This is a list of contiguous urban areas of the world ranked according to population. Figures have been taken from two sources: Demographia's "World Urban Areas" study, and from citypopulation.de, created by Thomas Brinkhoff of the Institut für Angewandte Photogrammetrie und Geoinformatik.
Demographia defines an urban area (urbanized area agglomeration or urban centre) as a continuously built up land mass of urban development that is within a labor market (i.e. metropolitan area or metropolitan region), without regard for administrative boundaries (i.e. municipality, city or commune). Except in Australia, the authorities use a minimum urban density definition of 400 persons per square kilometer (or the nearly identical 1,000 per square mile in the United States). Demographia uses maps and satellite photographs to estimate continuous urbanization. Demographia also uses small area population data, where available, to match population estimates to urbanized land area. National census authority data are presented in Australia, Canada, France, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. Census of India urban agglomerations are not used in some cases because the geographical size of constituent units (municipalities) often includes large rural (non-urban) areas.
Sources for population estimates and land area definitions are coded by letter in the Table below, respectively.
The estimates are quite different from the list of World's largest urban agglomerations produced by the United Nations that reports inconsistently on urban geographic, despite its reference to agglomerations. This is evident, for example, in Manila, Kuala Lumpur, Jakarta, Seoul and Moscow, where the UN data are for political jurisdictions, rather than urban areas. In other cases, the UN data is for metropolitan area, which are larger than urban areas (such as in Brazil). Finally, the United Nations data is incomplete, excluding some significant urban areas (such as Essen–Düsseldorf in Germany).
Urban areas are confined to a single nation, unless there is freedom of movement (including labor) between the adjacent nations. Currently, this condition is met only between some continental nations of the European Union and Switzerland (e.g. Lille–Kortrijk in both France and Belgium, Aachen–Vaals in both Germany and Netherlands, Saarbrücken–Forbach in both Germany and France, Geneva–Annemasse in both Switzerland and France, and Basel–Lörrach–Saint-Louis in Switzerland, Germany and France). Thus, Detroit–Windsor in both the United States and Canada, and San Diego–Tijuana in both the United States and Mexico are not treated as single urban areas. Moreover, Shenzhen–Hong Kong is treated as separate urban areas, principally because labor movement between the two is limited, with the former within China and the latter a special administrative region of China.
According to the report, there are 875 identified urban areas in the world with 500,000 or more population as of 2013. Demographia released along with the report include a disclaimer that this list of data is compiled on best available information, the vary nature of which is changing rapidly and quality is improving as it becomes available, yet still remains highly variable between nations, and hefty revisions are not unforeseen for the future. Appropriate caution is therefore advised.
Pop. / Area
|1||1||Tokyo–Yokohama||Japan||38,050,000||8,547||4,500||C / B||2||39,800,000||incl. Chiba, Kawasaki, Maebashi, Sagamihara, Saitama, Utsunomiya|
