston upon Hull, Cottingham, Hessle||Hull|
|25||Preston Built-up area||313,322||82.4||3,802||Preston, Bamber Bridge, Chorley, Fulwood, Leyland||Preston||The addition of Longton and Adlington to the built-up area.|
|26||Newport Built-up area||306,844||84.2||3,643||Newport, Pontypool, Cwmbran, Blackwood, Risca, Ystrad Mynach||Cardiff-Newport||Pontypool, Cwmbran and Blackwood added to the built-up area.|
|27||Swansea Built-up area||300,352||87.6||3,431||Swansea, Neath, Port Talbot, Ystradgynlais, Pontardawe||Swansea/Neath/Port Talbot||Ystradgynlais now part of the built-up area.|
|28||Southend-on-Sea Built-up area||295,310||71.8||4,111||Southend-on-Sea, Hullbridge, Rayleigh, Rochford||London||Hullbridge now part of the built-up area.|
|29||Derby Built-up area||270,468||64.1||4,219||Derby, Borrowash, Duffield||Nottingham-Derby|
|30||Plymouth Built-up area||260,203||59.7||4,356||Plymouth||Plymouth|
|31||Luton Built-up area||258,018||50.7||5,088||Luton, Dunstable, Houghton Regis||London|
|32||Farnborough/Aldershot Built-up area||252,397||78.5||3,217||Farnborough, Aldershot, Camberley, Farnham, Frimley, Sandhurst, Yateley||London|
|33||Medway Towns Built-up area||243,931||52.2||4,677||Gillingham, Chatham, Rochester||London|
|34||Blackpool Built-up area||239,409||61.3||3,908||Blackpool, Lytham St Annes, Poulton-le-Fylde, Thornton, Cleveleys||Blackpool||Fleetwood no longer forms part of the built-up area.|
|35||Milton Keynes Built-up area||229,941||62.5||3,678||'Milton Keynes',[note 2] Bletchley, Newport Pagnell, Woburn Sands||Milton Keynes||The addition of Woburn Sands.|
|36||Barnsley/Dearne Valley Built-up area||223,281||59.7||3,739||Barnsley, Wath upon Dearne, Wombwell, Hoyland||Sheffield|
|37||Northampton Built-up area||215,963||57.9||3,731||Northampton, Collingtree||Northampton|
|38||Norwich Built-up area||213,166||61.9||3,444||Norwich, Taverham, Costessey, Cringleford, Colney, Horsham St Faith, Queens Hills, Thorpe End, Trowse with Newton||Norwich|
|40||Swindon Built-up area||185,609||47.1||3,945||Swindon, Haydon Wick, Stratton St. Margaret, Broad Blunsdon, Blunsdon St Andrew, Wroughton||Swindon|
|41||Crawley Built-up area||180,508||58.1||3,107||Crawley, Horley, East Grinstead, Copthorne, Crawley Down||London||The addition of East Grinstead, Copthorne and Crawley Down.|
|42||Ipswich Built-up area||178,835||49.1||3,639||Ipswich, Kesgrave, Woodbridge||Ipswich||The addition of Woodbridge.|
|43||Wigan Built-up area||175,405||43.8||4,009||Wigan, Skelmersdale, Standish, Ince-in-Makerfield||Manchester|
|44||Mansfield Built-up area||171,958||48.4||3,556||Mansfield, Sutton-in-Ashfield, Kirkby-in-Ashfield, Mansfield Woodhouse||Nottingham-Derby|
|45||Oxford Built-up area||171,380||37.4||4,585||Oxford, Kennington, Wheatley||Oxford||The addition of Kennington and Wheatley.|
|46||Warrington Built-up area||165,456||44.9||3,686||Warrington||Liverpool/Birkenhead|
|47||Slough Built-up area||163,777||34.1||4,797||Slough, Stoke Poges, Poyle||London|
|48||Peterborough Built-up area||163,379||44.2||3,693||Peterborough, Farcet||Peterborough|
|49||Cambridge Built-up area||158,434||42.1||3,760||Cambridge, Fen Ditton, Girton, Histon||Cambridge||Addition of Histon and Impington and Fen Ditton|
|50||Doncaster Built-up area||158,141||43.5||3,634||Doncaster, Bentley, Armthorpe, Sprotbrough||Sheffield||Addition of Bessacarr|
|52||York Built-up area||153,717||34.0||4,518||York, Earswick||York|
|53||Gloucester Built-up area||150,053||40.4||3,718||Gloucester, Innsworth||Gloucester-Cheltenham|
|54||Burnley Built-up area||149,422||35.7||4,183||Burnley, Padiham, Brierfield Colne, Barrowford Nelson||Blackburn-Burnley|
|55||Telford Built-up area||147,980||47.7||3,103||Telford, Broseley||Telford|
