List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire

The sultans of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: Osmanlı padişahları), who were all members of the Ottoman dynasty (House of Osman), ruled over the transcontinental empire from its perceived inception in 1299 to its dissolution in 1922. At its height, the Ottoman Empire spanned an area from Hungary in the north to Yemen in the south, and from Algeria in the west to Iraq in the east. Administered at first from the city of Söğüt since before 1280 and then from the city of Bursa since 1323 or 1324, the empire's capital was moved to Edirne in 1363 following its conquest by Murad I, and then to Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) in 1453 following its conquest by Mehmed II.[1]

Family tree

The Ottoman Empire's early years have been the subject of varying narratives due to the difficulty of discerning fact from legend. The empire came into existence at the end of the thirteenth century, and its first ruler (and the namesake of the Empire) was Osman I. According to later, often unreliable Ottoman tradition, Osman was a descendant of the Kayı tribe of the Oghuz Turks.[2] The eponymous Ottoman dynasty he founded endured for six centuries through the reigns of 36 sultans. The Ottoman Empire disappeared as a result of the defeat of the Central Powers with whom it had allied itself during World War I. The partitioning of the Empire by the victorious Allies and the ensuing Turkish War of Independence led to the abolition of the sultanate in 1922 and the birth of the modern Republic of Turkey in 1922.[3]

Sultan of
the Ottoman Empire
Osmanlı padişahları
Imperial
Osmanli-nisani
EmperorSuleiman
Best known office holder
Suleiman I
30 September 1520 – 6 September 1566
Details
StyleHis Imperial Majesty
First monarchOsman I (c. 1299–1323/4)
Last monarchMehmed VI (1918–1922)
Formationc. 1299
Abolition1 November 1922
ResidencePalaces in Istanbul:
AppointerHereditary
Pretender(s)Dündar Ali Osman
Imperial standard of the Ottoman Sultan
Ottoman Imperial Standard
OttomanEmpire1683
Ottoman Empire in 1683, at the height of its territorial expansion in Europe.

State organisation of the Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire was an absolute monarchy during much of its existence. By the second half of the fifteenth century, the sultan sat at the apex of a hierarchical system and acted in political, military, judicial, social, and religious capacities under a variety of titles.[a] He was theoretically responsible only to God and God's law (the Islamic شریعتşeriat, known in Arabic as شريعة sharia), of which he was the chief executor. His heavenly mandate was reflected in Islamic titles such as "shadow of God on Earth" (ظل الله في العالمẓıll Allāh fī'l-ʿalem) and "caliph of the face of the earth" (خلیفه روی زمینḪalife-i rū-yi zemīn).[4] All offices were filled by his authority, and every law was issued by him in the form of a decree called firman (فرمان‎). He was the supreme military commander and had the official title to all land.[5] Osman (died 1323/4) son of Ertuğrul was the first ruler of the Ottoman state, which during his reign constituted a small principality (beylik) in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire.

After the conquest of Constantinople in 1453 by Mehmed II, Ottoman sultans came to regard themselves as the successors of the Roman Empire, hence their occasional use of the titles Caesar (قیصرQayser) of Rûm, and emperor,[4][6][7] as well as the caliph of Islam.[b] Newly enthroned Ottoman rulers were girded with the Sword of Osman, an important ceremony that served as the equivalent of European monarchs' coronation.[8] A non-girded sultan was not eligible to have his children included in the line of succession.[9]

Although absolute in theory and in principle, the sultan's powers were limited in practice. Political decisions had to take into account the opinions and attitudes of important members of the dynasty, the bureaucratic and military establishments, as well as religious leaders.[5] Beginning in the last decades of the sixteenth century, the role of the Ottoman sultans in the government of the empire began to decrease, in a period known as the Transformation of the Ottoman Empire. Despite being barred from inheriting the throne,[10] women of the Imperial Harem—especially the reigning sultan's mother, known as the Valide Sultan—also played an important behind-the-scenes political role, effectively ruling the empire during the period known as the Sultanate of Women.[11]

Constitutionalism was only established during the reign Abdul Hamid II, who thus became the empire's last absolute ruler and its reluctant first constitutional monarch.[12] Although Abdul Hamid II abolished the parliament and the constitution to return to personal rule in 1878, he was again forced in 1908 to reinstall constitutionalism and was deposed. Since 2017, the head of the House of Osman has been Dündar Ali Osman, a great-grandson of Abdul Hamid II.[13]

