List of ski descents of Eight-Thousanders

The mountaineering community groups Earth's 14 mountains with summits exceeding 8,000 meters (26,000 feet), referred to as eight-thousanders, as a special category of peaks defining the "top of the world."[1] Only an elite group of mountaineers can claim to have summited all 14 peaks and many have perished trying.[2] (See eight-thousanders for current list.) Particularly since 1986 when Italian expeditionist Reinhold Messner became the first to have climbed all fourteen 8000m peaks, summiting the eight-thousanders has become the ultimate goal for many high altitude mountaineers.[3] Similarly, the ski-mountaineering community has set its sights on skiing from the summits of the "eight-thousanders." In a 2007 interview for the film Skiing Everest, the Italian mountaineer and skier, Hans Kammerlander articulated the challenge for the ski-mountaineering community: "Almost all peaks have been reached, almost all walls have been climbed. But seldom have the walls been skied down... It would be a lovely project if I could see someone who could ski all 8,000m peaks."[4]

"Skiers" include those using either alpine or telemark equipment or, in two instances, a "mono ski." The category here excludes snowboarders on the premise that the orientation of the skier's body to a slope differs significantly from that of a "boarder" affecting the capacities to negotiate a pitch. A separate entry tracks snowboard descents on 8000 meter peaks (Snowboard Descents From Above 8000m: Database). Even within the category of "skiers" equipment has evolved significantly from the time of Yuichiro Miura's first foray on skis above 8000m in 1970. Big mountain skiers have benefited greatly from incorporation of lighter and stronger composite materials into the manufacture of skis, boots and bindings, reducing the carry weight of their ski gear in addition to similar advances in designs for their other climbing gear and attire. Today's ski-mountaineer has likely shaved 20–25 lb (9.1–11.3 kg).) off their gear packs compared to when, for example, Sylvain Saudan hop turned down the face of Gasherbrum I in 1982, perhaps the first full descent of an 8000-meter peak.[5] The length, width and shape of skis has evolved to facilitate turning and flotation in deeper snow conditions. (Reports for most high altitude descents actually are far more likely to complain of hard, rutted ice than deep snow.[4] Back country skiing whether at altitude or on the lower ranges has also seen the development of "alpine touring" bindings with detached and fixed heel configurations for use in both upslope (in the "walk" configuration) and downslope (in the "fixed-heel" configuration).

Mountaineers apply rigorous standards to define an "ascent" and its "purity." The use of oxygen, for example, is vigorously debated, and it has become practice for trip reports to distinguish ascents supported by oxygen (O2) from those foregoing O2 use.[3] But for mountaineers at least the basic standard of attaining a summit with safe return is fairly absolute, the issue of documentation aside. Debate over use of 02, amount of assistance from Sherpas, line of ascent and other nits are qualifiers to the purity of the ascent. In ski mountaineering, the added dimension of the purity of the descent further muddies the standards at this time. Is the top the highest elevation of the snow line or is it the geological summit? Does a descent need to be continuous and what is the consideration for terrain in the middle of the mountain that is "un-skiable?" Does it matter if the skis come off during some portion of the descent to abseil a portion? While the standards of a mountaineering ascent still apply (including notation of O2 use), skiing, and the vagaries of "skiable" terrain add numerous variables to evaluating the purity of a descent.[6] Any database of ski descents is therefore likely to include heterogenous data.

Of the fourteen 8000 m peaks, clearly some peaks are more skiable than others as reflected in the number of descents to date (see below). Everest, Cho Oyu, Manaslu, GasherBrum II and Shisha Pangma have all seen more than 5 expeditions ski from above 8000 m. On the other hand, there are no reported ski descents from above 8000 m on Kangchenjunga, Makalu and Broad. Dhaulagiri and Nanga Parbat have been conquered by only one expedition each. Jamie Laidlaw made the lone descent on Lhotse but not from the summit; Hans Kammerlander skied the top 400 meters of K2 but no further.