|2||2||Jakarta (Greater Jakarta)||Indonesia||32,275,000||3,302||9,800||C / B||4||28,900,000||Locally known as Jabodetabek, incl. Bekasi, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, South Tangerang|
|3||4||Delhi (CNCR)||India||27,280,000||2,202||12,400||A / B||5||27,200,000||incl. Faridabad, Ghaziabad, Gurgaon, Noida|
|4||6||Manila (Greater Manila Area)||Philippines||24,650,000||1,787||13,600||C / B||8||24,100,000||incl. Caloocan, Quezon City|
|5||3||Seoul-Incheon (Seoul National Capital Area)||South Korea||24,210,000||2,745||8,800||C / B||7||24,800,000||incl. Bucheon, Goyang, Seongnam, Suwon|
|6||5||Shanghai||China||24,115,000||4,015||6,000||L / B||3||31,100,000||incl. Suzhou|
|7||13||Mumbai||India||23,265,000||881||26,400||C / B||9||23,600,000||incl. Mumbai, Navi Mumbai, Bhiwandi-Nizampur Municipal Corporation, Kalyan-Dombivali, Thane, Ulhasnagar, Vasai-Virar|
|8||8||New York City||United States||21,575,000||11,875||1,700||N / A||11||22,200,000||incl. Bridgeport, Newark, New Haven|
|9||11||Beijing||China||21,250,000||4,144||5,100||L / B||13||20,700,000|
|10||9||São Paulo||Brazil||21,100,000||3,043||6,900||C / B||12||22,100,000||incl. Guarulhos, São Bernardo do Campo, Santo André, Osasco|
|11||10||Mexico City (Valley of Mexico)||Mexico||20,565,000||2,370||8,700||C / B||10||22,300,000||incl. Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl, Ecatepec, Naucalpan|
|12||12||Guangzhou–Foshan (Guangfo)||China||19,965,000||3,820||5,200||L / B||1||48,600,000||Northern Pearl River Delta; incl. Dongguan, Foshan, Jiangmen, Shenzhen, Zhongshan; excluding Hong Kong SAR|
|13||21||Dhaka||Bangladesh||17,425,000||368||47,400||C / B||14||17,900,000|
|14||14||Osaka–Kobe–Kyoto (Keihanshin)||Japan||17,165,000||3,238||5,300||C / B||15||17,800,000||incl. Himeji, Kōbe, Kyōto, Sakai|
|15||15||Moscow||Russia||16,855,000||5,698||3,000||C / B||19||17,100,000|
|16||16||Greater Cairo||Egypt||16,545,000||1,917||8,600||C / B||19||17,100,000||incl. Al-Jizah, Hulwan, Shubra al-Khaymah|
|17||20||Bangkok||Thailand||15,975,000||3,043||5,200||C / B||18||17,400,000|
|18||17||Los Angeles||United States||15,620,000||6,299||2,300||N / A||16||17,700,000||incl. Anaheim, Riverside|
|19||22||Buenos Aires||Argentina||15,520,000||3,212||4,800||C / B||22||16,000,000||incl. San Justo, La Plata|
|20||19||Kolkata||India||15,095,000||1,347||11,200||A / B||21||16,200,000||incl. Haora|
|21||23||Istanbul||Turkey||13,995,000||1,360||10,300||C / B||23||14,600,000|
|22||22||Tehran||Iran||13,945,000||1,748||8,000||C / B||25||14,000,000||incl. Karaj|
|23||15||Lagos||Nigeria||13,910,000||1,502||9,300||W / B||17||17,600,000|
|24||32||Tianjin||China||13,655,000||2,771||4,900||L / B||28||11,800,000|
|25||7||Karachi||Pakistan||13,255,000||1,036||12,800||C / B||6||25,100,000||Based on population estimates before completion of 2017 Census.|
|26||24||Shenzhen||China||12,905,000||1,748||7,400||L / B||(included in Guangzhou above)|
|27||31||Kinshasa||Democratic Republic of the Congo||12,350,000||583||21,200||C / B||30||10,900,000|
|28||26||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||11,990,000||1,917||6,300||C / B||27||12,700,000||incl. Nova Iguaçu, São Gonçalo|
|29||39||Chengdu||China||11,430,000||1,761||6,500||L / B||38||9,750,000||incl. Shuangliu|
|30||30||Lima||Peru||11,355,000||894||12,700||C / B||35||10,100,000||incl. Callao|
|31||42||Lahore||Pakistan||11,070,000||896||12,400||C / B||32||10,500,000|
|32||27||Paris||France||10,980,000||2,845||3,700||A / A||29||11,300,000|
