List of urban areas by population

This is a list of contiguous urban areas of the world ranked according to population. Figures have been taken from two sources: Demographia's "World Urban Areas" study,[1] and from, created by Thomas Brinkhoff of the Institut für Angewandte Photogrammetrie und Geoinformatik.[2]

Definitions and issues

Demographia defines an urban area (urbanized area agglomeration or urban centre) as a continuously built up land mass of urban development that is within a labor market (i.e. metropolitan area or metropolitan region), without regard for administrative boundaries (i.e. municipality, city or commune). Except in Australia, the authorities use a minimum urban density definition of 400 persons per square kilometer (or the nearly identical 1,000 per square mile in the United States). Demographia uses maps and satellite photographs to estimate continuous urbanization. Demographia also uses small area population data, where available, to match population estimates to urbanized land area. National census authority data are presented in Australia, Canada, France, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. Census of India urban agglomerations are not used in some cases because the geographical size of constituent units (municipalities) often includes large rural (non-urban) areas.

Sources for population estimates and land area definitions are coded by letter in the Table below, respectively.

A: National census authority data agglomeration data (land area or population).
B: Demographia land area estimate based upon map or satellite photograph analysis.
C: Demographia population estimate from lower order jurisdictions, including reduction for rural areas.
D: Population estimate based upon the United Nations agglomeration estimate.
E: Demographia population estimate from national census authority data.
F: Other Demographia population estimate, such as from unofficial local reports.
L: Demographia population estimate from local authority data.
N: Combined urban area using national census authority data.
W: Population estimate based upon the World Bank Urban Area 2015 estimate.

The estimates are quite different from the list of World's largest urban agglomerations produced by the United Nations that reports inconsistently on urban geographic, despite its reference to agglomerations. This is evident, for example, in Manila, Kuala Lumpur, Jakarta, Seoul and Moscow, where the UN data are for political jurisdictions, rather than urban areas. In other cases, the UN data is for metropolitan area, which are larger than urban areas (such as in Brazil). Finally, the United Nations data is incomplete, excluding some significant urban areas (such as EssenDüsseldorf in Germany).

Urban areas are confined to a single nation, unless there is freedom of movement (including labor) between the adjacent nations. Currently, this condition is met only between some continental nations of the European Union and Switzerland (e.g. LilleKortrijk in both France and Belgium, AachenVaals in both Germany and Netherlands, SaarbrückenForbach in both Germany and France, GenevaAnnemasse in both Switzerland and France, and BaselLörrachSaint-Louis in Switzerland, Germany and France). Thus, Detroit–Windsor in both the United States and Canada, and San Diego–Tijuana in both the United States and Mexico are not treated as single urban areas. Moreover, ShenzhenHong Kong is treated as separate urban areas, principally because labor movement between the two is limited, with the former within China and the latter a special administrative region of China.

According to the report, there are 875 identified urban areas in the world with 500,000 or more population as of 2013. Demographia released along with the report include a disclaimer that this list of data is compiled on best available information, the vary nature of which is changing rapidly and quality is improving as it becomes available, yet still remains highly variable between nations, and hefty revisions are not unforeseen for the future. Appropriate caution is therefore advised.

224 urban areas with population of over two million

Urban areas (Top 100)