List of sultans

The table below lists Ottoman sultans, as well as the last Ottoman caliph, in chronological order. The tughras were the calligraphic seals or signatures used by Ottoman sultans. They were displayed on all official documents as well as on coins, and were far more important in identifying a sultan than his portrait. The "Notes" column contains information on each sultan's parentage and fate. For earlier rulers, there is usually a time gap between the moment a sultan's reign ended and the moment his successor was enthroned. This is because the Ottomans in that era practiced what historian Quataert has described as "survival of the fittest, not eldest, son": when a sultan died, his sons had to fight each other for the throne until a victor emerged. Because of the infighting and numerous fratricides that occurred, a sultan's death date therefore did not always coincide with the accession date of his successor.[14] In 1617, the law of succession changed from survival of the fittest to a system based on agnatic seniority (اکبریتekberiyet), whereby the throne went to the oldest male of the family. This in turn explains why from the 17th century onwards a deceased sultan was rarely succeeded by his own son, but usually by an uncle or brother.[15] Agnatic seniority was retained until the abolition of the sultanate, despite unsuccessful attempts in the 19th century to replace it with primogeniture.[16]

Sultan Portrait Reigned from Reigned until Tughra Notes
Rise of the Ottoman Empire
(1299 – 1453)
1 Osman I
ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)
Osman Gazi2 c. 1299 c. 1326 [17]
[c]
  • Son of Ertuğrul Bey[18] and an unknown woman.[19]
  • Reigned until his death.
2 Orhan
ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)
Orhan Gazi c. 1326 c. 1362 [20] 1362 Tughra of Orhan
3 Murad I
SULTAN-İ AZAM (The Most Exalted Sultan)
HÜDAVENDİGÂR
(The devotee of God)
ŞEHÎD (Martyr) [22][b]
Murat Hüdavendigar 1362 15 June 1389 Tughra of Murad I
4 Bayezid I
SULTAN-İ RÛM (Sultan of the Roman Empire)
YILDIRIM (Lightning)
Bayezid I by Cristofano dell'Altissimo 15 June 1389 20 July 1402 Tughra of Bayezid I
Ottoman Interregnum[d]
(20 July 14025 July 1413)
İsa Çelebi
The Co-Sultan of Anatolia
İsa Çelebi 1403–1405
(Sultan of the Western Anatolian Territory)
1406
Emir (Amir)
Süleyman Çelebi

The First Sultan of Rumelia
Arolsen Klebeband 01 449 4 20 July 1402 17 February 1411[25]
Musa Çelebi
The Second Sultan of Rumelia
Musa Çelebi 18 February 1411 5 July 1413[27]
Mehmed Çelebi
The Sultan of Anatolia
Çelebi Mehmet 1403–1406
(Sultan of the Eastern Anatolian Territory)

1406–1413
(The Sultan of Anatolia)
5 July 1413
Sultanate resumed
5 Mehmed I
ÇELEBİ (The Affable)
KİRİŞÇİ (lit. The Bowstring Maker for his support)
Çelebi Mehmet 5 July 1413 26 May 1421 Tughra of Mehmed I
6 Murad II
KOCA (The Great)
II. Murat 25 June 1421 1444 Tughra of Murad II
7 Mehmed II
FĀTİḤ (The Conqueror)
فاتح
Gentile Bellini 003 1444 1446 Tughra of Mehmed II
  • Son of Murad II and Hüma Hatun.[19]
  • Surrendered the throne to his father after having asked him to return to power, along with rising threats from Janissaries.[31]
(6) Murad II
KOCA (The Great)
II. Murat 1446 3 February 1451 Tughra of Murad II
  • Second reign;
  • Forced to return to the throne following a Janissary insurgence;[32]
  • Reigned until his death.
Growth of the Ottoman Empire
(1453 – 1550)
(7) Mehmed II
KAYSER-İ RÛM (Caesar of the Roman Empire)
FĀTİḤ (The Conqueror)
فاتح
Gentile Bellini 003 3 February 1451 3 May 1481 Tughra of Mehmed II
8 Bayezid II
VELÎ (The Saint)
Beyazid II 19 May 1481 25 April 1512 Tughra of Bayezid II
9 Selim I
YAVUZ (The Strong)
Hadim'ul Haramain'ish-Sharifain
(Servant of Mecca and Medina)
Yavuz Sultan I. Selim Han 25 April 1512 21 September 1520 Tughra of Selim I
10 Suleiman I
MUHTEŞEM (The Magnificent)

or KANÛNÎ (The Lawgiver)
قانونى

EmperorSuleiman 30 September 1520 6 or 7 September 1566 Tughra of Suleiman I
Transformation of the Ottoman Empire
(1550 – 1700)
11 Selim II
SARI (The Blond)

