This is a list of survivors of the Sobibor extermination camp. The list is divided into two groups: the first comprises the 58 known survivors of those selected to perform forced labour for the camp's daily operation; the second comprises those deported to Sobibor but selected there for forced labor in other camps. In contrast, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum states that at least 167,000 people were murdered in the Sobibor extermination camp. The Dutch Sobibor Foundation lists a calculated total of 170,165 people and cites the Höfle Telegram among its sources while noting that other estimates range up to 300,000.
This list might be incomplete, but it is as complete as current records allow. There were 58 known Sobibór survivors: 48 male and 10 female. Except where noted, the survivors were Arbeitshäftlinge, inmates who performed slave-labour for the daily operation of the camp, who escaped during the camp-wide revolt on October 14, 1943. The vast majority of the people taken to Sobibór did not survive but were shot or gassed immediately upon arrival. Of the Arbeitshäftlinge forced to work as Sonderkommando in Lager III, the camp's extermination area where the gas chambers and most of the mass graves were located, no one survived.
|Moshe Bahir||July 19, 1927||November 2002||75||Polish||Jewish||May 24, 1942||Witness at the Eichmann trial. Changed name from Moshe Szklarek.|
|Antonius Bardach||May 16, 1909||Circa 1959||50||Polish||Jewish||March 30, 1943|||
|Philip Bialowitz||November 25, 1929||August 6, 2016||Polish||Jewish||April 28, 1943||Brother of Symcha Bialowitz.|
|Symcha Bialowitz||December 6, 1912||February 2014||101||Polish||Jewish||April 28, 1943||Brother of Philip Bialowitz.|
|Rachel Birnbaum||1926||March 2013||87||Polish||Jewish||Hid in the forest upon arriving at the camp.|
|Jakob Biskubicz||March 17, 1926||March 2002||75 or 76||Polish||Jewish||June 1942||Joined the Parczew partisans.|
|Thomas "Toivi" Blatt ||April 15, 1927||October 31, 2015||88||Polish||Jewish||April 23, 1943||Escaped in revolt. Witness in post-war testimony against SS Staff Sergeant Karl Frenzel. Wrote Sobibor memoir From the Ashes of Sobibor and assisted with the writing of Escape from Sobibor.|
|Herschel Cukierman ||April 15, 1893||July 1979||86||Polish||Jewish||May 1942||Father of Josef Cukierman.|
|Josef Cukierman||May 26, 1930||June 15, 1963||33||Polish||Jewish||May 1942||Son of Herschel Cukierman|
|Josef Duniec||December 21, 1912||December 1, 1965||52||Polish||Jewish||March 30, 1943||Died of a heart attack before he was expected to testify at the Sobibor trial.|
|Leon Cymiel ||February 20, 1924||1997||73||Polish||Jewish||Surname also spelled Szymiel. Testimony available at ushmm.org|
|Shlomo Elster ||December 1, 1908||1992||83||Polish||Jewish||November 1942|
|Chaim Engel||January 10, 1916||July 4, 2003||87||Polish||Jewish||November 6, 1942||Killed SS-Oberscharführer (Staff Sergeant) Rudolf Beckmann during revolt. Escaped with Selma Wijnberg-Engel and survived the rest of the war in hiding. The two later married.|
|Selma Engel-Wijnberg||May 15, 1922||December 4, 2018||97||Dutch||Jewish||April 9, 1943||Escaped with Chaim Engel during the revolt. They survived the rest of the war in hiding together. The two later married.|
|Leon Feldhendler||1910||April 6, 1945||34 or 35||Polish||Jewish||early 1943||One of the main organizers of the revolt. After fighting as a partisan, made his way back to Lublin, where he was murdered amid the crime-wave of the so-called Soviet liberation.|
|Dov Freiberg||May 15, 1927||March 2008||80||Polish||Jewish||May 15, 1942||Witness at the Eichmann trial.|
|Catharina Gokkes ||September 1, 1923||September 20, 1944||21||Dutch||Jewish||April 9, 1943||Escaped Sobibor and joined Parczew partisans; died before hostilities in the region ceased.[a]|
|Herman Gerstenberg ||October 8, 1909||June 8, 1987||77||Polish||Jewish||March 14, 1943||Changed his last name to Posner or Pozner.|
|Mordechai Goldfarb ||March 15, 1920||June 8, 1984||64||Polish||Jewish||November 6, 1942||Joined the Parczew partisans.|
|Moshe Hochman||March 15, 1953||June 8, 1993||40||Polish||Jewish|||
|Zyndel Honigman||April 10, 1910||July 1989||79||Polish||Jewish||November 1942||Escaped from the camp, not as part of the camp-wide revolt. Joined the Parczew partisans.|
|Abram Kohn||July 25, 1910||January 19, 1986||75||Polish||Jewish||May 1942|||
|Josef Kopp||1944 or 1945||Polish||Jewish||1942||Allegedly escaped by killing a Ukrainian guard on July 27, 1943 while on duties outside of the camp in the nearby village of Zlobek; did not survive World War II.|