Urban area Demographia[1][2]
City Country Population Area
Sources of
Pop. / Area[1]
Rank Population Remarks
1 1 TokyoYokohama[4]  Japan 38,050,000 8,547 4,500 C / B 2 39,800,000 incl. Chiba, Kawasaki, Maebashi, Sagamihara, Saitama, Utsunomiya
2 2 Jakarta (Greater Jakarta)[5]  Indonesia 32,275,000 3,302 9,800 C / B 4 28,900,000 Locally known as Jabodetabek, incl. Bekasi, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, South Tangerang
3 4 Delhi (CNCR)[6]  India 27,280,000 2,202 12,400 A / B 5 27,200,000 incl. Faridabad, Ghaziabad, Gurgaon, Noida
4 6 Manila (Greater Manila Area)[7]  Philippines 24,650,000 1,787 13,600 C / B 8 24,100,000 incl. Caloocan, Quezon City
5 3 Seoul-Incheon (Seoul National Capital Area)[8]  South Korea 24,210,000 2,745 8,800 C / B 7 24,800,000 incl. Bucheon, Goyang, Seongnam, Suwon
6 5 Shanghai[9]  China 24,115,000 4,015 6,000 L / B 3 31,100,000 incl. Suzhou
7 13 Mumbai[10]  India 23,265,000 881 26,400 C / B 9 23,600,000 incl. Mumbai, Navi Mumbai, Bhiwandi-Nizampur Municipal Corporation, Kalyan-Dombivali, Thane, Ulhasnagar, Vasai-Virar
8 8 New York City[11]  United States 21,575,000 11,875 1,700 N / A 11 22,200,000 incl. Bridgeport, Newark, New Haven
9 11 Beijing[12]  China 21,250,000 4,144 5,100 L / B 13 20,700,000
10 9 São Paulo[13]  Brazil 21,100,000 3,043 6,900 C / B 12 22,100,000 incl. Guarulhos, São Bernardo do Campo, Santo André, Osasco
11 10 Mexico City (Valley of Mexico)[14]  Mexico 20,565,000 2,370 8,700 C / B 10 22,300,000 incl. Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl, Ecatepec, Naucalpan
12 12 GuangzhouFoshan (Guangfo)[15]  China 19,965,000 3,820 5,200 L / B 1 48,600,000 Northern Pearl River Delta; incl. Dongguan, Foshan, Jiangmen, Shenzhen, Zhongshan; excluding Hong Kong SAR
13 21 Dhaka[16]  Bangladesh 17,425,000 368 47,400 C / B 14 17,900,000
14 14 OsakaKobeKyoto (Keihanshin)[17]  Japan 17,165,000 3,238 5,300 C / B 15 17,800,000 incl. Himeji, Kōbe, Kyōto, Sakai
15 15 Moscow[18]  Russia 16,855,000 5,698 3,000 C / B 19 17,100,000
16 16 Greater Cairo  Egypt 16,545,000 1,917 8,600 C / B 19 17,100,000 incl. Al-Jizah, Hulwan, Shubra al-Khaymah
17 20 Bangkok  Thailand 15,975,000 3,043 5,200 C / B 18 17,400,000
18 17 Los Angeles[19]  United States 15,620,000 6,299 2,300 N / A 16 17,700,000 incl. Anaheim, Riverside
19 22 Buenos Aires[20]  Argentina 15,520,000 3,212 4,800 C / B 22 16,000,000 incl. San Justo, La Plata
20 19 Kolkata  India 15,095,000 1,347 11,200 A / B 21 16,200,000 incl. Haora
21 23 Istanbul  Turkey 13,995,000 1,360 10,300 C / B 23 14,600,000
22 22 Tehran[21]  Iran 13,945,000 1,748 8,000 C / B 25 14,000,000 incl. Karaj
23 15 Lagos  Nigeria 13,910,000 1,502 9,300 W / B 17 17,600,000
24 32 Tianjin[22]  China 13,655,000 2,771 4,900 L / B 28 11,800,000
25 7 Karachi[23]  Pakistan 13,255,000 1,036 12,800 C / B 6 25,100,000 Based on population estimates before completion of 2017 Census.
26 24 Shenzhen[15]  China 12,905,000 1,748 7,400 L / B (included in Guangzhou above)
27 31 Kinshasa[24]  Democratic Republic of the Congo 12,350,000 583 21,200 C / B 30 10,900,000
28 26 Rio de Janeiro  Brazil 11,990,000 1,917 6,300 C / B 27 12,700,000 incl. Nova Iguaçu, São Gonçalo
29 39 Chengdu  China 11,430,000 1,761 6,500 L / B 38 9,750,000 incl. Shuangliu
30 30 Lima  Peru 11,355,000 894 12,700 C / B 35 10,100,000 incl. Callao
31 42 Lahore  Pakistan 11,070,000 896 12,400 C / B 32 10,500,000
32 27 Paris  France 10,980,000 2,845 3,700 A / A 29 11,300,000
33 33 Bangalore  India 10,920,000 1,166 9,400 A / B 31 10,800,000
34 37 Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)  Vietnam 10,690,000 1,580 6,800 C / B 44 8,300,000 incl. Biên Hòa
35 29 London[25]  United Kingdom 10,585,000 1,738 5,600 A / A 24 14,500,000
36 35 Chennai  India 10,555,000 1,049 10,100 A / B 34 10,300,000
37 28 Nagoya (Chūkyō)[26]  Japan 10,105,000 3,885 2,600 C / B 32 10,500,000
38 36 Bogotá  Colombia 9,965,000 562 17,700 C / B 39 9,500,000
39 41 Hyderabad  India 9,595,000 1,230 7,800 A / B 40 9,200,000
40 34 Chicago[27]  United States 9,160,000 6,856 1,300 N / A 37 9,800,000
41 43 JohannesburgEast Rand[28]  South Africa 9,115,000 2,590 3,500 C / B 26 13,100,000 incl. Evaton, Pretoria, Soshanguve, Soweto, Vereeniging, West Rand
42 48 Chongqing[29]  China 8,875,000 6,000 1,479 L / B 54 7,200,000