|56||Blackburn Built-up area||146,521||35.6||4,115||Blackburn, Darwen||Blackburn-Burnley|
|57||Basildon Built-up area||144,859||37.1||3,902||Basildon, Wickford, Ramsden Heath, North Benfleet||London||The addition of Wickford to the urban area.|
|58||Grimsby Built-up area||134,160||35.3||3,804||Grimsby, Cleethorpes, Waltham||Grimsby||New Waltham is no longer part of the Built-up area.|
|59||Hastings Built-up area||133,422||33.2||4,019||Hastings, Bexhill||Hastings|
|60||High Wycombe Built-up area||133,204||39.2||3,398||High Wycombe, Cookham, Hughenden Valley||London|
|61||Thanet Built-up area||125,370||27.9||4,495||Margate, Ramsgate, Broadstairs||Thanet|
|62||Accrington/Rossendale Built-up area||125,059||30.0||4,168||Accrington, Rawtenstall, Bacup, Great Harwood, Haslingden, Oswaldtwistle||Blackburn-Burnley||Accrington Urban Area and Rossendale Urban Area combined.|
|63||Burton-upon-Trent Built-up area||122,199||35.0||3,487||Burton-upon-Trent, Swadlincote||Burton-upon-Trent||The addition of Swadlincote, Stapenhill and Winshill[note 3]|
|64||Colchester Built-up area||121,859||32.7||3,732||Colchester, Marks Tey||Colchester|
|65||Eastbourne Built-up area||118,219||25.1||4,705||Eastbourne, Polegate||Brighton|
|66||Exeter Built-up area||117,763||28.5||4,133||Exeter, Topsham||Exeter|
|67||Cheltenham Built-up area||116,447||28.9||4,034||Cheltenham,||Gloucester-Cheltenham|
|68||Paignton/Torquay Built-up area||115,410||31.5||3,667||Paignton, Torquay, Marldon||Torbay|
|69||Lincoln Built-up area||114,879||32.7||3,518||Lincoln, North Hykeham||Lincoln|
|70||Chesterfield Built-up area||113,057||34.6||3,263||Chesterfield, Staveley, Wingerworth, Holymoorside||Sheffield||Addition of Wingerworth to the Built-up area.|
|71||Chelmsford Built-up area||111,511||26.2||4,259||Chelmsford, Little Waltham||London|
|72||Basingstoke Built-up area||107,642||29.4||3,662||Basingstoke||London|
|73||Maidstone Built-up area||107,627||25.4||4,229||Maidstone||London|
|74||Bedford Built-up area||106,940||24.8||4,309||Bedford, Kempston||Bedford|
|75||Worcester Built-up area||101,659||24.7||4,121||Worcester, Norton||Worcester|
City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the monarch of the United Kingdom to a select group of communities: as of 2014, there are 69 cities in the United Kingdom – 51 in England, six in Wales, seven in Scotland and five in Northern Ireland. The holding of city status gives a settlement no special rights. This appellation carries its own prestige and competition for the status is hard-fought.
The status does not apply automatically on the basis of any particular criteria, although in England and Wales it was traditionally given to towns with diocesan cathedrals. This association between having a cathedral and being called a city was established in the early 1540s when King Henry VIII founded dioceses (each having a cathedral in the see city) in six English towns and also granted them city status by issuing letters patent.
City status in Ireland was granted to far fewer communities than in England and Wales, and there are only two pre–19th-century cities in present-day Northern Ireland. In Scotland, city status did not explicitly receive any recognition by the state until the 19th century. At that time, a revival of grants of city status took place, first in England, where the grants were accompanied by the establishment of new cathedrals, and later in Scotland and Ireland. In the 20th century, it was explicitly recognised that the status of city in England and Wales would no longer be bound to the presence of a cathedral, and grants made since have been awarded to communities on a variety of criteria, including population size.