|33||33||Bangalore||India||10,920,000||1,166||9,400||A / B||31||10,800,000|
|34||37||Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)||Vietnam||10,690,000||1,580||6,800||C / B||44||8,300,000||incl. Biên Hòa|
|35||29||London||United Kingdom||10,585,000||1,738||5,600||A / A||24||14,500,000|
|36||35||Chennai||India||10,555,000||1,049||10,100||A / B||34||10,300,000|
|37||28||Nagoya (Chūkyō)||Japan||10,105,000||3,885||2,600||C / B||32||10,500,000|
|38||36||Bogotá||Colombia||9,965,000||562||17,700||C / B||39||9,500,000|
|39||41||Hyderabad||India||9,595,000||1,230||7,800||A / B||40||9,200,000|
|40||34||Chicago||United States||9,160,000||6,856||1,300||N / A||37||9,800,000|
|41||43||Johannesburg–East Rand||South Africa||9,115,000||2,590||3,500||C / B||26||13,100,000||incl. Evaton, Pretoria, Soshanguve, Soweto, Vereeniging, West Rand|
|42||48||Chongqing||China||8,875,000||6,000||1,479||L / B||54||7,200,000|
|43||40||Taipei-Taoyuan||Taiwan||8,605,000||1,140||7,600||C / B||41||9,050,000||incl. Taoyuan, New Taipei City (Xinbei)|
|44||38||Dongguan||China||8,340,000||1,619||5,200||L / B||(Included in Guangzhou)|
|45||169||Hanoi||Vietnam||8,140,000||868||9,400||C / B||139||3,450,000|
|46||60||Shenyang||China||8,095,000||1,502||5,400||C / B||47||7,800,000||incl. Fushun|
|47||44||Wuhan||China||7,980,000||1,528||5,200||L / B||46||8,100,000|
|48||47||Ahmedabad||India||7,880,000||350||22,500||A / B||49||7,650,000|
|49||529||Onitsha||Nigeria||7,850,000||1,965||4,000||W / B||495||1,100,000|
|50||49||Kuala Lumpur (Klang Valley)||Malaysia||7,820,000||2,163||3,600||C / B||62||6,800,000||incl. Klang|
|51||64||Luanda||Angola||7,560,000||894||7,700||C / B||51||7,450,000|
|52||46||Hong Kong||China||7,380,000||285||25,900||C / B||53||7,300,000||incl. Kowloon, Victoria; excluding New Kowloon|
|53||83||Boston||United States||7,315,000||9,189||800||N / A||50||7,550,000||incl. Providence|
|54||51||Baghdad||Iraq||7,135,000||673||10,600||D / B||58||7,000,000|
|55||50||Hangzhou||China||7,100,000||1,269||6,000||L / B||42||8,450,000||incl. Shaoxing|
|56||89||Zhengzhou–Xingyang||China||7,005,000||1,295||4,400||L / B||89||4,800,000|
|57||57||Quanzhou||China||6,720,000||1,645||4,300||L / B||(Included in Xiamen)|
|58||45||Essen–Düsseldorf (Ruhr Area)||Germany||6,665,000||2,655||2,500||C / B||72||5,700,000|
|59||52||Toronto–Hamilton||Canada||6,635,000||2,287||2,900||N / A||54||7,200,000|
|60||55||Dallas–Fort Worth||United States||6,600,000||5,175||1,100||N / A||63||6,750,000|
|61||56||San Francisco Bay Area||United States||6,540,000||2,797||2,100||N / A||48||7,700,000||incl. Concord, Oakland, San Jose, Santa Rosa|
|62||59||Nanjing||China||6,525,000||1,489||4,400||L / B||57||7,050,000|
|63||54||Madrid||Spain||6,385,000||1,360||4,700||C / B||65||6,250,000|
|64||53||Santiago||Chile||6,350,000||1,140||5,600||C / B||56||7,150,000|
|65||63||Houston||United States||6,285,000||4,841||1,100||N / A||64||6,350,000|
|66||69||Riyadh||Saudi Arabia||6,220,000||1,658||3,800||C / B||60||6,900,000|
|67||73||Surat||India||6,200,000||233||26,600||A / B||70||5,900,000|
|68||58||Miami||United States||6,195,000||3,209||1,700||A / A||67||6,200,000||incl. Fort Lauderdale, West Palm Beach|
|69||86||Suzhou||China||6,175,000||1,360||4,500||C / B||(Included in Shanghai)|
|70||67||Pune||India||6,110,000||583||10,500||A / B||65||6,250,000||incl. Pimpri-Chinchwad|
|71||74||Bandung||Indonesia||5,945,000||557||10,700||C / B||68||6,050,000|
|72||66||Singapore||Singapore||5,930,000||518||11,400||A / B||59||6,950,000||incl. Johor Bahru (Malaysia)|
