List of systems of plant taxonomy

This list of systems of plant taxonomy presents "taxonomic systems" used in plant classification.

A taxonomic system is a coherent whole of taxonomic judgments on circumscription and placement of the considered taxa. It is only a "system" if it is applied to a large group of such taxa (for example, all the flowering plants).

There are two main criteria for this list. A system must be taxonomic, that is deal with a large number of plants, by their botanical names. Secondly it must be a system, i.e. deal with the relationships of plants. Although thinking about relationships of plants had started much earlier (see history of plant systematics), such systems really only came into being in the 19th century, as a result of an ever-increasing influx from all over the world of newly discovered plant species. The 18th century saw some early systems, which are perhaps precursors rather than full taxonomic systems.

A milestone event was the publication of Species Plantarum by Linnaeus which serves as the starting point of binomial nomenclature for plants. By its size this would qualify to be on this list, but it does not deal with relationships, beyond assigning plants into genera.

Note that a system is not necessarily monolithic and often goes through several stages of development, resulting in several versions of the same system. When a system is widely adopted, many authors will adopt their own particular version of the system. The Cronquist system is well known for existing in many versions.

Linné-Systema Naturae 1735
A pioneering system of plant taxonomy, Linnaeus's Systema Naturae, Leiden, 1735

Chronological list of systems

Pre-Linnaean

From Linnaeus to Darwin (pre-Darwinian)

  • Linnaean systems
    Systema Naturae, 1st edition, 1735.
    Systema Naturae, 10th edition, 1758 (vol. 1), 1759 (vol. 2). Starting point of zoological nomenclature.
    Species Plantarum, 1753. Starting point of botanical nomenclature.
    Genera Plantarum, 1737 (1st ed.), 1753 (5th ed.).
    Philosophia Botanica, 1751.
  • Adanson system
    Familles naturelles des plantes, 1763.
  • de Jussieu system
    A.L. de Jussieu (1789). Genera Plantarum, secundum ordines naturales disposita juxta methodum in Horto Regio Parisiensi exaratam.
    (available online at Gallica)
  • de Candolle system
    A. P. de Candolle (1819). Théorie élémentaire de la botanique, ou exposition des principes de la classification naturelle et de l'art de décrire et d'etudier les végétaux (2nd ed.).
    A. P. de Candolle; et al. (1824–1873). Prodromus systemati naturalis regni vegetabilis sive enumeratio contracta ordinum, generum specierumque plantarum huc usque cognitarum, juxta methodi naturalis normas digesta.
    (available online at Gallica)
  • Berchtold and Presl system
    Berchtold and Presl. O Prirozenosti Rostlin 1820
  • Dumortier system
    Dumortier, Barthélemy-Charles (1829). Analyse des familles des plantes :avec l'indication des principaux genres qui s'y rattachent (in French). Tournay: Casterman. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
  • Lindley system
    Lindley (1830). An Introduction to the Natural System of Botany.
    (available online at BHL)
    Lindley (1845). The Vegetable Kingdom.
    (available online at BHL)
  • Bentham & Hooker system
    G. Bentham & J.D. Hooker (1862–1883). Genera plantarum ad exemplaria imprimis in herbariis kewensibus servata definita. 3 volumes.
    (available online at Gallica)
  • Baillon system
    H. Baillon (1867–1894). Histoire des plantes. 13 volumes.

Post Darwinian (Phyletic)

Other systems

External links

Bibliography

Note: This is a selected list of the more influential systems. There are many other systems, for instance a review of earlier systems, published by Lindley in his 1853 edition, and Dahlgren (1982). Examples include the works of Scopoli, Batsch and Grisebach.

APG II system

The APG II system (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II system) of plant classification is the second, now obsolete, version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy that was published in April 2003 by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. It was a revision of the first APG system, published in 1998, and was superseded in 2009 by a further revision, the APG III system.

APG system

The APG system (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system) of plant classification is the first version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy. Published in 1998 by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, it was replaced by the improved APG II in 2003, APG III system in 2009 and APG IV system in 2016.

Adanson system

The Adanson system published by French botanist Michel Adanson as the Familles des plantes in two volumes in 1763 was an important step in botanical nomenclature by establishing the ordering of genera into families.

Michel Adanson listed 58 families, divided by sections, for the 1615 genera known to him. He gave these both French and Latin names. The system was completed by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu in 1789.

Angiosperm Phylogeny Website

The Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (or APweb) is a well-known website dedicated to research on angiosperm phylogeny and taxonomy.