Firsts:

  • 1970: Yuichiro Miura (Japan) made the first ski tracks above 8000m in preparation for his epic schuss starting near the south col of Everest for the film The Man Who Skied Down Everest.[7]
  • The honor of being first to ski from the top of an 8000m peak depends on the standard applied: Yves Morin (France) skied off the top of Annapurna in 1979 and over the course of the expedition skied all segments of the descent. However, he died while descending from the summit.[8] Joseph Millinger and Peter Woergoetter (both Austrian) skied from approximately 30m below the rocky knob summit of Manaslu in 1981.[9] The top knob was most likely not skiable due to lack of snow. However, in 2011, a cornice enabled Adrian Ballinger of the United States to "ski" from the same summit. Swiss extreme skier Sylvain Saudan's 1982 3000 m descent on skis from the top of Gasherbrum I (Hidden Peak) may be the first complete descent from the top of an 8000m peak. With estimated 3000 jump turns down a continuous 50 degree pitch Saudan's run off the top of GI is in any calculation one of the most daring extreme ski runs of all time.[10]
  • 1988: Veronique Perillat (France) was the first woman to ski from the top of an 8000er and the first woman to ski from over 8000 meters, skiing off the top of Cho Oyu on a monoski.[11]
  • 2000: Davo Karničar (Slovenia) completed the first top-to-bottom (base camp) descent of Everest (South Col route) without removing his skis. However, he benefited from 02 use. There has not been a similar ascent/descent of Everest without oxygen. 1996: Hans Kammerlander (Italy) skied the top 300 meters of Everest but climbed down to 7700m before skiing to Advance Base Camp. Kammerlander skied the North Col route.[12]
  • 2006: Kit DesLauriers (United States) was the first woman to ski off the top of Everest.[8]
  • 2018: Andrzej Bargiel (Poland) completed the first top-to-bottom (base camp) descent of K2 (a combination of the normal route, Basque route, Messner's variant to the Polish route) without removing his skis.

Descents

Notes on compiling this database of high altitude skiers: The 8000 meter ski database includes ski descents using alpine, telemark or mono ski equipment from above 8000m. It does not include snowboard descents. In addition to the entrant's name and peak identification, each entry details the estimated highest and lowest skied elevations, the route, use of oxygen, ski method and other very brief notes on the descent. A single reference for each entry is noted although often multiple sources are available. Notation: "c"=camp; "bc"=base camp; "abc"=advanced base camp; "m"=meter.

Mount Everest

NEPAL/CHINA - 8850 meters [13]

Skier Name Nationality Date Start Altitude (meters) Descent Route Notes O2 Age
Hans Kammerlander Italy 1996 8848 N. face from top 300m, 1000m by foot, ski to abc.[12] NO 39
Davo Karničar Slovenia 2000 8848 S. col 1st summit to bc ski descent without removing skis, 4h:40min[8] YES 37
Kit DesLauriers United States 2006 8848 S. col 1st woman to ski off summit[8] YES 36
Jimmy Chin United States 2006 8848 S. Pillar Skied from Summit; abseiled hillary skis on; skied from bottom of Hillary Step to South Summit; skied the South Pillar route which is fall line from Camp 4; night at 7900; lhotse face to abc[8] YES 33
Rob Deslauriers United States 2006 8848 S. col abseiled hillary skis on; hike to s.col; night at 7800; lhotse face to abc[8] YES 41
Olof Sundstrom Sweden 2006 8848 N. ridge to abc (6400), removed skis for several sections[8] YES 25
Martin Letzer Sweden 2006 8848 N. ridge to abc (6400), removed skis for several sections[8] YES 25
Tormod Granheim Norway 2006 8848 Norton to 8800; 8750 to 8500; 8480 to 7100 camped overnight; to 6500m[8] YES 31
Tomas Olsson Sweden 2006 8848 Norton died from fall at 8500[8] YES 30
Pierre Tardivel France 1992 8760 S. col to c2. world altitude record at time[14] YES 28
Dominique Perret Switzerland 1996? 8300 N. face Hornblein couloir, n. face[15] NO 34
Jean Afanassieff France 1978 8200 S. col to 6200 "not in one smooth run"[8][16] YES 25
Nicolas Jaeger France 1978 8200 S. col to 6200 "not in one smooth run"[8][16] YES 31
Reinhard Patschneider Italy 1987 8200 lhotse face from S. col fell dislocated shoulder[8] YES 30
Brice Lequertier France 2003 8200 S. col to 6100[8] ? 26
Yuichiro Miura Japan 1970 8082 S. col 5-6 turns to S. Col, then wore parachute in schuss to ~6200, ended with fall[7] YES 37

