Bannwald is a German word used in parts of Germany and Austria to designate an area of protected forest. Its precise meaning has varied by location and over time.Corporate forest
A corporate forest is a forest or woodland area owned by a corporate body rather than a state or individual.
For example, in Germany, a corporate forest (German: Körperschaftswald) is, in accordance with Section 3, Paragraph 2, of the Federal Forest Act (Bundeswaldgesetz), a wood owned by a public body such as a municipality or town (also called a communal, town or municipal forest or even an "interested parties forest"), a university (then called a university forest) or other specified body.
Forests owned by the Church are not automatically classified by the German federal government as corporate forests, but may be so classified by state law.
Other types of forest may include state forests and private forests.Dehesa
A dehesa is a multifunctional, agrosylvopastoral system (a type of agroforestry) and cultural landscape of southern and central Spain and southern Portugal; in Portugal, it is known as a montado. Its name comes from the Latin 'defensa', (fenced), referring to land that was fenced, and usually destined for pasture. Dehesas may be private or communal property (usually belonging to the municipality). Used primarily for grazing, they produce a variety of products, including non-timber forest products such as wild game, mushrooms, honey, cork, and firewood. They are also used to raise the Spanish fighting bull and the Iberian pig. The main tree component is oaks, usually holm (Quercus ilex) and cork (Quercus suber). Other oaks, including melojo (Quercus pyrenaica) and quejigo (Quercus faginea), may be used to form dehesa, the species depending on geographical location and elevation. Dehesa is an anthropogenic system that provides not only a variety of foods, but also wildlife habitat for endangered species such as the Spanish imperial eagle.By extension, the term can also be used for this style of rangeland management on estates.Experimental forest
An experimental forest, or experimental range, as defined by the United States Forest Service, is "an area administered ... 'to provide for the research necessary for the management of the land.'"Forest conservation in the United States
Forest conservation is the practice of planning and maintaining forested areas for the benefit and sustainability of future generations.Forest conservation involves the upkeep of the natural resources within a forest that are beneficial to both humans and the ecosystem. Forest conservation acts to maintain, plan, and improve forested areas. Forests provide wildlife with a suitable habitat for living along with filtering groundwater and preventing runoff.Forest reserve (disambiguation)
Forest reserve(s) may refer to:
Nature reserves made up in part or whole of forests
Reserve forest (also, reserved forest)
Protected forestIt may also refer to:
Forest Reserve Act of 1891, United States
Headwaters Forest Reserve, the only forest reserve in the United States
Recreational Forest Reserve of Pinhal da Paz, Azores
Reserved forests and protected forests of IndiaOr to:
Nottingham Forest F.C. Under-21s Squad and Academy, West Bridgford, Nottinghamshire, EnglandForestry law
Forestry laws govern activities in designated forest lands, most commonly with respect to forest management and timber harvesting. Ancillary laws may regulate forest land acquisition and prescribed burn practices. Forest management laws generally adopt management policies, such as multiple use and sustained yield, by which public forest resources are to be managed. Governmental agencies are generally responsible for planning and implementing forestry laws on public forest lands, and may be involved in forest inventory, planning, and conservation, and oversight of timber sales. Broader initiatives may seek to slow or reverse deforestation.High-Biodiversity Wilderness Area
A High-Biodiversity Wilderness Area (HBWA) is an elaboration on the IUCN Protected Area classification of a Wilderness Area (Category Ib), which outlines five vast wilderness areas of particularly dense and important levels of biodiversity. The sub-classification was the initiative of Conservation International (CI) in 2003 to identify regions in which at least 70 percent of their original vegetation has remained intact in order to ensure that this is safeguarded and these regions do not become biodiversity hotspots. Currently the areas listed as HBWAs are
Amazon Basin, Brazil
Congo Basin, The Democratic Republic of Congo
New Guinea, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea
North American Deserts, Southwest United States and Mexico
Miombo-Mopane Woodlands and Savannas, ZambiaHigh conservation value forest
High conservation value forest (HCVF) is a Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) forest management designation used to describe those forests who meet criteria defined by the FSC Principles and Criteria of Forest Stewardship.
Specifically, high conservation value forests are those that possess one or more of the following attributes:
forest areas containing globally, regionally or nationally significant: concentrations of biodiversity values (e.g. endemism, endangered species, refugia); and/or large landscape-level forests, contained within, or containing the management unit, where viable populations of most if not all naturally occurring species exist in natural patterns of distribution and abundance
forest areas that are in or contain rare, threatened or endangered ecosystems
forest areas that provide basic services of nature in critical situations (e.g. watershed protection, erosion control)
forest areas fundamental to meeting basic needs of local communities (e.g. subsistence, health) and/or critical to local communities' traditional cultural identity (areas of cultural, ecological, economic or religious significance identified in cooperation with such local communities).Indigenous and community conserved area
Indigenous and community conserved areas (ICCAs), or indigenous peoples’ and community conserved territories and areas, are spaces de facto governed by indigenous peoples or local communities with evidently positive outcomes for the conservation of biological and cultural diversity. In ICCAs, the continuation, revival or modification of traditional practices (some of which are of ancient origin) and/or newucceed in protecting and restoring natural resources and cultural values in the face of new threats or opportunities. Some ICCAs are situated in remote ecosystems that have had minimum human influence, while others encompass areas of various regulations and magnitudes within regions strongly affected modified by human occupation. ICCAs may or may not fit the IUCN definition of “protected area” but, when they do, they can fall into any IUCN protected area categories.
The following three characteristics are used to identify an ICCA:
A strong relationship exists between an indigenous people or local community, and a specific site (territory, ecosystem, species habitat). This relationship is often embedded in the people’s or community’s sense of identity and/or dependence for livelihood and well being.