|Chaim Korenfeld||May 15, 1923||August 13, 2002||79||Polish||Jewish||April 28, 1943|||
|Chaim Powroznik||1911||unknown||Polish||Jewish||Testimony available.[b]|
|Chaim Leist||Bet. 1906 & 1911||Oct 2005||Polish||Jewish||April 23, 1943|||
|Samuel Lerer||October 1, 1922||March 3, 2016||93||Polish||Jewish||May 1942||Identified gas chamber executioner Hermann Erich Bauer after the war in Berlin, leading to his arrest.|
|Jehuda Lerner||July 22, 1926||2007||81 years||Polish||Jewish||September 1943||He and Red Army P.O.W. Arkady Moishejwicz Wajspapir killed two guards, SS-Oberscharführer Siegfried Graetschus and Volksdeutscher Ivan Klatt, with axe blows during the revolt. Joined the Parczew partisans.|
|Ada Lichtman||January 1, 1915||1993||Polish||Jewish||June 1943||Joined the Parczew partisans. Witness at the Eichmann trial.|
|Jitschak Lichtman||December 10, 1908||1992||83 or 84||Polish||Jewish||May 15, 1942||Joined the Parczew partisans. Married Ada Lichtman (Fischer).|
|Yefim Litwinowski||Soviet||Jewish||September 22, 1943||Red Army soldier.|
|Abraham Margulies||January 25, 1921||1984||62 or 63||Polish||Jewish||late May 1942||Joined the Parczew partisans.|
|Chaskiel Menche||January 7, 1910||1984||73 or 74||Polish||Jewish||June 1942|||
|Mojzesz Merenstein||January 15, 1899||December 1985||86||Polish||Jewish|||
|Zelda Metz||May 1, 1925||1980||54 or 55||Polish||Jewish||December 20, 1942||Pretended to be Catholic upon escape.|
|Alexander "Sasha" Pechersky||February 22, 1909||January 19, 1990||80||Ukrainian||Jewish||September 22, 1943||Chief organizer and leader of the revolt. Red Army soldier who joined the Parczew partisans.|
|Nachum Platnitzky||1913||unknown||Belorussian||Jewish||Surname also listed as Plotnikow; living in Pinsk, Belarus after the war.|
|Shlomo Podchlebnik ||February 15, 1907||February 1973||66||Polish||Jewish||April 28, 1943||He and Josef Kopp escaped by killing a Ukrainian guard on July 27, 1943 while on duties outside of the camp in the nearby village of Zlobek.|
|Gertrud Poppert–Schönborn||June 29, 1914||c. Nov 30, 1943||29||German||Jewish||Gertrud "Luka" Poppert–Schönborn never seen following mass escape.|
|Esther Terner Raab||June 11, 1922||April 13, 2015||92||Polish||Jewish||December 20, 1942||Née Terner, she became known as Esther Raab after her 1946 marriage to Irving Raab. She identified gas chamber executioner Erich Bauer after the war in Berlin, leading to his arrest.|
|Simjon Rosenfeld||October 10, 1922||June 3, 2019||96||Soviet||Jewish||September 22, 1943||Israel |
|Ajzik Rotenberg||1925||1994||69||Polish||Jewish||May 12, 1943||Joined the Parczew partisans. Murdered in 1994 in Israel by two Palestinian terrorists.|
|Joseph Serchuk||1919||November 6, 1993||74||Polish||Jewish||Surname also spelled Serczuk.|
|David Serchuk||1948||Polish||Jewish||Surname also spelled Serczuk.|
|Alexander Shubayev||1945||Belorussian||Jewish||Red Army soldier. Killed deputy commandant Johann Niemann with an axe to his head. Joined the Parczew partisans; killed. Surname also spelled Szubajew.|
|Ursula Stern||August 28, 1926||1985||58 or 59||German||Jewish||April 9, 1943||Joined the Parczew partisans. Witness at Hagen trial. Changed her name to Ilana Safran after the war.|
|Stanisław Szmajzner||March 13, 1927||March 3, 1989||61||Polish||Jewish||May 12, 1942||Joined the Parczew partisans.|
|Boris Tabarinsky||1917||Unknown||Belorussian||Jewish||September 22, 1943|||
|Kurt Ticho Thomas||April 11, 1914||June 8, 2009||95||Czech||Jewish||November 6, 1942||After the war, he brought charges against SS officers Hubert Gomerski and Johann Klier.|
|Israel (Shrulke) Trager||March 5, 1906||August 1, 1969||63||Polish||Jewish||Mar 1943|||
|Aleksej Waizen||May 30, 1922||January 14, 2015||92||Ukrainian||Jewish||autumn 1943|||
|Arkady Moishejwicz Wajspapir||1921||January 11, 2018||Russian||Jewish||September 22, 1943||He and Jehuda Lerner killed two guards with axe blows, SS-Oberscharführer Siegfried Graetschus and Volksdeutscher Ivan Klatt, during the revolt. A Red Army soldier, he joined the Parczew partisans.|
|Abraham Wang||January 2, 1921||1978||57||Polish||Jewish||Apr 23, 1943||Escaped on Jul 27, 1943, along with four other prisoners.|
|Hella Weiss||November 25, 1925||December 1988||63||Polish||Jewish||December 20, 1942||Joined the Parczew partisans; later joined the Red Army.|
|Kalmen Wewerik||June 25, 1906||Unknown||Polish||Jewish||November 1942||Joined partisans after the revolt.|