K2

PAKISTAN - 8611 meters

Skier Name Nationality Date Start Altitude (meters) Descent Route Notes O2 Age
Andrzej Bargiel Poland 2018 8611 The combination of the normal route (Abruzzi), then Basque route to camp 3, then traverse via Messner's variant to the Polish route and ski down to BC summiteer; 1st summit to bc ski descent without removing skis NO 30
Hans Kammerlander Italy 2001 8611 Abruzzi summiteer; skied top 400m, climbed rest of route due to conditions and pitch[8] NO 44
David Watson United States 2009 8351 Abruzzi did not summit; skied to c3 (7351), downclimbed pyramid and chimney, skied 6400 to 5100[17] YES 34
Fredrik Ericsson Sweden 2010 7800 Cesen/Basque Route did not summit; skied to BC (5100 m); died in the attempt to reach the summit[18] NO 35
Luis Stitzinger Germany 2011 8050 Cesen/Basque Route to C3, traverse to Kukuczka Route, down to BC did not summit; skied Kukuczka Route to BC (5100 m); longest ski descent up to date[19] NO 39

Kangchenjunga

NEPAL - 8586 meters

No ski descents from above 8000 meters

Lhotse

NEPAL - 8516 meters

Skier Name Nationality Date Start Altitude (meters) Descent Route Notes O2 Age
Jamie Laidlaw United States 2007 8300 Face to 6400 at night[8] YES 27
Hilaree Nelson United States 2018 8516 Dream Line summiteer; 1st summit to bc ski descent YES
Jim Morrison United States 2018 8516 Dream Line summiteer; 1st summit to bc ski descent YES

Makalu

NEPAL - 8485

No ski descents from above 8000 meters

Cho Oyu

NEPAL - 8188 meters

Skier Name Nationality Date Start Altitude (meters) Descent Route Notes O2 Age
Veronique Perillat France 1988 8188 NW side monoski, first woman from 8000m[20] NO 26
Adrian Ballinger United States 2013 8188 NW side continuous to C1, no snow below C1; 10m roped skiing at icecliff[21] YES 37
Sergey Baranov Russia 2013 8188 NW side continuous to C1, no snow below C1; 10m roped skiing at icecliff[21] YES 44
Halvard Stave Norway 2001 8188 NW side to rock band at 7800; c3 to c2; fell 300m but ok[8] YES 25
Thierry Renard France 1987 8188 NW side to 6200 - descent disputed[8] NO 41
Russell Reginald Brice New Zealand 1996 8188 W. ridge -W. face to 7500[8] YES 44
Hajime Terayama Japan 2000 8188 NW side to 7400[8] YES 33
Laura Bakos United States 2000 8188 NW side to 6600 w/ overnight at camp 3[8] NO 32
Vladimir Smrz Switzerland 2000 8188 NW side to c2, removed skis at yellow band[8] NO 35
Vladislav Terzyul Ukraine 2000 8188 NW side to c2; side stepped certain rock bands[8] NO 47
Viki Groselj Slovenia 2001 8188 NW side top to c1, overnight at c2; no snow below c1[8] NO 49
Kristoffer Erickson United States 2001 8188 NW side to c3(7500)[22] YES 28
Kazuka Hiraide Japan 2001 8188 NW side to c3(7500)[8] NO 22
Thomas Laemmle Germany 2003 8188 NW side to rock band 7800; 7600 to serac (6800); 6750 to snow end (6000)[8] NO 37
Wilhemus Pasquier Switzerland 2003 8188 NW side to C1 (6400)[8] NO 54
Greg Nieuwenhuys Netherlands 2004 8188 NW side to 8000, overnight at c3 (7500), ski c3/c2 and 6750/6400[8] NO 24
Takashi Nizayama Japan 2004 8188 NW side skinned up from 8000; skied from summit to 8000[8] YES 43
Tomas Olsson Sweden 2004 8188 NW side continuous to c1 (6400)[8] NO 28
Tormod Granheim Norway 2004 8188 NW side continuous to c1 (6400)[8] NO 30
Martin Walter Schmidt New Zealand 2004 8188 NW side continuous to c1 (6400)[8] NO 44
Todd Cavell Windle New Zealand 2004 8188 NW side to 7800[8] YES 30
Jean Noel Urban France 2005 8188 NW side continuous to c2(6750)[8] NO 45
Kasha Rigby United States 2005 8188 NW side to abc (5700) with overnight at c2; 1st telemark descent[8] YES 35
Hilaree O'Neill United States 2005 8188 NW side to abc with overnight at c2[8] YES 32
Kenton Edward Cool Great Britain 2006 8188 NW Side to abc (abseiled icefall c2-c1)[8] YES 33
Dusan Debelak Slovenia 2006 8188 NW side to c2 (6750)[8] NO 40
Octavio DeFazio Argentina 2006 8188 NW side to c1 (6400) (except 10m ice cliff)[8] YES 36
Martina Palm Switzerland 2006 8188 NW side to c1 (6400) (except 10m ice cliff)[8] YES 32
Steve Marolt United States 2007 8188 NW side to c1 (6600)[8][23] NO 42
Medhi Didault France 2007 8188 NW side to c1 (6600)[8] NO 22
Tyler Johnson United States 2007 8188 NW side to abc (5700) with overnight at c2[8] NO 31
Rory Stark United States 2007 8188 NWside to abc (5700) with overnight at c2[8] NO 36
James Gile United States 2007 8150 NW side to c1(6600)[8] NO 43
Michael Aasheim United States 2005 8100 NW Side skied to abc (5700) (thru icefall)[8] NO 43
Daniel McCann United States 2005 8100 NW side skied to abc (5700) (thru icefall)[8] NO 43
Mike Marolt United States 2007 8100 NW side to c1 (6600)[23] NO 42
Suzy Madge Great Britain 2008 8188 NWside to above c2 where rescued a lone mountaineer[24] YES 35
Fabio Beozzi Italy 2011 8100 NW side to 6000 (thru Messner Route, 1st ski descent)[8] NO 37
Jose Diogo Giraldes Tavares Portugal 2011 8050 NW side to ABC (5700) with overnight at c2 (7100)[8] NO 44
Brooks Entwistle United States 2016 8188 NW side To C1; No snow below C1; rappelled ice cliff and yellow band YES 49
Zebulon Blais United States 2016 8188 NW side Continuous to C1; no snow below C1; roped skiing through yellow band and ice cliff YES 33
Emily Harrington United States 2016 8188 NW side Continuous to C1; no snow below C1; roped skiing through ice cliff[25] YES 30
Adrian Ballinger Great Britain 2016 8188 NW side Continuous to C1; no snow below C1; roped skiing through ice cliff[25] YES 40
Aleksander Ostrowski Poland 2014 8188 NW side To C2, removed skis, packed a tent and then to C1 on skis[26] NO 26
Caroline Gleich United States 2018 8818 NW side To C1: rappelled yellow band and ice cliff YES 32