MEST (the Sot)

II. Selim Han 29 September 1566 21 December 1574 Tughra of Selim II
12 Murad III Sultan Murad III.jpeg 22 December 1574 16 January 1595 Tughra of Murad III
13 Mehmed III
ADLÎ (The Just)
Sultan Mehmet III of the Ottoman Empire 27 January 1595 20 or 21 December 1603 Tughra of Mehmed III
14 Ahmed I
BAḪTī (The Fortunate)
Sultan I. Ahmet 21 December 1603 22 November 1617 Tughra of Ahmed I
15 Mustafa I
DELİ (The Mad)
I Mustafa (cropped) 22 November 1617 26 February 1618 Tughra of Mustafa I
16 Osman II
GENÇ (The Young)
ŞEHÎD (The Martyr)

شهيد
Osman 2 26 February 1618 19 May 1622 Tughra of Osman II
(15) Mustafa I
DELİ (The Mad)
I Mustafa (cropped) 20 May 1622 10 September 1623 Tughra of Mustafa I
  • Second reign;
  • Returned to the throne after the assassination of his nephew Osman II;
  • Deposed due to his poor mental health and confined until his death in Istanbul on 20 January 1639.[41]
17 Murad IV
SAHİB-Î KIRAN
The Conqueror of Baghdad
ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)

غازى
Murad IV 10 September 1623 8 or 9 February 1640 Tughra of Murad IV
18 Ibrahim
DELİ (The Mad)
The Conqueror of Crete
ŞEHÎD
Ibrahim I 9 February 1640 8 August 1648 Tughra of Ibrahim
19 Mehmed IV
AVCI (The Hunter)
ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)
غازى
Sultan Mehmed IV (2) 8 August 1648 8 November 1687 Tughra of Mehmed IV
20 Suleiman II
ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)
Süleyman II 8 November 1687 22 June 1691 Tughra of Suleiman II
21 Ahmed II
ḪĀN ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior Prince)
Ahmet II 22 June 1691 6 February 1695 Tughra of Ahmed II
22 Mustafa II
ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)
II. Mustafa 6 February 1695 22 August 1703 Tughra of Mustafa II
Stagnation and reform of the Ottoman Empire
(1700 – 1827)
23 Ahmed III
Tulip Era Sultan
ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)
III. Ahmet 22 August 1703 1 or 2 October 1730 Tughra of Ahmed III
24 Mahmud I
ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)
KAMBUR (The Hunchback)
Mahmud1 2 October 1730 13 December 1754 Tughra of Mahmud I
25 Osman III
SOFU (The Devout)
OsmanIII 13 December 1754 29 or 30 October 1757 Tughra of Osman III
26 Mustafa III
YENİLİKÇİ (The First Innovative)
Mustafa3 30 October 1757 21 January 1774 Tughra of Mustafa III
27 Abdul Hamid I
Abd ūl-Hāmīd (The Servant of God)
ISLAHATÇI (The Improver)
ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)
Portrait of Abdülhamid I of the Ottoman Empire 21 January 1774 6 or 7 April 1789 Tughra of Abdul Hamid I
28 Selim III
BESTEKÂR (The Composer)
NİZÂMÎ (Regulative - Orderly)
ŞEHÎD (The Martyr)
Joseph Warnia-Zarzecki - Sultan Selim III - Google Art Project 7 April 1789 29 May 1807 Tughra of Selim III
29 Mustafa IV IV. Mustafa 29 May 1807 28 July 1808 Tughra of Mustafa IV
Modernization of the Ottoman Empire
(1827 – 1908)
30 Mahmud II
İNKILÂPÇI (The Reformer)
ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)
Mahmud II 28 July 1808 1 July 1839 Tughra of Mahmud II
31 Abdulmejid I
TANZİMÂTÇI
(The Strong Reformist or
The Advocate of Reorganization)

ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)
Sultan Abdulmecid Pera Museum 3 b 1 July 1839 25 June 1861 Tughra of Abdulmejid I
32 Abdülaziz
BAḪTSIZ (The Unfortunate)
ŞEHĪD (The Martyr)
Abdulaziz 25 June 1861 30 May 1876 Tughra of Abdülaziz
  • Son of Mahmud II and Pertevniyal Sultan;
  • Deposed by his ministers;
  • Found dead (suicide or murder) five days later.[58]
33 Murad V Portrait of Murad V 30 May 1876 31 August 1876 Tughra of Murad V
34 Abdul Hamid II
Ulû Sultân Abd ūl-Hāmīd Khan

(The Sublime Khan)

Abdul Hamid II in Balmoral Castle in 1867-colored 31 August 1876 27 April 1909 Tughra of Abdul Hamid II
35 Mehmed V
REŞÂD (Rashād)

(The True Path Follower)

Sultan Muhammed Chan V., Kaiser der Osmanen 1915 C. Pietzner 27 April 1909 3 July 1918 Tughra of Mehmed V
36 Mehmed VI
VAHDETTİN (Wāhīd ād-Dīn)

(The Unifier of Dīn (Islam) or The Oneness of Islam)

Sultan Mehmed VI of the Ottoman Empire 4 July 1918 1 November 1922 Tughra of Mehmed VI
Caliph under the Republic
(1 November 1922 – 3 March 1924)
Abdulmejid II Portrait Caliph Abdulmecid II 18 November 1922 3 March 1924
[c]

See also

Notes

a1 2 : The full style of the Ottoman ruler was complex, as it was composed of several titles and evolved over the centuries. The title of sultan was used continuously by all rulers almost from the beginning. However, because it was widespread in the Muslim world, the Ottomans quickly adopted variations of it to dissociate themselves from other Muslim rulers of lesser status. Murad I, the third Ottoman monarch, styled himself sultan-i azam (سلطان اعظم, the most exalted sultan) and hüdavendigar (خداوندگار, emperor), titles used by the Anatolian Seljuqs and the Mongol Ilkhanids respectively. His son Bayezid I adopted the style Sultan of Rûm, Rûm being an old Islamic name for the Roman Empire. The combining of the Islamic and Central Asian heritages of the Ottomans led to the adoption of the title that became the standard designation of the Ottoman ruler: Sultan [Name] Khan.[66] Ironically, although the title of sultan is most often associated in the Western world with the Ottomans, people within Turkey generally use the title of padishah far more frequently when referring to rulers of the Ottoman Dynasty.[67]
b1 2 3 : The Ottoman Caliphate was one of the most important positions held by rulers of the Ottoman Dynasty. The caliphate symbolized their spiritual power, whereas the sultanate represented their temporal power. According to Ottoman historiography, Murad I adopted the title of caliph during his reign (1362 to 1389), and Selim I later strengthened the caliphal authority during his conquest of Egypt in 1516-1517. However, the general consensus among modern scholars is that Ottoman rulers had used the title of caliph before the conquest of Egypt, as early as during the reign of Murad I (1362–1389), who brought most of the Balkans under Ottoman rule and established the title of sultan in 1383. It is currently agreed that the caliphate "disappeared" for two-and-a-half centuries, before being revived with the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, signed between the Ottoman Empire and Catherine II of Russia in 1774. The treaty was highly symbolic, since it marked the first international recognition of the Ottomans' claim to the caliphate. Although the treaty made official the Ottoman Empire's loss of the Crimean Khanate, it acknowledged the Ottoman caliph's continuing religious authority over Muslims in Russia.[68] From the 18th century onwards, Ottoman sultans increasingly emphasized their status as caliphs in order to stir Pan-Islamist sentiments among the empire's Muslims in the face of encroaching European imperialism. When World War I broke out, the sultan/caliph issued a call for jihad in 1914 against the Ottoman Empire's Allied enemies, unsuccessfully attempting to incite the subjects of the French, British and Russian empires to revolt. Abdul Hamid II was by far the Ottoman Sultan who made the most use of his caliphal position, and was recognized as Caliph by many Muslim heads of state, even as far away as Sumatra.[69] He had his claim to the title inserted into the 1876 Constitution (Article 4).[70]
c1 2 : Tughras were used by 35 out of 36 Ottoman sultans, starting with Orhan in the 14th century, whose tughra has been found on two different documents. No tughra bearing the name of Osman I, the founder of the empire, has ever been discovered,[71] although a coin with the inscription "Osman bin Ertuğrul" has been identified.[18] Abdulmejid II, the last Ottoman Caliph, also lacked a tughra of his own, since he did not serve as head of state (that position being held by Mustafa Kemal, President of the newly founded Republic of Turkey) but as a religious and royal figurehead.
d^ : The Ottoman Interregnum, also known as the Ottoman Triumvirate (Turkish: Fetret Devri), was a period of chaos in the Ottoman Empire which lasted from 1402 to 1413. It started following the defeat and capture of Bayezid I by the Turco-Mongol warlord Tamerlane at the Battle of Ankara, which was fought on 20 July 1402. Bayezid's sons fought each other for over a decade, until Mehmed I emerged as the undisputed victor in 1413.[72]
e^ : The dissolution of the Ottoman Empire was a gradual process which started with the abolition of the sultanate and ended with that of the caliphate 16 months later. The sultanate was formally abolished on 1 November 1922. Sultan Mehmed VI fled to Malta on 17 November aboard the British warship Malaya.[62] This event marked the end of the Ottoman Dynasty, not of the Ottoman State nor of the Ottoman Caliphate. On 18 November, the Grand National Assembly (TBMM) elected Mehmed VI's cousin Abdulmejid II, the then crown prince, as caliph.[73] The official end of the Ottoman State was declared through the Treaty of Lausanne (24 July 1923), which recognized the new "Ankara government," and not the old Istanbul-based Ottoman government, as representing the rightful owner and successor state. The Republic of Turkey was proclaimed by the TBMM on 29 October 1923, with Mustafa Kemal as its first President.[74] Although Abdulmejid II was a figurehead lacking any political power, he remained in his position of Caliph until the office of the Caliphate was abolished by the TBMM on 3 March 1924.[70] Mehmed VI later tried unsuccessfully to reinstall himself as caliph in the Hejaz.[75]