The site is hosted by the Missouri Botanical Garden website and maintained by researchers, Peter F. Stevens and Hilary M. Davis. Peter F. Stevens is a member of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG). The taxonomy presented is broadly based on the work of the APG, with modifications to incorporate new results.

Bessey system

A system of plant taxonomy, the Bessey system was published by Charles Bessey in 1915.

Carl Adolph Agardh

Carl Adolph Agardh (23 January 1785 in Båstad, Sweden – 28 January 1859 in Karlstad) was a Swedish botanist specializing in algae, who was eventually appointed bishop of Karlstad.

Cronquist system

The Cronquist system is a taxonomic classification system of flowering plants. It was developed by Arthur Cronquist in a series of monographs and texts, including The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants (1968; 2nd edition, 1988) and An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants (1981) (see Bibliography).

Cronquist's system places flowering plants into two broad classes, Magnoliopsida (dicotyledons) and Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Within these classes, related orders are grouped into subclasses. While the scheme was widely used, in either the original form or in adapted versions, many botanists now use the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants, first developed in 1998. The system as laid out in Cronquist's An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants (1981) counts 64 orders and 321 families in class Magnoliopsida and 19 orders and 65 families in class Liliopsida.

De Jussieu system

An early system of plant taxonomy, the de Jussieu System, is of great importance as a starting point of botanical nomenclature at the rank of family, together with Michel Adanson's Familles naturelles des plantes (1763). While Adanson introduced the concept of families, Jussieu arranged them hierarchically into Divisions, Classes and Orders (equivalent to families).

Index: Page lxiii

Overview: Page lxxi - Divisions and classes

Overview: Page lxii - Classes and ordersThe main groups recognized are:

I. Acotyledones (page 1)

Classes: 1, with as families: Fungi, Algae, Hepaticae, Musci, Filices, Najades

II. Monocotyledones (page 21)

Classes: 2-42: Stamina hypogyna (page 23)

3: Stamina perigyna (page 35)

8 Orders

11. Ordo I Palmae (page 37-40)

12. Ordo II Asparagi (pages 40-43)

13. Ordo III Junci (pages 43 - 48)

14. Ordo IV Lilia (pages 48-9)

15. Ordo V Bromeliae (pages 49-51)

16. Ordo VI Asphodeli (pages 51-53)

17. Ordo VII Narcissi (pages 54-56)

18. ordo VIII Irides (pages 57-60)

4: Stamina epigyna (page 60)III. Dicotyledones

A. Monoclinae

a) Apetalae

Classes: 5-7

b) Monopetalae

Classes: 8-11

c) Polypetalae

Classes: 12-14

B. Diclinae

Classes: 15The system was published in 1789.

(also available online at Gallica)

George Don

George Don (29 April 1798 – 25 February 1856) was a Scottish botanist.

Goldberg system

A system of plant taxonomy, the Goldberg system was published in:

Goldberg (1986). "Classification, Evolution and Phylogeny of the Families of Dicotyledons". Smithsonian Contributions to Botany. 58: 1–314.

Goldberg (1989). "Classification, Evolution and Phylogeny of the Families of Monocotyledons". Smithsonian Contributions to Botany. 71: 1–73.Aaron Goldberg treats the Angiosperms, in which he recognizes 334 families and 59 orders of Dicotyledons and accept 57 families

and 18 orders of Monocotyledons:

classis Dicotyledoneae

ordo Trochodendrales

Tetracentraceae

Trochodendraceae

Eupteleaceae

Cercidiphyllaceae

ordo Hamamelidales

Platanaceae

Hamamelidaceae

Buxaceae

Myrothamnaceae

Daphniphyllaceae

Didymelaceae

ordo Magnoliales

Magnoliaceae

Degeneriaceae

Himantandraceae

Winteraceae

Annonaceae

Eupomatiaceae

Myristicaceae

Canellaceae

Schisandraceae

Illiciaceae

Austrobaileyaceae

Trimeniaceae

Amborellaceae

Monimiaceae

Calycanthaceae

Idiospermaceae

ordo Laurales

Gomortegaceae

Lauraceae

Hernandiaceae

ordo Aristolochiales

Aristolochiaceae

ordo Ranunculales

Ranunculaceae

Berberidaceae

Sargentodoxaceae

Lardizabalaceae

Menispermaceae

Nandinaceae

Podophyllaceae

Paeoniaceae

Circaeasteraceae

ordo Haloragales

Haloragaceae

Gunneraceae

Hippuridaceae

Callitrichaceae

ordo Sarraceniales

Sarraceniaceae

ordo Nepenthales

Nepenthaceae

ordo Piperales

Saururaceae

Piperaceae

Chloranthaceae

Lactoridaceae

ordo Nymphaeales

Nymphaeaceae

Ceratophyllaceae

Cabombaceae

Nelumbonaceae

ordo Proteales

Proteaceae

ordo Balanopales

Balanopaceae

ordo Fagales

Betulaceae

Fagaceae

Simmondsiaceae

Leitneriaceae

Myricaceae

Juglandaceae

Rhoipteleaceae

ordo Salicales

Salicaceae

ordo Casuarinales

Casuarinaceae

ordo Urticales

Ulmaceae

Moraceae

Urticaceae

Eucommiaceae

Barbeyaceae

Cannabaceae

ordo Fabales

Fabaceae

Mimosaceae

Caesalpiniaceae

ordo Papaverales

Papaveraceae

Fumariaceae

Capparaceae

Brassicaceae

Tovariaceae

Resedaceae

Moringaceae

Pentadiplandraceae

Bretschneideraceae

ordo Batales

Bataceae

ordo Dilleniales

Dilleniaceae

Actinidiaceae

Saurauiaceae

ordo Theales

Theaceae

Pentaphylacaceae

Bonnetiaceae

Pellicieraceae

Medusagynaceae

Eucryphiaceae

Paracryphiaceae

Symplocaceae

Clusiaceae

Tetrameristaceae

Quiinaceae

Hypericaceae

Elatinaceae

Dipterocarpaceae

Ancistrocladaceae

Caryocaraceae

Marcgraviaceae

Ochnaceae

Strasburgeriaceae

Diegodendraceae

Sphaerosepalaceae

Scytopetalaceae

Sarcolaenaceae

ordo Ebenales

Sapotaceae

Ebenaceae

ordo Styracales

Styracaceae

Lissocarpaceae

Alangiaceae

ordo Violales

Flacourtiaceae

Lacistemataceae

Malesherbiaceae

Passifloraceae

Turneraceae

Achariaceae

Caricaceae

Violaceae

Stachyuraceae

Scyphostegiaceae

Peridiscaceae

Hoplestigmataceae

Loasaceae

Cucurbitaceae

ordo Cistales

Cistaceae

Bixaceae

Cochlospermaceae

ordo Ericales

Clethraceae

Pyrolaceae

Ericaceae

Empetraceae

Monotropaceae

Epacridaceae

Diapensiaceae

Cyrillaceae

Lennoaceae

ordo Rafflesiales

Rafflesiaceae

Hydnoraceae

ordo Balanophorales

Balanophoraceae

ordo Celastrales

Ctenolophonaceae

Ixonanthaceae

Irvingiaceae

Dichapetalaceae

Celastraceae

Goupiaceae

Siphonodontaceae

ordo Rhamnales

Rhamnaceae

Vitaceae

Leeaceae

Erythropalaceae

Aquifoliaceae

Icacinaceae

ordo Caryophyllales

Cactaceae

Aizoaceae

Portulacaceae

Theligonaceae

Didiereaceae

Gyrostemonaceae

Phytolaccaceae

Barbeuiaceae

Achatocarpaceae

Petiveriaceae

Agdestidaceae

Nyctaginaceae

Stegnospermaceae

Caryophyllaceae

Molluginaceae

Illecebraceae

Basellaceae

Chenopodiaceae

Amaranthaceae

ordo Primulales

Theophrastaceae

Myrsinaceae

Primulaceae

Plumbaginaceae

Tamaricaceae

Frankeniaceae

ordo Polygonales

Polygonaceae

ordo Plantaginales

Plantaginaceae

ordo Euphorbiales

Euphorbiaceae

Aextoxicaceae

Pandaceae

ordo Malvales

Elaeocarpaceae

Tiliaceae

Malvaceae

Bombacaceae

Sterculiaceae

ordo Rosales

Rosaceae

Corynocarpaceae

Crossosomataceae

Neuradaceae

Coriariaceae

ordo Myrtales

Myrtaceae

Lecythidaceae

Barringtoniaceae