43 40 Taipei-Taoyuan[30]  Taiwan 8,605,000 1,140 7,600 C / B 41 9,050,000 incl. Taoyuan, New Taipei City (Xinbei)
44 38 Dongguan[15]  China 8,340,000 1,619 5,200 L / B (Included in Guangzhou)
45 169 Hanoi  Vietnam 8,140,000 868 9,400 C / B 139 3,450,000
46 60 Shenyang[31]  China 8,095,000 1,502 5,400 C / B 47 7,800,000 incl. Fushun
47 44 Wuhan  China 7,980,000 1,528 5,200 L / B 46 8,100,000
48 47 Ahmedabad  India 7,880,000 350 22,500 A / B 49 7,650,000
49 529 Onitsha  Nigeria 7,850,000 1,965 4,000 W / B 495 1,100,000
50 49 Kuala Lumpur (Klang Valley)[32]  Malaysia 7,820,000 2,163 3,600 C / B 62 6,800,000 incl. Klang
51 64 Luanda  Angola 7,560,000 894 7,700 C / B 51 7,450,000
52 46 Hong Kong[15]  China 7,380,000 285 25,900 C / B 53 7,300,000 incl. Kowloon, Victoria; excluding New Kowloon
53 83 Boston[33]  United States 7,315,000 9,189 800 N / A 50 7,550,000 incl. Providence
54 51 Baghdad  Iraq 7,135,000 673 10,600 D / B 58 7,000,000
55 50 Hangzhou[9]  China 7,100,000 1,269 6,000 L / B 42 8,450,000 incl. Shaoxing
56 89 ZhengzhouXingyang  China 7,005,000 1,295 4,400 L / B 89 4,800,000
57 57 Quanzhou[34]  China 6,720,000 1,645 4,300 L / B (Included in Xiamen)
58 45 EssenDüsseldorf (Ruhr Area)[35]  Germany 6,665,000 2,655 2,500 C / B 72 5,700,000
59 52 TorontoHamilton  Canada 6,635,000 2,287 2,900 N / A 54 7,200,000
60 55 DallasFort Worth[36]  United States 6,600,000 5,175 1,100 N / A 63 6,750,000
61 56 San Francisco Bay Area  United States 6,540,000 2,797 2,100 N / A 48 7,700,000 incl. Concord, Oakland, San Jose, Santa Rosa
62 59 Nanjing[9]  China 6,525,000 1,489 4,400 L / B 57 7,050,000
63 54 Madrid  Spain 6,385,000 1,360 4,700 C / B 65 6,250,000
64 53 Santiago[37]  Chile 6,350,000 1,140 5,600 C / B 56 7,150,000
65 63 Houston[38]  United States 6,285,000 4,841 1,100 N / A 64 6,350,000
66 69 Riyadh  Saudi Arabia 6,220,000 1,658 3,800 C / B 60 6,900,000
67 73 Surat  India 6,200,000 233 26,600 A / B 70 5,900,000
68 58 Miami[39]  United States 6,195,000 3,209 1,700 A / A 67 6,200,000 incl. Fort Lauderdale, West Palm Beach
69 86 Suzhou[9]  China 6,175,000 1,360 4,500 C / B (Included in Shanghai)
70 67 Pune  India 6,110,000 583 10,500 A / B 65 6,250,000 incl. Pimpri-Chinchwad
71 74 Bandung  Indonesia 5,945,000 557 10,700 C / B 68 6,050,000
72 66 Singapore[40]  Singapore 5,930,000 518 11,400 A / B 59 6,950,000 incl. Johor Bahru (Malaysia)
72 85 QingdaoJimo  China 5,930,000 1,632 3,600 L / B 71 5,850,000
74 65 Xi'anXianyang[41]  China 5,905,000 1,088 5,400 L / B 61 6,850,000 incl. Xianyang
75 84 Nairobi  Kenya 5,765,000 829 7,000 C / B 78 5,350,000
76 62 Philadelphia[11]  United States 5,575,000 5,131 1,100 A / A 52 7,350,000 incl. Allentown, Trenton
77 77 Yangon (Rangoon)  Myanmar 5,550,000 596 9,300 C / B 80 5,250,000
78 70 Khartoum  Sudan 5,490,000 971 5,700 C / B 72 5,700,000
79 245 Fuzhou  China 5,400,000 1,243 4,300 L / B 118 4,025,000
80 75 Atlanta[42]  United States 5,325,000 7,296 600 N / A 75 5,600,000
81 68 Milan[43]  Italy 5,290,000 1,891 2,800 C / B 84 5,150,000
82 72 Washington, D.C.[44]  United States 5,180,000 3,424 1,300 A / A 43 8,400,000 incl. Baltimore (for population only)
83 71 Saint Petersburg[45]  Russia 5,175,000 1,347 3,800 C / B 77 5,500,000
84 79 Abidjan  Ivory Coast 5,145,000 376 13,700 W / B 82 5,200,000
85 82 Harbin[46]  China 5,115,000 609 8,400 C / B 79 5,300,000
86 329 Amman  Jordan 5,020,000 855 5,900 C / B 82 5,200,000
87 104 Dar es Salaam  Tanzania 4,980,000 596 8,400 C / B 76 5,550,000
88 79 Alexandria  Egypt 4,960,000 293 16,900 C / B 80 5,250,000
89 96 Kuwait City  Kuwait 4,860,000 712 6,800 C / B 104 4,275,000
90 87 Ankara  Turkey 4,850,000 660 7,300 C / B 91 4,750,000
91 78 Barcelona  Spain 4,840,000 1,075 4,500 C / B 95 4,650,000
92 81 Guadalajara  Mexico 4,830,000 803 6,000 C / B 85 5,050,000 incl. Zapopan
93 61 Belo Horizonte  Brazil 4,750,000 1,269 3,700 C / B 87 4,950,000
94 99 Dalian  China 4,600,000 971 4,700 C / B 96 4,600,000
95 155 Guiyang  China 4,480,000 557 8,000 C / B 173 2,950,000
96 151 Wenzhou  China 4,460,000 479 9,300 C / B 69 5,950,000
97 136 Casablanca  Morocco 4,410,000 272 16,200 C / B 108 4,225,000
98 93 Sydney  Australia 4,390,000 2,179 2,000 A / A 86 4,975,000 incl. Central Coast
99 91 Phoenix[47]  United States 4,365,000 3,225 1,200 N / A 102 4,400,000
100 359 Surabaya  Indonesia 4,325,000 907 4,800 C / B 90 4,775,000