The abolition of some corporate bodies as part of successive local government reforms, beginning with the Municipal Corporations (Ireland) Act 1840, has deprived some ancient cities of their status. However, letters patent have been issued for most of the affected cities to ensure the continuation or restoration of their status. At present, Rochester and Elgin are the only former cities in the United Kingdom. The name "City" does not, in itself, denote city status; it may be appended to place names for historic association (e.g. White City) or for marketing or disambiguation (e.g. Stratford City). A number of large towns (such as with over 200,000 residents) in the UK are bigger than some small cities, but cannot legitimately call themselves a city without the royal designation.Demography of the United Kingdom
According to the 2011 census, the total population of the United Kingdom was around 63,182,000. It is the 21st-most populated country in the world. Its overall population density is 259 people per square kilometre (671 people per sq mi), with England having a significantly higher population density than Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Almost one-third of the population lives in England's southeast, which is predominantly urban and suburban, with about 9 million in the capital city of London, the population density of which is just over 5,200 per square kilometre (13,468 per sq mi).The population of the United Kingdom is considered an example of a population that has undergone demographic transition – that is, the transition from a (typically) pre-industrial population with high birth and mortality rates and slow population growth, through a stage of falling mortality and faster rates of population growth, to a stage of low birth and mortality rates with, again, lower rates of population growth. This population growth through 'natural change' has been accompanied in the past two decades by growth through net international migration into the United Kingdom.The United Kingdom's high literacy rate (99% at age 15 and above) is attributable to universal public education introduced for the primary level in 1870 (Scotland 1872, free 1890) and secondary level in 1900. Parents are obliged to have their children educated from the ages of 5 to 18 (raised from 16 in 2013), and can continue education free of charge in the form of A-Levels, vocational training or apprenticeship to age 18. The Church of England and the Church of Scotland function as the national churches in their respective countries, but all the major religions found in the world are represented in the United Kingdom.
The United Kingdom's population is predominantly White British. Being located close to continental Europe, the countries that formed the United Kingdom were subject to many invasions and migrations from the continent, especially from Scandinavia, including Roman occupation for several centuries. Historically, British people were therefore thought to be descended mainly from the different ethnic stocks that settled there before the 11th century: pre-Celtic, Celtic, Anglo-Saxon, Viking and Norman. However, recent genetic testing has revealed that these migrations contributed very little to the British genepool, with around 80% of white British DNA coming from an ancestral population who settled in the British Isles 12,000 years ago.Although Celtic languages are spoken in Scotland, Cornwall, and Northern Ireland, the predominant language overall is English. In North and West Wales, Welsh is widely spoken as a first language, but less so in the South East of the country, where English is the predominant language.Derby Built-up Area
The Derby Built-up Area (BUA) or Derby Urban Area is an area including Derby and adjoining built-up districts of Derbyshire, in the East Midlands of England, including Borrowash and Duffield. The Office for National Statistics defines an urban area as one which is built upon, with nearby areas linked if within 200 metres.It had a total population of 270,468 at the time of the 2011 census. An increase of over 10% since the 2001 census recorded population of 236,738; comprising population increases since 2001 along with new minor residential areas, and larger sub-divisions.ESPON metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom
A metropolitan area is generally defined as consisting of an urban area, conurbation or agglomeration, together with the surrounding area to which it is closely economically and socially integrated through commuting.
The European Union's ESPON project has defined a harmonised series of metropolitan areas across Europe, made up of two components: Morphological Urban Areas (MUAs), which are similar to urban areas and form the densely populated urban cores of metropolitan areas, and Functional Urban Areas (FUAs), which form the labour basin surrounding Morphological Urban Areas.Morphological Urban Areas have been calculated by combining contiguous local administrative units with population densities greater than 650 inhabitants per square kilometre, with Functional Urban Areas then being calculated by combining surrounding local administrative units where 10% or more of the workforce works within the core Morphological Urban Area.According to the harmonised European definition, there were eighteen metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom with populations of more than 500,000 at the time of the 2001 census.
This lists UK metropolitan areas defined by ESPON, which excludes combined conurbations such as the Liverpool-Manchester megalopolis, which has a combined population of 5.6m. It also excludes city regions such as those formed in Greater Manchester, Leeds, Liverpool and Sheffield, which are typically areas covered by a combined authority.Greater London Built-up Area
The Greater London Built-up Area, or Greater London Urban Area, is a conurbation in south-east England that constitutes the continuous urban area of London, and includes surrounding adjacent urban towns as defined by the Office for National Statistics. It is the largest urban area in the United Kingdom with a population of 9,787,426 in 2011.Index of United Kingdom-related articles
The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.Leicester Urban Area
The Leicester Urban Area or Leicester Built Up Area (2011 onwards) is an urban agglomeration defined by the Office of National Statistics (ONS), centred on the City of Leicester in the English Midlands. With a population of 508,916 at the time of the 2011 census, the Built Up Area is the eleventh largest in England and thirteenth largest in the United Kingdom. It comprises Leicester itself and its suburbs, all of which are contiguous with, or situated in close proximity to, the city.