|72||85||Qingdao–Jimo||China||5,930,000||1,632||3,600||L / B||71||5,850,000|
|74||65||Xi'an–Xianyang||China||5,905,000||1,088||5,400||L / B||61||6,850,000||incl. Xianyang|
|75||84||Nairobi||Kenya||5,765,000||829||7,000||C / B||78||5,350,000|
|76||62||Philadelphia||United States||5,575,000||5,131||1,100||A / A||52||7,350,000||incl. Allentown, Trenton|
|77||77||Yangon (Rangoon)||Myanmar||5,550,000||596||9,300||C / B||80||5,250,000|
|78||70||Khartoum||Sudan||5,490,000||971||5,700||C / B||72||5,700,000|
|79||245||Fuzhou||China||5,400,000||1,243||4,300||L / B||118||4,025,000|
|80||75||Atlanta||United States||5,325,000||7,296||600||N / A||75||5,600,000|
|81||68||Milan||Italy||5,290,000||1,891||2,800||C / B||84||5,150,000|
|82||72||Washington, D.C.||United States||5,180,000||3,424||1,300||A / A||43||8,400,000||incl. Baltimore (for demographia.com population only)|
|83||71||Saint Petersburg||Russia||5,175,000||1,347||3,800||C / B||77||5,500,000|
|84||79||Abidjan||Ivory Coast||5,145,000||376||13,700||W / B||82||5,200,000|
|85||82||Harbin||China||5,115,000||609||8,400||C / B||79||5,300,000|
|86||329||Amman||Jordan||5,020,000||855||5,900||C / B||82||5,200,000|
|87||104||Dar es Salaam||Tanzania||4,980,000||596||8,400||C / B||76||5,550,000|
|88||79||Alexandria||Egypt||4,960,000||293||16,900||C / B||80||5,250,000|
|89||96||Kuwait City||Kuwait||4,860,000||712||6,800||C / B||104||4,275,000|
|90||87||Ankara||Turkey||4,850,000||660||7,300||C / B||91||4,750,000|
|91||78||Barcelona||Spain||4,840,000||1,075||4,500||C / B||95||4,650,000|
|92||81||Guadalajara||Mexico||4,830,000||803||6,000||C / B||85||5,050,000||incl. Zapopan|
|93||61||Belo Horizonte||Brazil||4,750,000||1,269||3,700||C / B||87||4,950,000|
|94||99||Dalian||China||4,600,000||971||4,700||C / B||96||4,600,000|
|95||155||Guiyang||China||4,480,000||557||8,000||C / B||173||2,950,000|
|96||151||Wenzhou||China||4,460,000||479||9,300||C / B||69||5,950,000|
|97||136||Casablanca||Morocco||4,410,000||272||16,200||C / B||108||4,225,000|
|98||93||Sydney||Australia||4,390,000||2,179||2,000||A / A||86||4,975,000||incl. Central Coast|
|99||91||Phoenix||United States||4,365,000||3,225||1,200||N / A||102||4,400,000|
|100||359||Surabaya||Indonesia||4,325,000||907||4,800||C / B||90||4,775,000|
A city proper is the area contained within city limits. A city proper is not limited to a city; it can describe the complete area of any locality that fits the definition. The United Nations defines the term as "the single political jurisdiction which contains the historical city centre."City proper is one of the three basic concepts used to define urban areas and populations. The other two are urban agglomeration, and the metropolitan area. In some countries, city limits that act as the demarcation for the city proper are drawn very wide, in some very narrow. This can be cause for recurring controversy.East Africa
East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography. In the United Nations Statistics Division scheme of geographic regions, 20 territories make up Eastern Africa:
Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and South Sudan are members of the East African Community (EAC). The first five are also included in the African Great Lakes region. Burundi and Rwanda are at times also considered to be part of Central Africa.
Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia – collectively known as the Horn of Africa. The area is the easternmost projection of the African continent, and is sometimes considered a separate region from East Africa.