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e "Demographia World Urban Areas, 14th Annual Edition" (PDF). April 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 May 2018.
  2. ^ a b Brinkhoff, Thomas (1 January 2017). "Major agglomerations of the World". City Population. Archived from the original on 18 January 2018.
  3. ^ Demographia (March 2013). Demographia World Urban Areas (PDF) (9th ed.). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 May 2013.
  4. ^ Includes large areas of Tokyo, Kanagawa, Chiba and Saitama prefectures and small areas of Gunma, Tochigi and Ibaraki prefectures.
  5. ^ Various international sources limit their population estimates to DKI Jakarta itself (the national capital district). However, the urbanization of Jakarta extends into the regencies of Tangerang, Bekasi, Bogor and Karawang and the separate cities of Bekasi, Depok and Bogor. Excludes urban areas of Karawang (650,000; 207 km2) and Serang (525,000; 65 km2).
  6. ^ Includes Faridabad, Ghaziabad, Noida, Gurgaon and Bahadurgarh. Excludes urban area of Meerut (1,489,000; 104 km2).
  7. ^ The population is higher than other agglomeration estimates (such as the United Nations and the Philippine Statistics Authority). The continuous urbanization of Manila extends outward into other neighbouring provinces such as Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, Rizal, Pampanga and Batangas provinces. The Demographia population estimate is a "build-up" of municipality population within the continuously developed area (urban area or agglomeration).
  8. ^ Includes satellite cities in Gyeonggi Province such as Suwon, Goyang, Seongnam, Yongin, Bucheon and Ansand which are treated as separate urban agglomerations by the United Nations. Excludes urban area of Cheonan (500,000; 57 km2) in Chungcheongnam-do.
  9. ^ a b c d Shanghai, Hangzhou, Nanjing, Suzhou, Wuxi, Ningbo, Changzhou, Shaoxing, and urban area of Zhangjiaggang-Jiangyin within the prefecture-level cities of Suzhou and Wuxi are treated as separate urban areas which constitute the Yangtze River Delta economic zone. Huai'an (1,856,000; 148 km2), Xuzhou (1,246,000; 233 km2), Nantong (1,036,000; 233 km2), Lianyungang (985,000; 155 km2), Zhenjiang (983,000; 168 km2), Yancheng (797,000; 207 km2), Huzhou (690,000; 111 km2), Taizhou (in Jiangsu Province; 300,000; 117 km2) and Suqian (220,000; 36 km2), as well as urban areas of Yangzhou (1,593,000; 233 km2) and Gaoyou (180,000; 39 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Yangzhou, urban areas of Kunshan (1,596,000; 492 km2), Changshu (1,139,000; 285 km2) and Taicang (523,000; 117 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Suzhou, urban areas of Cixi (1,200,000; 298 km2) and Yuyao (650,000; 122 km2) within the sub-provincial city of Ningbo, urban areas of Jiaxing (1,044,000; 259 km2) and Tongxiang (510,000; 52 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Jiaxing, urban areas of Wenling (510,000; 52 km2), Jiaojiang (375,000; 41 km2) and Huangyan (200,000; 34 km2) within the prefectrure-level city of Taizhou (in Zhejiang Province), urban areas of Zhuji (500,000; 117 km2) and Shangyu (400,000; 158 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Shaoxing, urban areas of Yiwu-Dongyang (925,000; 233 km2), Jinhua (520,000; 186 km2), Yongkang (500,000; 223 km2), Dongyang (260,000; 104 km2) and Lanxi (220,000; 34 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Jinhua, and urban area of Fuyang (450,000; 49 km2) within the sub-provincial city of Hangzhou are also excluded.
  10. ^ Includes Kalyan, and the Panvel urban area. As of 2016, also includes the Census of India urban areas of Bhiwandi, Kalyan, VasaiVirar beginning in 2016.
  11. ^ a b Demographia defines urban area of New York as a combination of New York–Newark, BridgeportStamford, New Haven, Trenton, Danbury and Twin Rivers urbanized areas. New York and Philadelphia (same with Philadelphia urbanized area) are treated as separate urban areas. Urban areas of Hartford (925,000; 1,336 km2), AllentownBethlehem (665,000; 896 km2), Springfield (621,000; 904 km2), Harrisburg (446,000; 673 km2), Poughkeepsie (427,000; 847 km2), Lancaster (405,000; 642 km2), Reading (284,000; 269 km2), Atlantic City (250,000; 324 km2), York (235,000; 342 km2), NorwichNew London (209,000; 394 km2), Waterbury (195,000; 233 km2) and Pottstown (108,000; 205 km2) are also excluded.
  12. ^ Excludes urban areas of Baoding (1,283,000; 220 km2), Zhangjiakou (1,322,000; 220 km2) and Chengde (108,000; 23 km2).
  13. ^ Includes Francisco Morato. Excludes urban area of Santos (1,716,000; 207 km2).
  14. ^ Excludes urban areas of Toluca (1,747,000; 220 km2) and Cuernavaca (675,000; 171 km2).
  15. ^ a b c d Hong Kong in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Shenzhen are treated as separate urban areas because of the lack of freedom of labor movement without trade, immigration or customs barriers. Guangzhou–Foshan, Shenzhen, Dongguan and Zhongshan are also treated as separate urban areas which constitute the Pearl River Delta economic zone. While Guangzhou and Foshan are combined into a single urban area because they have become more economically integrated than the other urban areas, other areas in the Pearl River Delta economic region remain classified as separate urban areas. Thus, urban areas of Huizhou (1,387,000; 168 km2), Zhuhai (1,274,000; 246 km2) and Zhaoqing (500,000; 65 km2) as well as urban areas of Jiangmen (920,000; 259 km2) and Taishan (204,000; 44 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Jiangmen, urban area of Lishui (300,000; 44 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Foshan and urban are of Macau (560,000; 21 km2) in the Macau Special Administrative Region are excluded. Urban area of Guangzhou–Foshan includes Shunde within the prefecture-level city of Foshan, which has been excluded in the 2011 edition. Urban area of Shenzhen includes Huiyang within the prefecture-level city of Huizhou, which has been excluded in the 2010 edition. Urban area of Huizhou includes only Huicheng District. The Demographia estimate for Dongguan is lower than last year, because local estimates previously used were higher than reported in the 2010 census.
  16. ^ Includes urban area of Narayanganj which has been excluded in the 2011 edition.
  17. ^ Includes Nara and Himeji. United Nations estimates separate Osaka–Kobe and Kyoto and exclude both Nara and Himeji. Excludes urban area of Ōtsu (775,000; 303 km2) and Wakayama (430,000; 91 km2).