|Regina Zielinsky||September 2, 1924||September 2014||Polish||Jewish||December 20, 1942|||
|Meier Ziss||November 15, 1927||2003||Polish||Jewish||May 1942|||
Selections sometimes took place at the point of departure, often well before people were forced to board the trains, but there are also reports of selections from trains already en route to the camps. In his June 20, 1942 report, Revier-Leutnant der Schutzpolizei Josef Frischmann, in charge of the guard unit on the train, wrote that "51 Jews capable of work" were removed from the transport at Lublin station. The train had departed Vienna on June 14, 1942, ostensibly for Izbica, but the remaining 949 people on board were delivered to their final destination in Sobibór.[c]
The precise number of those spared upon arrival in the Sobibor extermination camp is unknown, but there were occasional selections there, for forced labour in other camps and factories, amounting to a total of several thousand people. Many of those selected subsequently perished due to harsh conditions in the slave-labour details. A number of them were murdered after internal selections following transfers to Majdanek and Auschwitz, where people were also routinely murdered by hanging or shooting for arbitrary offences. Thousands of Jews initially selected for slave-labour were among those killed in the Lublin district during Aktion Erntefest and many were shot or succumbed on the death marches in the closing stages of the Nazi regime. However, some of the people selected at Sobibor ultimately survived beyond the total defeat and unconditional surrender of the Nazis in May 1945.
On August 17, 1943, a survivor from Sabinov in Slovakia, who has remained anonymous, wrote a report in which he described his selection in Sobibór, together with approximately 100 men and 50 women, upon arrival. For slave-labour in the drainage works in the vicinity of Sobibor they were taken to Krychów. He had arrived following the violent clearance, of deported Slovakian Jews and the few remaining Polish Jews, from the Rejowiec ghetto on August 9, 1942. He described that a few additional skilled workers, technicians, blacksmiths and watchmakers were separated upon arrival in Sobibor, as well. He further wrote that fire was visible in the night sky in the vicinity of Sobibor, and that the stench of burning hair permeated the air.[d]
Approximately 1,000 people were selected from the 34,313 named deportees who had been deported from the Netherlands via Westerbork to Sobibor between March 2 and July 20, 1943. Only 16 of them, 13 women and three men, survived.[e] From the group of approximately 30 women selected from the train which left Westerbork with 1,015 people on March 10, 1943, 13 survived the various camps.[f] Although they were split up after arrival in Lublin and returned to the Netherlands via different camps and routes, this was the largest single group of survivors from any one of the 19 trains which departed the Netherlands. Upon arrival they were separated from the other deportees and shortly afterwards taken by train to Lublin, where they spent the next months in various work details divided over Majdanek and the Alter Flugplatz camp, on the site of an airfield. Eventually Eleven of the women were transferred to Milejów where they worked for a brief period in a Wehrmacht operated provisions factory, but were soon taken to Trawniki, with a larger group of men and women of mixed nationality, in the immediate aftermath of Aktion Erntefest in November 1943. Here their first assignment was assisting in body disposal and sorting the looted possessions of those murdered at the Trawniki camp. After body disposal had nearly been completed the remaining men were murdered, as well. Elias Isak Alex Cohen was the only survivor of the March 17, 1943 transport. He was taken to Majdanek with a group of approximately 35 people selected based on profession. His experiences include a period operating machinery in the ammunition factory in Skarżysko-Kamienna where the poisonous materials and lack of protections decimated the forced-labourers. Jozef Wins was the only one to return to the Netherlands from the May 11 transport. He was among a group of 80 men taken to Dorohucza. Jules Schelvis was the sole survivor of the 3,006 people on the deportation train of June 1, 1943, He too was taken to Dorohucza, with a group of 80 other men. From the remaining 14 trains people were also selected but no one survived the Holocaust.