As at 2011 the Leicester Urban Area was home to 51.8% of total the population of Leicestershire (2001: 48.5%). A 2017 quote from the Leicester City Council website states that "The Greater Leicester urban area is one of the fastest growing in the country, with a population of about 650,000, of which 350,000 live within the city council area".Lincoln, England
Lincoln is a cathedral city and the county town of Lincolnshire in the East Midlands of England. The non-metropolitan district of Lincoln had a 2012 population of 94,600. The 2011 census gave the urban area of Lincoln, which includes North Hykeham and Waddington, a population of 130,200. The Roman town of Lindum Colonia developed from an Iron Age settlement on the River Witham. Lincoln's major landmarks are Lincoln Cathedral, an example of English Gothic architecture and the tallest building in the world for over 200 years, as well as Lincoln Castle, an 11th-century Norman castle. The city is home to the University of Lincoln and Bishop Grosseteste University, and to Lincoln City FC and Lincoln United FC.List of Tyne and Wear settlements by population
This is a list of settlements in Tyne and Wear by population based on the results of the 2011 census. The next United Kingdom census will take place in 2021. In 2011, there were 22 built-up area subdivisions with 5,000 or more inhabitants in Tyne and Wear, shown in the table below.List of cities in the United Kingdom
This is a list of official cities in the United Kingdom as of 2015. It lists those places that have been granted city status by letters patent or royal charter. There are currently a total of 69 such cities in the United Kingdom: 51 in England, seven in Scotland, six in Wales, and five in Northern Ireland. Of these, 23 in England, two in Wales, and one in Northern Ireland have Lord Mayors and four in Scotland have Lord Provosts. In some cases, the area holding city status does not coincide with the built up area or conurbation of which it forms part. In Greater London, for example, the City of London and that of Westminster each hold city status separately but no other neighbourhood has been granted city status, nor has Greater London as a whole. In other cases, such as the Cities of Canterbury and Lancaster, the status extends over a number of towns and rural areas outside the main settlement proper.List of localities in England by population
This article is provided for historical interest only, because this sense of 'locality' disappears in the 2011 census and consequently the table cannot be updated reliably. The data here shows the figures as at 2001 and is deliberately not current.
Localities, also called urban sub-divisions, are component areas of the urban areas (conurbations) of England and Wales defined by the Office for National Statistics to enable detailed study of smaller areas within conurbations, and to enable comparisons to be made with historical data. The boundaries of localities within conurbations often follow those of local authorities existing before local government re-organisation in 1974, the boundaries of current authorities within agglomerations, or the points where previously separate urban areas joined.Localities are not the same as local government areas such as cities or borough council areas, as localities are based upon the actual built-up area and cannot extend beyond a single physically contiguous urban area, but can extend beyond local government boundaries. For the population of these local government areas see List of English districts by population.
This is a list of the localities within England that had a population greater than 100,000 at the time of the United Kingdom Census 2001.List of towns and cities in England by population
Towns and cities in England can be defined either by their local government administrative boundaries or by the physical extent of their built-up areas.
List of towns and cities in England by historical population
List of English districts by population sets out the population of each non-metropolitan district, London borough, metropolitan borough, and unitary authority in England.
List of English counties by population of major settlements sets out the population of each city, town and village with 5,000 or more residents per county.
List of urban areas in the United Kingdom sets out the population of each urban area in England, as well as urban areas in other parts of the United Kingdom, as defined by the Office for National Statistics.