  18. ^ The population estimate is suspect, due to the lack of readily available data for local areas outside the city jurisdiction (Moscow Oblast). Demographia is indebted to Richard Forstall, who has provided local authority area population data for portions of Moscow Oblast within the Moscow urban areas. Other estimates (such as the United Nations estimate) include only the municipality of Moscow, which includes only part of the urban footprint. Includes ElektrostalNoginsk within Moscow Oblast, which has been excluded in the 2011 edition.
  19. ^ Combination of Los Angeles–Long BeachSanta Ana, RiversideSan Bernardino and Mission Viejo urbanized areas. Excludes urban areas of TemeculaMurrieta (472,000; 420 km2), IndioPalm Springs (370,000; 373 km2), Oxnard (369,000; 218 km2), LancasterPalmdale (358,000; 300 km2), VictorvilleHesperiaApple Valley (350,000; 433 km2), Santa Clarita (272,000; 199 km2), Thousand Oaks (216,000; 223 km2), Santa Barbara (196,000; 145 km2), Hemet (163,000; 127 km2) and Simi Valley (126,000; 80 km2).
  20. ^ Excludes urban area of La Plata (675,000; 228 km2) which has been included in the 2007 edition.
  21. ^ Includes Eslamshahr and Karaj which has been excluded in the 2012 edition.
  22. ^ Tianjin and Tangshan are treated as separate urban areas. Urban areas of Cangzhou (500,000; 130 km2) and Langfang (465,000; 130 km2) as well as urban area of Qian'an (400,000; 168 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Tangshan are also excluded. The population of the urban area of Tianjin is lower than other estimates (such as the United Nations), which include metropolitan area population not within the continuously developed urban area. The Demographia population estimate is a "build-up" of sub-municipality population within the continuously developed area (urban area or agglomeration).
  23. ^ The population is lower than other estimates (such as the United Nations), which include metropolitan area population not within the continuously developed urban area.
  24. ^ Excludes urban area of Brazzaville (1,685,000; 181 km2) in the Republic of the Congo.
  25. ^ Greater London urban area. Excludes urban areas of Reading (318,000; 84 km2), Southend-on-Sea (295,000; 72 km2), Aldershot (252,000; 79 km2), Luton (258,000; 51 km2), Medway (244,000; 52 km2), Crawley (181,000; 58 km2), Slough (164,000; 34 km2), Basildon (145,000; 37 km2), High Wycombe (133,000; 39 km2), Chelmsford (112,000; 26 km2) and Maidstone (108,000; 25 km2).
  26. ^ Includes Toyohashi.
  27. ^ Combination of Chicago, Kenosha and Round Lake BeachMcHenryGrayslake urbanized areas. Excludes urban areas of Milwaukee (1,388,000; 1,414 km2), Rockford (301,000; 396 km2), South Bend (278,000; 417 km2), Elkhart (144,000; 238 km2) and Racine (134,000; 127 km).
  28. ^ Johannesburg–East Rand and Pretoria are treated as separate urban areas which constitute the Vaal Triangle. Urban area of Vereeninging (Emfuleni) (650,000; 337 km2) is also excluded.
  29. ^ Excludes urban area of Wanzhou (Wanxian) (500,000; 41 km2) within the municipality of Chongqing. The direct-controlled municipality of Chongqing, which is sometimes translated as the direct-controlled city of Chongqing, has the largest population of any organism called a city in the stretches far beyond any reasonable definition of a metropolitan area.
  30. ^ The population is higher than other estimates (such as the United Nations), which do not include all population within the continuously developed urban area (especially in New Taipei City). Includes Taoyuan and Jhongli (Chungli) which have been excluded in the 2010 edition. Excludes urban area of Hsinchu (650,000; 117 km2).
  31. ^ Excludes urban areas of Fushun (1,412,000; 130 km2) and Tieling (325,000; 65 km2).
  32. ^ The population is higher than other agglomeration estimates (such as the United Nations), which does not include all of the continuously developed urban area in the state of Selangor. Continuous urbanization extends well beyond the municipality of Kuala Lumpur, for example to Port Klang and the area represents a single labor market (metropolitan area). The Demographia population estimate is a "build-up" of municipality population within the continuously developed area (urban area or agglomeration). Excludes urban area of Seremban (500,000; 155 km2).
  33. ^ Combination of Boston, Nashua, Providence (1,187,000; 1,412 km2), Worcester (489,000; 787 km2), Barnstable (247,000; 717 km2), Manchester (159,000; 223 km2), New Bedford (149,000; 142 km2) and LeominsterFitchburg (117,000; 168 km2).
  34. ^ Includes Shishi and Jinjiang within the prefecture-level city of Quanzhou.
  35. ^ Essen–Düsseldorf and Cologne–Bonn are treated as separate urban areas which constitute the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area. Excludes urban area of AachenVaals (585,000; 401 km2) in both Germany and the Netherlands.
  36. ^ Combination of Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington, DentonLewisville and McKinney urbanized areas.
  37. ^ Excludes urban area of ValparaísoViña del Mar (875,000; 161 km2).
  38. ^ Combination of Houston and Conroe urbanized areas. Excludes urban area of Texas City (106,000; 197 km2).
  39. ^ Miami urbanized area. Includes former urban areas of Fort Lauderdale and West Palm Beach, which were combined by the US Census Bureau into Miami in 2000.
  40. ^ Excludes urban area of Johor Bahru (1,640,000; 712 km2) in Malaysia and urban area of Batam (900,000; 218 km2) in Indonesia.
  41. ^ Includes Xianyang which has been excluded in the 2010 edition.
  42. ^ Atlanta urbanized area. Excludes urban areas of Gainesville (131,000; 326 km2) and Athens (129,000; 254 km2).
  43. ^ The population is higher than other agglomeration estimates (such as the United Nations), which does not include all of the continuously developed urban area, which stretches into Como, Lecco and Varese provinces. Excludes Bergamo which has been included in the 2007 edition (4,950,000; 3,043 km2 in total).
  44. ^ The US Census Bureau combines Washington and Baltimore into a single metropolitan area (consolidated area) but Demographia considers the two (same with Washington, DC and Baltimore urbanized areas) as separate urban areas. Urban areas of AberdeenHavre de Grace (214,000; 339 km2), Hagerstown (183,000; 344 km2), Frederick (142,000; 189 km2), Fredericksburg (141,000; 202 km2) and Waldorf (110,000; 176 km2) are also excluded.
  45. ^ Includes communities under the authority of the Town Council.
  46. ^ Excludes urban areas of Acheng (300,000; 39 km2) and Shangzhi (250,000; 18 km2) within the sub-provincial city of Harbin.
  47. ^ Combination of Phoenix–Mesa, Avondale and Sierra Vista urbanized area.
As of this edit, this article uses content from "City Population Statistics", which is licensed in a way that permits reuse under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, but not under the GFDL. All relevant terms must be followed.