Asteranthaceae

Dialypetalanthaceae

Sonneratiaceae

Punicaceae

Rhizophoraceae

Lythraceae

Crypteroniaceae

Oliniaceae

Melastomataceae

Trapaceae

Combretaceae

Onagraceae

Penaeaceae

ordo Saxifragales

Saxifragaceae

Crassulaceae

Parnassiaceae

Eremosynaceae

Francoaceae

Davidsoniaceae

Hydrangeaceae

Philadelphaceae

Pterostemonaceae

Iteaceae

Baueraceae

Bruniaceae

Vahliaceae

Donatiaceae

Tetracarpaeaceae

Escalloniaceae

Grossulariaceae

Brunelliaceae

Cunoniaceae

Greyiaceae

Cephalotaceae

ordo Droserales

Dioncophyllaceae

Droseraceae

Byblidaceae

Podostemaceae

Hydrostachyaceae

ordo Begoniales

Datiscaceae

Begoniaceae

ordo Apiales

Araliaceae

Apiaceae

ordo Cornales

Nyssaceae

Davidiaceae

Cornaceae

Garryaceae

ordo Dipsacales

Caprifoliaceae

Adoxaceae

Valerianaceae

Dipsacaceae

ordo Rutales

Rutaceae

Cneoraceae

Simaroubaceae

Burseraceae

Meliaceae

Anacardiaceae

ordo Sapindales

Akaniaceae

Aceraceae

Sapindaceae

Hippocastanaceae

Staphyleaceae

Sabiaceae

Melianthaceae

ordo Geraniales

Geraniaceae

Vivianiaceae

Limnanthaceae

Oxalidaceae

Tropaeolaceae

Connaraceae

Balsaminaceae

Stackhousiaceae

Zygophyllaceae

Linaceae

Erythroxylaceae

Balanitaceae

Malpighiaceae

ordo Polygalales

Polygalaceae

Krameriaceae

Trigoniaceae

Vochysiaceae

ordo Oleales

Oleaceae

Salvadoraceae

ordo Gentianales

Loganiaceae

Plocospermataceae

Apocynaceae

Asclepiadaceae

Convolvulaceae

Cuscutaceae

Rubiaceae

Columelliaceae

Gentianaceae

Menyanthaceae

ordo Santalales

Olacaceae

Aptandraceae

Octoknemaceae

Opiliaceae

Medusandraceae

Cardiopteridaceae

Santalaceae

Misodendraceae

Loranthaceae

Grubbiaceae

ordo Thymelaeales

Geissolomataceae

Gonystylaceae

Thymelaeaceae

ordo Polemoniales

Polemoniaceae

Fouquieriaceae

Hydrophyllaceae

Boraginaceae

ordo Scrophulariales

Nolanaceae

Solanaceae

Scrophulariaceae

Buddlejaceae

Globulariaceae

Lentibulariaceae

Orobanchaceae

Acanthaceae

Bignoniaceae

Gesneriaceae

Pedaliaceae

ordo Lamiales

Myoporaceae

Verbenaceae

Phrymaceae

Lamiaceae

ordo Campanulales

Campanulaceae

Goodeniaceae

Brunoniaceae

Calyceraceae

Stylidiaceae

ordo Asterales

Asteraceae

incertae sedis

Tremandraceae

Elaeagnaceae

Pittosporaceae

classis Monocotyledoneae

ordo Pandanales

Pandanaceae

ordo Alismatales

Alismataceae

Butomaceae

Hydrocharitaceae

ordo Triuridales

Triuridaceae

ordo Juncaginales

Scheuchzeriaceae

Juncaginaceae

Lilaeaceae

ordo Najadales

Aponogetonaceae

Zosteraceae

Potamogetonaceae

Zannichelliaceae

Najadaceae

Posidoniaceae

ordo Typhales

Sparganiaceae

Typhaceae

ordo Juncales

Juncaceae

Thurniaceae

Centrolepidaceae

Restionaceae

Flagellariaceae

ordo Cyperales

Cyperaceae

ordo Poales

Poaceae

ordo Arecales

Arecaceae

ordo Cyclanthales

Cyclanthaceae

ordo Arales

Araceae

Lemnaceae

ordo Liliales

Trilliaceae

Liliaceae

Smilacaceae

Agavaceae

Xanthorrhoeaceae

Philesiaceae

Dioscoreaceae

Taccaceae

Pontederiaceae

Amaryllidaceae

Velloziaceae

ordo Bromeliales

Bromeliaceae

ordo Commelinales

Commelinaceae

Mayacaceae

Xyridaceae

Rapateaceae

Eriocaulaceae

ordo Zingiberales

Musaceae

Strelitziaceae

Lowiaceae

Zingiberaceae

Cannaceae

Marantaceae

ordo Iridales

Haemodoraceae

Philydraceae

Iridaceae

Burmanniaceae

ordo Orchidales

Corsiaceae

Orchidaceae

Note: This is a selected list of the more influential systems. There are many other systems, for instance a review of earlier systems, published by Lindley in his 1853 edition, and Dahlgren (1982). Examples include the works of Scopoli, Batsch and Grisebach.