Dhaulagiri

NEPAL - 8167 meters

Skier Name Nationality Date Start Altitude (meters) Descent Route Notes O2 Age
David Fojtik Czech Republic 2009 8147 NE Ridge 20m below summit couloir to 30m above C3 (7200);C2 (6700) to BC (4700)[8] NO 36

Manaslu

NEPAL - 8163 meters

Skier Name Nationality Date Start Altitude (meters) Descent Route Notes O2 Age
Benedikt Bohm Germany 2012 8163 NE Face to bc (5000); skis off 7400-7300[27] NO 35
Vitaly Lazo Russia 2017 8163 NE Face to c1 (5300); skis off 7400-7300 and 6400-6200[27]"Vitaly".</ref> NO 44
Anton Pugovkin Russia 2017 8000 NE Face to c1 (5300); skis off 7400-7300 and 6400-6200[27]"Anton".</ref> NO 39
Adrian Ballinger United States 2011 8163 NE Face skied summit cornice from top, skis off 6100 to 5800 on descent from summit due to avalanche, 6100-5800 (hourglass) skied on previous day[28] YES 34
Sergey Baranove Russia 2011 8148 NE Face skis off 6100 to 5800 "hourglass"[29] YES
Guy Willet Great Britain 2009 8148 NE Face downclimbed 1st 15m, skied to 5050 w/ 5m downclimb @6250[30] YES 38
Robert Kay United States/Australia 2011 8148 NE Face downclimbed 1st 15m, skied to 7400 and 5800 to 5000 (crampon point)[31] YES 49
Emma Jack Great Britain 2009 8148 NE Face Skied to 5000m where snow ran out w/ short downclimb @ 6250m[32] YES 36
Kenton Cool Great Britain 2010 8148 NE Face to C2 (6400)/ 2 days[33] YES 37
Andrew Eggleston Great Britain 2010 8148 NE Face to C2 (6400)/ 2 days[33] YES 30
Josef Millinger Austria 1981 8133 NE Face skied from about 30m below summit to c5; then to c1 next day[34] NO 39
Peter Woergoetter Austria 1981 8133 NE Face skied from about 30m below summit to c5; then to c1 next day[34] NO 39
Nobukazu Kuriki 栗城史多? Japan 2008 8133 NE Face to c3 (6900) then to bc next day (4800)[8] NO 26
Sebastian Haag Germany 2012 8003 NE Face to basecamp (5000) with skis off 7400-7300[27] NO 34
Constantin Pade 2012 8003 NE Face to basecamp (5000) with skis off 7400-7300[27] NO
Andres Jorquera Taipa Chile 2009 8000 NE Face to 5000 (crampon pt) over 3 days[8] NO 33