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City proper

A city proper is the area contained within city limits. A city proper is not limited to a city; it can describe the complete area of any locality that fits the definition. The United Nations defines the term as "the single political jurisdiction which contains the historical city centre."City proper is one of the three basic concepts used to define urban areas and populations. The other two are urban agglomeration, and the metropolitan area. In some countries, city limits that act as the demarcation for the city proper are drawn very wide, in some very narrow. This can be cause for recurring controversy.

East Africa

East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography. In the United Nations Statistics Division scheme of geographic regions, 20 territories make up Eastern Africa:

Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and South Sudan are members of the East African Community (EAC). The first five are also included in the African Great Lakes region. Burundi and Rwanda are at times also considered to be part of Central Africa.

Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia – collectively known as the Horn of Africa. The area is the easternmost projection of the African continent, and is sometimes considered a separate region from East Africa.

Comoros, Mauritius and Seychelles – small island nations in the Indian Ocean.

Réunion and Mayotte – French overseas territories also in the Indian Ocean.

Mozambique and Madagascar – often considered part of Southern Africa, on the eastern side of the sub-continent. Madagascar has close cultural ties to Southeast Asia and the islands of the Indian Ocean.

Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe – often also included in Southern Africa, and formerly constituted the Central African Federation (also known historically as the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland).

Sudan and South Sudan (newly independent from Sudan) – collectively part of the Nile Valley. Situated in the northeastern portion of the continent, the Sudans are often included in Northern Africa. Also members of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) free trade area.Due to colonial territories of the British East Africa Protectorate and German East Africa, the term East Africa is often (especially in the English language) used to specifically refer to the area now comprising the three countries of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. However, this has never been the convention in many other languages, where the term generally had a wider, strictly geographic context and therefore typically included Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia.