Comoros, Mauritius and Seychelles – small island nations in the Indian Ocean.
Réunion and Mayotte – French overseas territories also in the Indian Ocean.
Mozambique and Madagascar – often considered part of Southern Africa, on the eastern side of the sub-continent. Madagascar has close cultural ties to Southeast Asia and the islands of the Indian Ocean.
Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe – often also included in Southern Africa, and formerly constituted the Central African Federation (also known historically as the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland).
Sudan and South Sudan (newly independent from Sudan) – collectively part of the Nile Valley. Situated in the northeastern portion of the continent, the Sudans are often included in Northern Africa. Also members of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) free trade area.Due to colonial territories of the British East Africa Protectorate and German East Africa, the term East Africa is often (especially in the English language) used to specifically refer to the area now comprising the three countries of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. However, this has never been the convention in many other languages, where the term generally had a wider, strictly geographic context and therefore typically included Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia.Lahore
Lahore (; Punjabi: لہور; Urdu: لاہور) is a city in the Pakistani province of Punjab. Lahore is the country's second-most populous city after Karachi, and is one of Pakistan's wealthiest cities with an estimated GDP of $58.14 billion (PPP) as of 2015. Lahore is the largest city, and historic cultural centre of the Punjab region, and one of Pakistan's most socially liberal, progressive, and cosmopolitan cities.Lahore's origins reach into antiquity. The city has been controlled by numerous empires throughout the course of its history, including the Hindu Shahis, Ghaznavids, Ghurids, and Delhi Sultanate by the medieval era. Lahore reached the height of its splendour under the Mughal Empire between the late 16th and early 18th century, and served as its capital city for a number of years. The city was captured by the forces of the Afsharid ruler Nader Shah in 1739, and fell into a period of decay while being contested between the Afghans and the Sikhs. Lahore eventually became capital of the Sikh Empire in the early 19th century, and regained much of its lost grandeur. Lahore was then annexed to the British Empire, and made capital of British Punjab. Lahore was central to the independence movements of both India and Pakistan, with the city being the site of both the declaration of Indian Independence, and the resolution calling for the establishment of Pakistan. Lahore experienced some of the worst rioting during the Partition period preceding Pakistan's independence. Following independence in 1947, Lahore was declared capital of Pakistan's Punjab province.
Lahore exerts a strong cultural influence over Pakistan. Lahore is a major center for Pakistan's publishing industry, and remains the foremost center of Pakistan's literary scene. The city is also a major centre of education in Pakistan, with some of Pakistan's leading universities based in the city. Lahore is also home to Pakistan's film industry, Lollywood, and is a major centre of Qawwali music. The city also hosts much of Pakistan's tourist industry, with major attractions including the Walled City, the famous Badshahi and Wazir Khan mosques and Sikh shrines. Lahore is also home to the Lahore Fort and Shalimar Gardens, both of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites.List of cities proper by population
A city proper is a locality defined according to legal or political boundaries and an administratively recognised urban status that is usually characterised by some form of local government. In some cases, cities proper may not include suburbs or even parts of the urban core whereas in other cases the boundaries may include non-contiguous urban settlements or even rural areas.World Urbanization Prospects, a UN publication, defines population of a city proper as "the population living within the administrative boundaries of a city or controlled directly from the city by a single authority." The book continues to say that "city proper as defined by administrative boundaries may not include suburban areas where an important proportion of the population working or studying in the city lives." The UN also employs two alternative definitions of cities that use arbitrarily defined boundaries (urban area and metropolitan area) since no single definition for a city can be applied to compare every settlement. Using the administrative definition, many cities will be included on this list that are smaller than their urban area. However, many Chinese cities included govern territories that extend well beyond the traditional "city proper" into suburban and rural areas.List of largest cities
Determining the world's largest cities depends on which definitions of city are used, as well as the criteria used for size: this article focusses on population. The United Nations uses three definitions for what constitutes a city, as not all cities may be classified using the same criteria. Cities may be defined as the cities proper, the extent of their urban area, or their metropolitan regions.For a view of the largest cities by economic stature and integration within the global economy, see Globalization and World Cities Research Network.List of metropolitan areas by population
One concept which measures the world's largest cities is that of the metropolitan area, which is based on the concept of a labor market area and is typically defined as an employment core (an area with a high density of available jobs) and the surrounding areas that have strong commuting ties to the core. There is currently no generally accepted, globally consistent definition of exactly what constitutes a metropolitan area, thus making comparisons between cities in different countries especially difficult. However, for consistency, the sources on this article include official figures from governments only.