References

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    • Lowry, Heath (2003). The Nature of the Early Ottoman State. SUNY Press. p. 78. ISBN 0-7914-5636-6. Based on these charters, all of which were drawn up between 1324 and 1360 (almost one hundred fifty years prior to the emergence of the Ottoman dynastic myth identifying them as members of the Kayı branch of the Oguz federation of Turkish tribes), we may posit that...
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  72. ^ Sugar 1993, pp. 23–27
  73. ^ As̜iroğlu 1992, p. 54
  74. ^ Glazer 1996, "Table A. Chronology of Major Kemalist Reforms"
  75. ^ Steffen, Dirk (2005). "Mehmed VI, Sultan". In Tucker, Spencer (ed.). World War I: Encyclopedia. Volume. III: M–R. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. p. 779. ISBN 978-1-85109-420-2. OCLC 162287003. Retrieved 2009-05-02.

Bibliography

External links

Abdul Hamid II

Abdul Hamid II (Ottoman Turkish: عبد الحميد ثانی‎, `Abdü’l-Ḥamīd-i sânî; Turkish: İkinci Abdülhamit; September 21, 1842 – February 10, 1918) was the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and the last Sultan to exert effective control over the fracturing state. He oversaw a period of decline, with rebellions particularly in the Balkans, and he had an unsuccessful war with the Russian Empire followed by a successful war against the Kingdom of Greece in 1897. Hamid II ruled from August 31, 1876 until he was deposed shortly after the 1908 Young Turk Revolution, on April 27, 1909. In accordance with an agreement made with the Republican Young Ottomans, he promulgated the first Ottoman Constitution of 1876 on December 23, 1876, which was a sign of progressive thinking that marked his early rule. Later, however, he noticed Western influence on Ottoman affairs and citing disagreements with the Parliament, suspended both the short-lived constitution and Parliament in 1878 and accomplished highly effective power and control.

Modernization of the Ottoman Empire occurred during his reign, this modernization includes the reform of the bureaucracy, the extension of the Rumelia Railway and Anatolia Railway, the construction of the Baghdad Railway, and the Hejaz Railway. In addition to this modernization, a system for population registration and control over the press was established along with the first local modern law school in 1898. The most far-reaching of these reforms were in education: many professional schools were established, including: Law School, School of Arts, School of Trades, Civil Engineering School, The Veterinarian School, The Customs School, The Farming School, The Linguistic School, and more. The University of Istanbul, although shut down by Hamid II in 1881, was reopened in 1900, and a network of secondary, primary, and military schools was extended throughout the empire. Railway and telegraph systems were developed by primarily German firms. During his reign, the Ottoman Empire became bankrupt leading to the establishment of Ottoman Public Debt Administration in 1881.