Lahore (; Punjabi: لہور; Urdu: لاہور‎) is a city in the Pakistani province of Punjab. Lahore is the country's second-most populous city after Karachi, and is one of Pakistan's wealthiest cities with an estimated GDP of $58.14 billion (PPP) as of 2015. Lahore is the largest city, and historic cultural centre of the Punjab region, and one of Pakistan's most socially liberal, progressive, and cosmopolitan cities.Lahore's origins reach into antiquity. The city has been controlled by numerous empires throughout the course of its history, including the Hindu Shahis, Ghaznavids, Ghurids, and Delhi Sultanate by the medieval era. Lahore reached the height of its splendour under the Mughal Empire between the late 16th and early 18th century, and served as its capital city for a number of years. The city was captured by the forces of the Afsharid ruler Nader Shah in 1739, and fell into a period of decay while being contested between the Afghans and the Sikhs. Lahore eventually became capital of the Sikh Empire in the early 19th century, and regained much of its lost grandeur. Lahore was then annexed to the British Empire, and made capital of British Punjab. Lahore was central to the independence movements of both India and Pakistan, with the city being the site of both the declaration of Indian Independence, and the resolution calling for the establishment of Pakistan. Lahore experienced some of the worst rioting during the Partition period preceding Pakistan's independence. Following independence in 1947, Lahore was declared capital of Pakistan's Punjab province.

Lahore exerts a strong cultural influence over Pakistan. Lahore is a major center for Pakistan's publishing industry, and remains the foremost center of Pakistan's literary scene. The city is also a major centre of education in Pakistan, with some of Pakistan's leading universities based in the city. Lahore is also home to Pakistan's film industry, Lollywood, and is a major centre of Qawwali music. The city also hosts much of Pakistan's tourist industry, with major attractions including the Walled City, the famous Badshahi and Wazir Khan mosques and Sikh shrines. Lahore is also home to the Lahore Fort and Shalimar Gardens, both of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

List of cities proper by population

A city proper is a locality defined according to legal or political boundaries and an administratively recognised urban status that is usually characterised by some form of local government. In some cases, cities proper may not include suburbs or even parts of the urban core whereas in other cases the boundaries may include non-contiguous urban settlements or even rural areas.World Urbanization Prospects, a UN publication, defines population of a city proper as "the population living within the administrative boundaries of a city or controlled directly from the city by a single authority." The book continues to say that "city proper as defined by administrative boundaries may not include suburban areas where an important proportion of the population working or studying in the city lives." The UN also employs two alternative definitions of cities that use arbitrarily defined boundaries (urban area and metropolitan area) since no single definition for a city can be applied to compare every settlement. Using the administrative definition, many cities will be included on this list that are smaller than their urban area. However, many Chinese cities included govern territories that extend well beyond the traditional "city proper" into suburban and rural areas.

List of largest cities

Determining the world's largest cities depends on which definitions of city are used, as well as the criteria used for size: this article focusses on population. The United Nations uses three definitions for what constitutes a city, as not all cities may be classified using the same criteria. Cities may be defined as the cities proper, the extent of their urban area, or their metropolitan regions.For a view of the largest cities by economic stature and integration within the global economy, see Globalization and World Cities Research Network.

List of metropolitan areas by population

One concept which measures the world's largest cities is that of the metropolitan area, which is based on the concept of a labor market area and is typically defined as an employment core (an area with a high density of available jobs) and the surrounding areas that have strong commuting ties to the core. There is currently no generally accepted, globally consistent definition of exactly what constitutes a metropolitan area, thus making comparisons between cities in different countries especially difficult. However, for consistency, the sources on this article include official figures from governments only.

As an alternative to the metropolitan area, Eurostat introduced the concept of the Larger Urban Zone in 2004. Similarly, OECD defines Functional Urban Areas for cities in OECD countries. Both Larger Urban Zone and Functional Urban Area define a city as an urban core surrounded by a commuting zone, and so are similar to the general concept of the "metropolitan area". Eurostat only computes Larger Urban Zone populations for European Union member states, candidate members, and European Free Trade Area members. OECD computes Functional Urban Area populations for OECD member states. These two statistics are therefore not available for most developing countries.

List of metropolitan areas in the Philippines

The Philippines has three metropolitan areas as defined by the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA).Metro Manila is the largest conurbation or urban agglomeration in the country, and its official metropolitan area is composed of the city of Manila plus 15 neighboring cities and the municipality of Pateros. Metro Cebu, located in the Visayas, is the Philippines' second largest urban area, while Metro Davao, which is located in Mindanao, is the country's third largest metropolitan area.

The official definition of each area does not necessarily follow the actual extent of continuous urbanization. For example, the built-up area of Metro Manila has long spilled out of its officially defined borders into the adjacent provinces of Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, and Cavite.The number of metropolitan areas in the Philippines was reduced from 12 in 2007 to the current three based from the 2017-2022 Philippine Development Plan by NEDA. The other nine metropolitan areas were Metro Angeles, Metro Bacolod, Metro Baguio, Metro Batangas, Metro Cagayan de Oro, Metro Dagupan, Metro Iloilo–Guimaras, Metro Naga, and Metro Olongapo.

List of urban areas in the European Union

This is a list of urban areas in the European Union with over 500,000 inhabitants as of 2014. The data comes from Demographia and the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Demographia provides figures for urban areas (including conurbations), while the UN DESA figures are for agglomerations only. For comparison, Function Urban Area (FUA) population figures by Eurostat are also provided, however, these measure the wider metropolitan areas.