As an alternative to the metropolitan area, Eurostat introduced the concept of the Larger Urban Zone in 2004. Similarly, OECD defines Functional Urban Areas for cities in OECD countries. Both Larger Urban Zone and Functional Urban Area define a city as an urban core surrounded by a commuting zone, and so are similar to the general concept of the "metropolitan area". Eurostat only computes Larger Urban Zone populations for European Union member states, candidate members, and European Free Trade Area members. OECD computes Functional Urban Area populations for OECD member states. These two statistics are therefore not available for most developing countries.List of metropolitan areas in the Philippines
The Philippines has three metropolitan areas as defined by the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA).Metro Manila is the largest conurbation or urban agglomeration in the country, and its official metropolitan area is composed of the city of Manila plus 15 neighboring cities and the municipality of Pateros. Metro Cebu, located in the Visayas, is the Philippines' second largest urban area, while Metro Davao, which is located in Mindanao, is the country's third largest metropolitan area.
The official definition of each area does not necessarily follow the actual extent of continuous urbanization. For example, the built-up area of Metro Manila has long spilled out of its officially defined borders into the adjacent provinces of Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, and Cavite.The number of metropolitan areas in the Philippines was reduced from 12 in 2007 to the current three based from the 2017-2022 Philippine Development Plan by NEDA. The other nine metropolitan areas were Metro Angeles, Metro Bacolod, Metro Baguio, Metro Batangas, Metro Cagayan de Oro, Metro Dagupan, Metro Iloilo–Guimaras, Metro Naga, and Metro Olongapo.List of urban areas in the European Union
This is a list of urban areas in the European Union with over 500,000 inhabitants as of 2014. The data comes from Demographia and the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Demographia provides figures for urban areas (including conurbations), while the UN DESA figures are for agglomerations only. For comparison, Function Urban Area (FUA) population figures by Eurostat are also provided, however, these measure the wider metropolitan areas.Megacity
A megacity is a very large city metropolitan area, typically with a population of more than 10 million people. Precise definitions vary: the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs in its 2014 "World Urbanization Prospects" report counted urban agglomerations having over 10 million inhabitants. A University of Bonn report held that they are "usually defined as metropolitan areas with a total population of 10 million or more people". Others list cities satisfying criteria of either 5 or 8 million and also have a population density of 2,000 per square kilometre. A megacity can be a single metropolitan area or two or more metropolitan areas that converge due to close proximity. The terms conurbation, metropolis, and metroplex are also applied to the latter.As of 2017, there are 47 megacities in existence. Most of these urban agglomerations are in China and other countries of Asia. The largest are the metropolitan areas of Tokyo, Shanghai, and Jakarta, each having over 30 million inhabitants. China alone has 15 megacities, and India has six. Other countries with multiple megacities include the United States, Brazil and Pakistan, each with two. African megacities are also present in Nigeria, Egypt and the DRC.Megalopolises in China
In China, a city cluster (城市群) is an officially defined type of megalopolis, whereby government policy is to knit the area together more tightly and promote development through transportation and communication links. The policy began in 2005 with the province of Hunan promoting Chang-Zhu-Tan city cluster (长株潭城市群) as the example. The Economist Intelligence Unit in 2012 identified 13 megalopolises: Chang-Zhu-Tan (Greater Changsha), Chengdu, Chongqing, Greater Beijing i.e. Jingjinji, Greater Shanghai (incl. Suzhou), Greater Xi'an, Greater Zhengzhou, Greater Guangzhou, Hefei economic circle (incl. Lu'an, Huainan, Chaohu), Shandong peninsula, Greater Shenyang, Shenzhen and Wuhan. Up to 2018, there are nine officially approved megalopolises in China. In 2017, the National Development and Reform Commission stated that plans for six city clusters had been completed in 2016, five in 2017, with eight more forthcoming for a total of 19 city cluster plans by 2020. The new city clusters identified in 2017 were Lanzhou-Xining, Hohhot-Baotou-Ordos-Yulin, Guanzhong Plain, Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone, and the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area.Population (disambiguation)
Population may refer to:
Population, a summation of all the organisms of the same group or species, who live in the same geographical area.