Lists of important publications in science

This is a list of lists of important publications in different fields of science.

The publications are organized by field.

O Přirozenosti Rostlin

O Přirozenosti Rostlin (On the Nature of Plants) is a Czech botanical text written by Friedrich von Berchtold and Jan Svatopluk Presl, and published in Prague in 1820. A later expanded edition in three volumes was published between 1823 and 1835. The full title of the 1820 work is O přirozenosti Rostlin, obsahugjcj gednánj o žiwobytj rostlin pro sebe a z ohledu giných žiwoků, podlé stawu nyněgss ylo znanj, pýtwu rostlin; názwoslowj audů; hospodářstwj gegich; rozssjřenj po semi a způsob rostlinář zřjditi a zacowati (Praha: Krala Wiljma Endersa 1820) but is generally referred to as O Prirozenosti Rostlin, and the standardised abbreviations is Prir. Rostlin.The later edition is O přirozenosti rostlin aneb rostlinář, obsahugjcj popsánj a wyobrazenj rostlin podlé řádů přirozených zpořádané pfirozenych, s zewrubným wyznamenánjm wlastnostj, užitečnosti a škodliwosti, obzwlástě wywodin a zlodin, spůsobu wydobýwánj, poslednjch dobroty a porušenosti neygistěgšjho poznánj a skaušenj, též spůsobu užitecných sázenj chowánj a rozmnožwánj. Ustanowený pro lékaře, hogiče, hospodáře, umělce, remeslnjky a wychowatcle (Praha: Jos. Krause 1823- 1835, 3 vols. and is referred to as O Prirozenosti Rostlin aneb rostlinar, and the standardised abbreviations is Prir. Rostlin Aneb. Rostl..

Outline of botany

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to botany:

Botany – biological discipline which involves the study of plants.

Plant taxonomy

Plant taxonomy is the science that finds, identifies, describes, classifies, and names plants. It is one of the main branches of taxonomy (the science that finds, describes, classifies, and names living things).

Plant taxonomy is closely allied to plant systematics, and there is no sharp boundary between the two. In practice, "Plant systematics" involves relationships between plants and their evolution, especially at the higher levels, whereas "plant taxonomy" deals with the actual handling of plant specimens. The precise relationship between taxonomy and systematics, however, has changed along with the goals and methods employed.

Plant taxonomy is well known for being turbulent, and traditionally not having any close agreement on circumscription and placement of taxa. See the list of systems of plant taxonomy.

Samuel Frederick Gray

Samuel Frederick Gray (10 December 1766 – 12 April 1828) was a British botanist, mycologist, and pharmacologist. He was the father of the zoologists John Edward Gray and George Robert Gray.

Takhtajan system

A system of plant taxonomy, the Takhtajan system of plant classification was published by Armen Takhtajan, in several versions from the 1950s onwards. It is usually compared to the Cronquist system. It admits paraphyletic groups.

Thallophyte

Thallophytes (Thallophyta or Thallobionta) are a polyphyletic group of non-mobile organisms traditionally described as "thalloid plants", "relatively simple plants" or "lower plants". They formed a now abandoned division of kingdom Plantae that included fungi, lichens and algae and occasionally bryophytes, bacteria and slime moulds. Thallophytes have a hidden reproductive system and hence they are also incorporated into the similarly abandoned Cryptogamae (together with ferns), as opposed to Phanerogamae. Thallophytes are defined by having undifferentiated bodies (thalli), as opposed to cormophytes (Cormophyta) with roots and stems. Various groups of thallophytes are major contributors to marine ecosystems.

Vittorio Calestani

Vittorio Calestani (1882 – 1949) was an Italian botanist at the University of Modena, whose work included a classififation system for angiosperms.

Yojiro Kimura

Yojiro Kimura (1912 – 2006) was a Japanese botanist, known for his classification of monocotyledons, and of Japanese species of Hypericum.

Carl von Linné.jpg List of systems of plant taxonomy
Pre-Linnaean
Pre-Darwinian
Post-Darwinian (Phyletic)
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group
System (1998–2009)
See also
Subdisciplines
Plant groups
Plant morphology
(glossary)
Plant growth and habit
Reproduction
Plant taxonomy
Practice
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