A megacity is a very large city metropolitan area, typically with a population of more than 10 million people. Precise definitions vary: the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs in its 2014 "World Urbanization Prospects" report counted urban agglomerations having over 10 million inhabitants. A University of Bonn report held that they are "usually defined as metropolitan areas with a total population of 10 million or more people". Others list cities satisfying criteria of either 5 or 8 million and also have a population density of 2,000 per square kilometre. A megacity can be a single metropolitan area or two or more metropolitan areas that converge due to close proximity. The terms conurbation, metropolis, and metroplex are also applied to the latter.As of 2017, there are 47 megacities in existence. Most of these urban agglomerations are in China and other countries of Asia. The largest are the metropolitan areas of Tokyo, Shanghai, and Jakarta, each having over 30 million inhabitants. China alone has 15 megacities, and India has six. Other countries with multiple megacities include the United States, Brazil and Pakistan, each with two. African megacities are also present in Nigeria, Egypt and the DRC.

Megalopolises in China

In China, a city cluster (城市群) is an officially defined type of megalopolis, whereby government policy is to knit the area together more tightly and promote development through transportation and communication links. The policy began in 2005 with the province of Hunan promoting Chang-Zhu-Tan city cluster (长株潭城市群) as the example. The Economist Intelligence Unit in 2012 identified 13 megalopolises: Chang-Zhu-Tan (Greater Changsha), Chengdu, Chongqing, Greater Beijing i.e. Jingjinji, Greater Shanghai (incl. Suzhou), Greater Xi'an, Greater Zhengzhou, Greater Guangzhou, Hefei economic circle (incl. Lu'an, Huainan, Chaohu), Shandong peninsula, Greater Shenyang, Shenzhen and Wuhan. Up to 2018, there are nine officially approved megalopolises in China. In 2017, the National Development and Reform Commission stated that plans for six city clusters had been completed in 2016, five in 2017, with eight more forthcoming for a total of 19 city cluster plans by 2020. The new city clusters identified in 2017 were Lanzhou-Xining, Hohhot-Baotou-Ordos-Yulin, Guanzhong Plain, Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone, and the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area.

Population (disambiguation)

Population may refer to:

Population, a summation of all the organisms of the same group or species, who live in the same geographical area.

Statistical population, which is a set of similar items or events which is of interest for some question or experiment.

Population genetics, the study of the distributions and changes of allele frequency in a population.

Metallicity, star populations.


Tokyo (東京, Tōkyō, English: , Japanese: [toːkʲoː] (listen); lit. "Eastern Capital"), officially Tokyo Metropolis (東京都, Tōkyō-to), one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world. The urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island, Honshu, and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was formerly named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603. It became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868; at that time Edo was renamed Tokyo. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture (東京府, Tōkyō-fu) and the city of Tokyo (東京市, Tōkyō-shi). Tokyo is often referred to as a city but is officially known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo.

The 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were formerly Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, and the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo. The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy. As of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third (twice) in the International Financial Centres Development Index. The city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System.

Tokyo ranks first in the Global Economic Power Index and third in the Global Cities Index. The GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category (the city also ranked first in the following categories: "helpfulness of locals", "nightlife", "shopping", "local public transportation" and "cleanliness of streets"). As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm. and also the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey. In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index. The QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018.

Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, and the 1993 G-7 summit, and will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics.

Urban area

An urban area or urban agglomeration is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as cities, towns, conurbations or suburbs. In urbanism, the term contrasts to rural areas such as villages and hamlets and in urban sociology or urban anthropology it contrasts with natural environment. The creation of early predecessors of urban areas during the urban revolution led to the creation of human civilization with modern urban planning, which along with other human activities such as exploitation of natural resources leads to human impact on the environment.

The world's urban population in 1950 of just 746 million has increased to 3.9 billion in the decades since. In 2009, the number of people living in urban areas (3.42 billion) surpassed the number living in rural areas (3.41 billion) and since then the world has become more urban than rural. This was the first time that the majority of the world's population lived in a city. In 2014 there were 7.2 billion people living on the planet, of which the global urban population comprised 3.9 billion. The Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs at that time predicted the urban population would grow to 6.4 billion by 2050, with 37% of that growth to come from three countries: China, India and Nigeria.Urban areas are created and further developed by the process of urbanization. Urban areas are measured for various purposes, including analyzing population density and urban sprawl.

Unlike an urban area, a metropolitan area includes not only the urban area, but also satellite cities plus intervening rural land that is socio-economically connected to the urban core city, typically by employment ties through commuting, with the urban core city being the primary labor market.

World population

In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.6 billion people as of May 2018. It took over 200,000 years of human history for the world's population to reach 1 billion; and only 200 years more to reach 7 billion.World population has experienced continuous growth since the end of the Great Famine of 1315–1317 and the Black Death in 1350, when it was near 370 million.

The highest population growth rates – global population increases above 1.8% per year – occurred between 1955 and 1975, peaking to 2.06% between 1965 and 1970. The growth rate has declined to 1.18% between 2010 and 2015 and is projected to decline further in the course of the 21st century. However, the global population is still growing and is projected to reach about 10 billion in 2050 and more than 11 billion in 2100.

Total annual births were highest in the late 1980s at about 139 million, and as of 2011 were expected to remain essentially constant at a level of 135 million, while deaths numbered 56 million per year and were expected to increase to 80 million per year by 2040.

The median age of the world's population was estimated to be 30.4 years in 2018.

World's fifty most-populous urban areas
City proper
Metropolitan area
Aggregate urban area
Urban agglomeration
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