Statistical population, which is a set of similar items or events which is of interest for some question or experiment.
Population genetics, the study of the distributions and changes of allele frequency in a population.
Metallicity, star populations.Tokyo
Tokyo (東京, Tōkyō, English: , Japanese: [toːkʲoː] (listen); lit. "Eastern Capital"), officially Tokyo Metropolis (東京都, Tōkyō-to), one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world. The urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island, Honshu, and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was formerly named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603. It became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868; at that time Edo was renamed Tokyo. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture (東京府, Tōkyō-fu) and the city of Tokyo (東京市, Tōkyō-shi). Tokyo is often referred to as a city but is officially known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo.
The 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were formerly Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, and the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo. The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy. As of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third (twice) in the International Financial Centres Development Index. The city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System.
Tokyo ranks first in the Global Economic Power Index and third in the Global Cities Index. The GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category (the city also ranked first in the following categories: "helpfulness of locals", "nightlife", "shopping", "local public transportation" and "cleanliness of streets"). As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm. and also the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey. In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index. The QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018.
Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, and the 1993 G-7 summit, and will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics.Urban area
An urban area or urban agglomeration is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as cities, towns, conurbations or suburbs. In urbanism, the term contrasts to rural areas such as villages and hamlets and in urban sociology or urban anthropology it contrasts with natural environment. The creation of early predecessors of urban areas during the urban revolution led to the creation of human civilization with modern urban planning, which along with other human activities such as exploitation of natural resources leads to human impact on the environment.
The world's urban population in 1950 of just 746 million has increased to 3.9 billion in the decades since. In 2009, the number of people living in urban areas (3.42 billion) surpassed the number living in rural areas (3.41 billion) and since then the world has become more urban than rural. This was the first time that the majority of the world's population lived in a city. In 2014 there were 7.2 billion people living on the planet, of which the global urban population comprised 3.9 billion. The Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs at that time predicted the urban population would grow to 6.4 billion by 2050, with 37% of that growth to come from three countries: China, India and Nigeria.Urban areas are created and further developed by the process of urbanization. Urban areas are measured for various purposes, including analyzing population density and urban sprawl.
Unlike an urban area, a metropolitan area includes not only the urban area, but also satellite cities plus intervening rural land that is socio-economically connected to the urban core city, typically by employment ties through commuting, with the urban core city being the primary labor market.World population
In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.6 billion people as of May 2018. It took over 200,000 years of human history for the world's population to reach 1 billion; and only 200 years more to reach 7 billion.World population has experienced continuous growth since the end of the Great Famine of 1315–1317 and the Black Death in 1350, when it was near 370 million.
The highest population growth rates – global population increases above 1.8% per year – occurred between 1955 and 1975, peaking to 2.06% between 1965 and 1970. The growth rate has declined to 1.18% between 2010 and 2015 and is projected to decline further in the course of the 21st century. However, the global population is still growing and is projected to reach about 10 billion in 2050 and more than 11 billion in 2100.
Total annual births were highest in the late 1980s at about 139 million, and as of 2011 were expected to remain essentially constant at a level of 135 million, while deaths numbered 56 million per year and were expected to increase to 80 million per year by 2040.
The median age of the world's population was estimated to be 30.4 years in 2018.
World's fifty most-populous urban areas
|Aggregate urban area†|
† Aggregate urban areas are entire continuous built-up areas, grouping together contiguous cities (known as conurbations), whereas urban agglomerations are the built-up areas of individual cities.