List of metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom larger areas encompassing one or more urban areas
List of localities in England by population sets out the population of localities, also called urban sub-divisions, as at the 2001 census (and thus significantly out of date). The Office for National Statistics changed its methodology significantly for the 2011 census and consequently this list cannot be updated and is retained for historical interest only. These localities were component areas of the urban areas of England as defined by the ONS and were intended to enable detailed study of smaller areas within urban areas, and to enable comparisons to be made with historical data. For example, in this list Manchester has a smaller population than the Greater Manchester Urban Area, which includes towns such as Sale and Stockport. Some large settlements, such as Milton Keynes (population 229,941 in 2001), are not listed at all because the ONS data was recorded for their component districts and not summed.List of towns in the United Kingdom
In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, a town traditionally was a settlement which had a charter to hold a market or fair and therefore became a "market town". In Scotland, the equivalent is known as a burgh (pronounced [ˈbʌɾə]). There are two types of burgh: royal burghs and burghs of barony.
The Local Government Act 1972 allows civil parishes in England and Wales to resolve themselves to be Town Councils, under section (245 subsection 6), which also gives the chairman of such parishes the title 'town mayor'. Many former urban districts and municipal boroughs have such a status, along with other settlements with no prior town status.
In more modern times it is often considered that a town becomes a city (or a village becomes a town) as soon as it reaches a certain population, although this is an informal definition and no particular numbers are agreed upon.
The cultural importance placed on charters remains, and it is not an unusual event for towns across the UK to celebrate their charter in an annual Charter Day (normally a fair or mediaeval market).Luton
Luton ( (listen)) is a large town, borough and unitary authority area of Bedfordshire, in the East of England. It has a population of 214,700 (mid-2017 est.) and is one of the most populous towns without city status in the United Kingdom. The town is situated on the River Lea, about 30 miles (50 km) northwest of London. Earliest settlements in the Luton area can be traced back over 250,000 years, but the town's foundation dates to the sixth century as a Saxon outpost on the River Lea, from which Luton derives its name. Luton is recorded in the Domesday Book as Loitone and Lintone and one of the largest churches in Bedfordshire, St Mary's Church, was built in the 12th century. There are local museums which explore Luton's history in Wardown Park and Stockwood Park.Luton was for many years famous for hatmaking, and also had a large Vauxhall Motors factory. Car production at the plant began in 1905 and continued until the plant's closure in 2002. Production of commercial vehicles continues, and the head office of Vauxhall Motors is still in the town. London Luton Airport opened in 1938, and is now one of Britain's major airports, with three railway stations also in the town. The University of Bedfordshire was created from a merger with the University of Luton, and two of its campuses are in Luton.Luton Town Football Club, nicknamed "the Hatters" due to the town's connection to hatmaking, has had several spells in the top flight of the English league as well as a Football League Cup triumph in 1988. They play at Kenilworth Road, their home since 1905, and planning permission for a new larger stadium was approved in 2019. Luton International Carnival, the largest one-day carnival in Europe, is held on the day before the last Monday in May, and the Saint Patrick's festival is held on the weekend nearest to Saint Patrick's Day as there is a large Irish community in Luton. The town also has a large Pakistani community, which along with the Irish were attracted to employment at the Vauxhall car plant. Luton Hoo is an English country house, estate and Grade I listed building designed by Scottish architect Robert Adam.North East England
North East England is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It covers Northumberland, County Durham, Tyne and Wear, and the area of the former county of Cleveland in North Yorkshire. The region is home to three large conurbations: Teesside, Wearside, and Tyneside, the last of which is the largest of the three and the eighth most populous conurbation in the United Kingdom. There are three cities in the region: Newcastle upon Tyne, the largest, with a population of just under 280,000; Sunderland, also in the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear; and Durham. Other large towns include Darlington, Gateshead, Hartlepool, Middlesbrough, South Shields, Stockton-on-Tees and Washington.Nottingham Urban Area
The Nottingham Built-up Area (BUA), Nottingham Urban Area, or Greater Nottingham is an area of land defined by the Office for National Statistics as which is built upon, with nearby areas linked if within 200 metres - see the List of urban areas in the United Kingdom article for a broader definition. It consists of the city of Nottingham and the adjoining urban areas of Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire, in the East Midlands of England. It had a total population of 729,977 at the time of the 2011 census. This was an increase of almost 10% since the 2001 census recorded population of 666,358,, due to population increases, reductions and several new sub-divisions.South Hampshire
South Hampshire is a term used mainly to refer to the metropolitan area formed by the cities of Portsmouth and Southampton and their suburbs and commuter towns, in southern Hampshire, England. The area had population of around 1 million based on the 2001 census, and estimated population of over 1.5 million in 2013. It is the most populated part of South East England, excluding London. The area is sometimes referred to as Solent City but the term is controversial.
Lists of settlements in the United Kingdom