With few exceptions the survivors lost immediate family and relatives who were murdered in the camp. They returned to their native towns and countries to find little comfort. Several of the survivors almost immediately gave statements about their experiences. They have written about their personal experiences and published researched monographs on the history of the camp. These statements and publications continue to be used in historical research and were used in court cases against perpetrators. The survivors themselves also testified at trials such as the Sobibor Trial in Hagen and participated in the prosecution in the capacity of Nebenkläger, co-claimant, under the German criminal law system. A right of which descendants of people murdered in Sobibór also availed themselves in the 2009 trial of Trawniki Wachmann Ivan Demjanjuk.
In contrast to this short lists of survivors, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum states that at least 167,000 people were murdered in the Sobibór extermination camp. The Dutch Sobibor Foundation lists a calculated total of 170,165 people and cites the Höfle Telegram among its sources, while noting that other estimates range up to 300,000. For practical reasons it is not possible to list all the thousands of people murdered at the camp. The operatives of the Nazi regime not only robbed Jews of their earthly possessions and their lives but attempted to eradicate all traces of their existence as they engaged in the genocidal policies of the Final Solution.
Escape from Sobibor is a 1987 British television film which aired on ITV and CBS. It is the story of the mass escape from the extermination camp at Sobibor, the most successful uprising by Jewish prisoners of German extermination camps (uprisings also took place at Auschwitz-Birkenau and Treblinka). The film was directed by Jack Gold and shot in Avala, Yugoslavia (now Serbia). The full 176 minute version shown in the UK on 10 May 1987 was pre-empted by a 143 minute version shown in the United States on 12 April 1987.
The script, by Reginald Rose, was based on Richard Rashke's 1983 book of the same name, along with a manuscript by Thomas Blatt, "From the Ashes of Sobibor", and a book by Stanislaw Szmajzner, Inferno in Sobibor. Alan Arkin, Joanna Pacuła, and Rutger Hauer were the primary stars of the film. The film received a Golden Globe Award for Best Miniseries or Television Film and Hauer received a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role—Television Film or Miniseries. Esther Raab, who died on April 15, 2015, was a camp survivor who had assisted Rashke with his book and served as a technical consultant.List of Holocaust survivors
The people on this list are or were survivors of Nazi Germany's attempt to exterminate the Jews in Europe before and during World War II. A state-enforced persecution of Jews in Nazi-controlled Europe lasted from the introduction of the Nuremberg Laws in 1935 to Hitler's defeat in 1945. Although there were many victims of the Holocaust, the International Commission on Holocaust Era Insurance Claims (ICHEIC) defines a Holocaust survivor as, "Any Jew who lived for any period of time in a country that was ruled by the Nazis or their allies."
The United States Holocaust Museum (USHMM) gives a broader definition: "The Museum honors as a survivor any person who was displaced, persecuted, and/or discriminated against by the racial, religious, ethnic, social, and/or political policies of the Nazis and their allies between 1933 and 1945. In addition to former inmates of concentration camps and ghettos, this includes refugees and people in hiding." Most notably, as well as Jews, this includes Poles, Romani people, Jehovah's Witnesses and those who were persecuted for political reasons such as Communists, those who were persecuted for religious reasons (such as Pastor Niemoller), and homosexuals and those of other sexual orientations. It includes those who were actually in hiding in Nazi-occupied countries. The latter includes Hidden Children, who were hidden to escape the Nazis.
Most especially, in contrast to the ICHEIC definition, it includes refugees, who fled from their homeland to escape the Nazis, and never lived in a Nazi-controlled country.
The ICHEIC definition was created for the purpose of resolving some insurance claims. Over time, the classes of insurance claims have greatly expanded.
This list does not include refugees, since it is created on the basis of the restricted ICHEIC definition. There were many, many eminent refugees (too many to mention). Refugees include the unaccompanied children of the Kindertransport, which includes Physics Nobel Laureate Arno Allan Penzias. Refugees also include the unaccompanied One Thousand Children, which includes Physics Nobel Laureate Jack Steinberger. (Somewhat inconsistently the refugee Kindertransport Nobel Laureate Walter Kohn, a Nobel Laureate in chemistry, is listed below.)Sobibor (disambiguation)
Sobibor extermination camp was a World War II German death camp.
Sobibor may also refer to:
Sobibór, Lublin Voivodeship, Polish village near death camp
Sobibor (film), 2018 Russian film