Abroad, Sultan Abdul Hamid II was nicknamed the Red Sultan or Abdul the Damned due to the massacres of Armenians and Assyrians during his rule and use of the secret police to silence dissent and republicanism. These initiatives led to an assassination attempt in 1905 by Armenian revolutionaries.

Devlet Hatun

Devlet Hatun (full name Tâcü'l-havatin Devlet Hâtun bint-i Abdullah; died 23 January 1414) was the twelfth wife of Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I and the mother of Mehmed I.

Devletşah Hatun

Devletşah Hatun (fully Devletlu İsmetlu Devlet-Şâh Khānūm / Khātûn Hazretleri, Ottoman Turkish: دولت شاه خاتون‎, c. 1365 – c. 1414), simply known as Devlet-Şâh, was the third wife of Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I and the mother of İsa Çelebi, Mustafa Çelebi the Düzmece, and Musa the Elderly Khan (who should not be confused with Musa Çelebi, the Second Sultan of Rumelia) of the Ottoman Empire.

Gülçiçek Hatun

Gülçiçek Hatun (Ottoman Turkish: گلچیچک خاتون‎; Greek: Γκιουλτσιτσέκ Χατούν, Gülçiçek = "rose blossom") was the first wife of Ottoman Sultan Murad I and Valide Hatun to their son Bayezid I.

Index of articles related to the Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (1299–1922) is a historical Muslim empire, also known by its contemporaries as the Turkish Empire or Turkey after the principal ethnic group. At its zenith in the second half of the 16th century it controlled Southeast Europe, Southwest Asia and North Africa. Below are the links to articles about the Ottoman Empire.

List of Ottoman Grand Viziers

The Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: Vezir-i Azam or Sadr-ı Azam (Sadrazam); Ottoman Turkish: صدر اعظم or وزیر اعظم) was the de facto prime minister of the sultan in the Ottoman Empire, with absolute power of attorney and, in principle, dismissible only by the sultan himself in the classical period, before the Tanzimat reforms, or until the 1908 Revolution. He held the imperial seal and could convene all other viziers to attend to affairs of the state in the Imperial Council; the viziers in conference were called "kubbe viziers" in reference to their meeting place, the Kubbealtı ('under-the-dome') in Topkapı Palace. His offices were located at the Sublime Porte.

List of Prime Ministers of Turkey

The following is a complete list of Prime Ministers of Turkey, since the establishment of that position in 1920, during the Turkish War of Independence. The Prime Minister was the head of the executive branch of the government along with the Cabinet. Following the constitutional referendum of 2017, the office of Prime Minister was abolished and Supreme power was handed to the President of Turkey after the general election of 2018.

For a list of Grand Viziers of the predecessor Ottoman Empire, see List of Ottoman Grand Viziers.

List of presidents of Turkey

The following is a complete list of people who held the office of President of Turkey. There have been twelve heads of state since the inception of the republican period in 1923, following the Turkish War of Independence.

For a list of rulers of the predecessor Ottoman Empire, see List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire.

Lists of office-holders

These are lists of incumbents (individuals holding offices or positions), including heads of states or of subnational entities.

A historical discipline, archontology, focuses on the study of past and current office holders.

Incumbents may also be found in the countries' articles (main article and "Politics of") and the list of national leaders, recent changes in 2007 in politics, and past leaders on State leaders by year and Colonial governors by year.

Various articles group lists by title, function or topic: e.g. abdication, assassinated persons, cabinet (government), chancellor, ex-monarchs (20th century), head of government, head of state, lieutenant governor, mayor, military commanders, minister (and ministers by portfolio below), order of precedence, peerage, president, prime minister, Reichstag participants (1792), Secretary of State.

Mihrişah Kadın

Mihrişah Kadın (Ottoman Turkish: مھرشاہ قادین‎; died c. 1732) alias Emine (Ottoman Turkish: امینه‎) was a consort of Sultan Ahmed III and the mother of Sultan Mustafa III.

Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (; Ottoman Turkish: دولت عليه عثمانیه‎, Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye, literally "The Exalted Ottoman State"; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), historically known to its inhabitants and the Eastern world as Rome (Rûm), and mistakenly known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. Although initially the dynasty was of Turkic origin, it was thoroughly Persianised in terms of language, culture, literature and habits. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states. Some of these were later absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians. The empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy, society and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires. The Ottomans consequently suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses, especially in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged. The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, and thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to largely hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent, especially with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, genocide was committed by the Ottoman government against the Armenians, Assyrians and Pontic Greeks.The Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy.

Ottoman dynasty

The Ottoman Dynasty (Turkish: Osmanlı Hanedanı) was made up of the members of the imperial House of Osman (Ottoman Turkish: خاندان آل عثمان‎ Ḫānedān-ı Āl-ı ʿOsmān), also known as the Ottomans (Turkish: Osmanlılar). According to Ottoman tradition, the family originated from the Kayı tribe branch of the Oghuz Turks, under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia in the district of Bilecik Söğüt. The Ottoman dynasty, named after Osman I, ruled the Ottoman Empire from c. 1299 to 1922.

During much of the Empire's history, the sultan was the absolute regent, head of state, and head of government, though much of the power often shifted to other officials such as the Grand Vizier. During the First (1876–78) and Second Constitutional Eras (1908–20) of the late Empire, a shift to constitutional monarchy was enacted, with the Grand Vizier taking on a prime ministerial role as head of government and heading an elected General Assembly.

The imperial family was deposed from power and the sultanate was abolished on 1 November 1922 during the Turkish War of Independence. The Republic of Turkey was declared the following year. The living members of the dynasty were initially sent into exile as personae non gratae, though some have been allowed to return and live as private citizens in Turkey. In its current form, the family is known as the Osmanoğlu family.

Ottoman family tree

This is a male family tree for all the Ottoman Sultans and their mothers. On the mother's side, flags denote their ethnic origin. For nations that did not exist in their time, modern equivalents have been used instead.

Pertevniyal Sultan

Pertevniyal Sultan (Ottoman Turkish: پرتونیال سلطان‎; c. 1810 – 26 January 1884), was a consort of Sultan Mahmud II, and Valide Sultan to their son Sultan Abdülaziz of the Ottoman Empire.

Raziye Sultan

Raziye Sultan (Ottoman Turkish: راضیہ سلطان‎, also known as Tasasız Raziye Sultan (Tasasız meaning "Carefree") was an Ottoman princess, the daughter of Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. She may have died along with most of her brothers of smallpox, in 1522, as there is no record of her in the privy purse during the reign of her father. She is buried in the Yahya Efendi Tekkesi in Beshiktash, Istanbul.

Records of heads of state

Heads of state throughout the world and at all periods of history may be ranked according to characteristics such as length of time holding that position; age of accession or death; or physical attributes. In this way world records in these characteristics may be identified, although the historical basis for such claims is frequently uncertain.

Tughra

A tughra (Ottoman Turkish: طغرا‎, romanized: tuğrâ) is a calligraphic monogram, seal or signature of a sultan that was affixed to all official documents and correspondence. It was also carved on his seal and stamped on the coins minted during his reign. Very elaborate decorated versions were created for important documents that were also works of art in the tradition of Ottoman illumination, such as the example of Suleiman the Magnificent in the gallery below.

The tughra was designed at the beginning of the sultan's reign and drawn by the court calligrapher or nişancı on written documents. The first tughra belonged to Orhan I (1284–1359), the second ruler of the Ottoman Empire and it evolved until it reached the classical form in the tughra of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (1494–1566).Tughras served a purpose similar to the cartouche in ancient Egypt or the Royal Cypher of British monarchs. Every Ottoman sultan had his own individual tughra.

Şehzade

Şehzade (Ottoman Turkish: شهزاده‎) is the Turkish form of the Persian title Shahzade, and refers to the male descendants of an Ottoman sovereign in the male line. This title is equivalent to "prince of the blood imperial" in English.

Şermi Kadın

Şermi Kadın (Ottoman Turkish: شرمی قادین‎; (c. 1698- c. 1732; alias Rabia Sultan (Ottoman Turkish: رابعه سلطان‎) was a consort of Sultan Ahmed III and the mother of Sultan Abdul Hamid I.

Ottoman Sultans / Caliphs
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