The indigenous people or local community is the major player in decision-making and implementation regarding the management of the site, implying that a local institution has the capacity to develop and enforce decisions (other stakeholders may collaborate as partners, especially when the land is owned by the state, but de facto decisions and management efforts are predominantly taken by the concerned people or community).
The people’s or community’s management decisions and efforts lead to the conservation of habitats, species, genetic diversity, ecological functions/ benefits and associated cultural values, even when the conscious objective of management is not conservation (i.e., it may be livelihoods, security, safeguarding cultural and spiritual values, etc.).Lists of environmental topics
The natural environment commonly referred to simply as the environment, is all living and non-living things that occur naturally on Earth or some part of it (e.g. the natural environment in a country). This includes complete ecological units that function as natural systems without massive human intervention, including all vegetation, animals, microorganisms, rocks, atmosphere and natural phenomena that occur within their boundaries. And it includes universal natural resources and physical phenomena that lack clear-cut boundaries, such as air, water, and climate, as well as energy, radiation, electric charge, and magnetism, not originating from human activity.National Forest
National Forest may refer to:
National forest (Brazil), a type of sustainable use protected area
National forest (France), a forest that is owned by the French state, originating with the Edict of Moulins of 1566
The National Forest (England), an environmental project
United States National Forest, protected and managed federal lands
State Forests (Poland), Polish state forestsNational forest (France)
A national forest (French: forêt domaniale) is a forest that is owned by the French state. This status originates with the Edict of Moulins of 1566. French national forests are managed by the National Board of Forestry (NFB) under the national forestry law, the successor of ordinances and regulations that have taken place since the time of Charlemagne "at the discretion of political, economic and demographic context of France, making the first state-owned natural forest areas whose management is rigorously controlled".Nature reserve
A nature reserve (also known as natural reserve, bioreserve, natural/nature preserve, or natural/nature conserve) is a protected area of importance for flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research. Nature reserves may be designated by government institutions in some countries, or by private landowners, such as charities and research institutions, regardless of nationality. Nature reserves fall into different IUCN categories depending on the level of protection afforded by local laws. Normally it is more strictly protected than a nature park.Protected areas of India
As of May 2004, the protected areas of India cover 156,700 square kilometres (60,500 sq mi), roughly 4.95% of the total surface area.
There are four categories of Protected areas in India Constituted under the provisons of Wildlife ( Protection) ACT, 1972. Tiger Reserves are constituted by including the areas of National park sand sanctuaries. There are 50 tiger reserves in India.
National Parks (NPs)
% of Geographical area - 1.23
Wildlife Sanctuaries (WLSs)
% of Geographical area 3.62
Conservation Reserves (CRs)
% of Geographical area-0.08
% of Geographical area -0.002
Total Protected Areas (PAs)
Area 162,099.47 km2
% of Geographical area -4.93
Source -ENVIS Centre , Wildlife institute of India, 2018Protection forest
Protection forests are forests that mitigate or prevent the impact of a natural hazard, including a rockfall, avalanche, erosion, landslide, debris flow or flooding on people and their assets in mountainous areas. A protection forest generally covers the sloping area between a hazard potential (e.g. an unstable rock cliff or an avalanche release zone) and the endangered or exposed assets. In the Alps, protection forests are increasingly considered equal to engineered mitigation measures against natural hazards. In French, German, Italian and Slovenian protection forests are called respectively, Forêt de protection, Schutzwald, foreste di protezione, varovalni gozdovi, and even their maintain function is to protect soil and to prevent it from eroding or blowing away.Sacred groves of India
Sacred groves of India are forest fragments of varying sizes, which are communally protected, and which usually have a significant religious connotation for the protecting community. Hunting and logging are usually strictly prohibited within these patches. Other forms of forest usage like honey collection and deadwood collection are sometimes allowed on a sustainable basis. Sacred groves did not enjoy protection via federal legislation in India. Some NGOs work with local villagers to protect such groves. Traditionally, and in some cases even today, members of the community take turns to protect the grove. However, the introduction of the protected area category community reserves under the Wild Life (Protection) Amendment Act, 2002 has introduced legislation for providing government protection to community held lands, which could include sacred groves.
Indian sacred groves are often associated with temples, monasteries, shrines or with burial grounds. Historically, sacred groves find their mentions in Hindu, Jain and Buddhist texts, from sacred tree groves in Hinduism to sacred deer parks in Buddhism for example. Sacred groves may be loosely used to refer to natural habitat protected on religious grounds. Other historical references to sacred groves can be obtained in Vrukshayurveda an ancient treatise, ancient classics such as Kalidasa's Vikramuurvashiiya. There has been a growing interest in creating green patches such as Nakshatravana grove.Schonwald
A Schonwald is the term used in the German state of Baden-Württemberg for a protected woodland area, in which economic usage of the forest is permitted, but under certain restrictions. The term is not used in other German-speaking regions or is at best a colloquial term there.
Schonwald is defined in § 32 of the Baden-Württemberg Forests Act as follows:
[A] schonwald is a woodland reserve, in which a specified woodland community with its animal and plant species, a specified composition of trees or a specified forest biotope is to be conserved, developed or regenerated. The forestry authorities will lay down management measures with the consent of the forest owner.
A higher level of protection is afforded by the Bannwald, a term which is also recognised outside the state. Within Baden-Württemberg a Bannwald is defined at § 32 of the Forests Act as "a woodland reserve which is left to itself".State forest
A state forest is a forest that is administered or protected by some agency of a sovereign or federated state, or territory.