Benjamin Darcé -USA from 8100 (just below summit ridge) no oxygen or Sherpa support.

Nanga Parbat

PAKISTAN - 8126 meters

SkierName Nationality Date Start Altitude (meters) Descent Route Notes O2 Age
Hans Kammerlander Italy 1990 8025 Diamir face (Kinshofer) downclimb top 100m, ski to bc[35] NO 34
Diego Wellig Switzerland 1990 8025 Diamir face (Kinshofer) downclimb 1st 100m, ski to bc[35] NO 29
Luis Stitzinger Germany 2008 7850 Central Diamir Face (Independent Line parallel to Messner Solo Route 1978) complete ski descent, ski to side moraine, 4600 m[36] PNO 39
Boris Langenstein France 2019 8070 Ski descent 33

Annapurna

NEPAL - 8093 meters

Skier Name Nationality Date Start Altitude (meters) Descent Route Notes O2 Age
Yves Morin France 1979 8091 N Face skied all sections but died at 6600 on descent from summit[8] NO 34
Davo Karničar Slovenia 1995 8091 normal route 1st descent from top to bc in one day - hawley notes suggest started 1200m below top?[8] NO 32
Andrej Karnicar Slovenia 1995 8091 normal route 1st descent from top to bc in one day[8] NO 25

Gasherbrum I

- PAKISTAN - 8080 meters

Skier Name Nationality Date Start Altitude (meters) Descent Route Notes O2 Age
Sylvain Saudan Switzerland 1982 8080 N. Face longest 50 degree slope ever skied? Age 42[10] NO 42
Iztok Tomazin Slovenia 1995 8080 N. Face Overnight at c3, Abseiled 8m section in Japanese couloir, to 5300[37] NO 45
Luis Stitzinger Germany 2018 8080 N. Face Skied from the summit, descended a passage 7800-7600 by foot (icy), overnight at c3, descended Japanese Couloir by foot (avalanche hazard), to 5400 (edge of icefall)[38] NO 50

Broad Peak

PAKISTAN - 8051 meters

Skier Name Nationality Date Start Altitude (meters) Descent Route Notes O2 Age
Hans Kammerlander Italy 1994 7850 West Ridge descent from col (7850 m) to bc[39] NO 38
Luis Stitzinger Germany 2011 7850 West Ridge descent from col (7850 m) to bc[19] NO 39
Andrzej Bargiel Poland 2015 8051 West Ridge only descent from top to bc in 3 hrs [40] NO 27

Gasherbrum II

PAKISTAN - 8034 meters

Skier Name Nationality Date Start Altitude (meters) Descent Route Notes O2 Age
Jacques Demarolle France 1984 8034 SW Ridge skied summit to c4 (7500)[41]
Frederic Maurel France 1984 8034 SW Ridge skied summit to c4 (7500)[41]
P. Glaizes France 1984 8034 SW Ridge skied summit to c4 (7500)[41]
P. Guedu France 1984 8034 SW Ridge skied summit to c4 (7500)[41]
Wilhemus Pasquier Switzerland 1984 8034 SW Ridge summit to bc (5200) over 3 days all on ski including 10m serac repel[41] 35
Patrice Bournat France 1984 8034 SW Ridge summit to bc (5200) over 3 days all on ski including 10m serac repel[41]
Thierry Renard France 1985 8034 South Face bivouacked at 7500, skied to c1 (5400) next day.[42] 42
Fredrik Ericsson Sweden 2005 8034 East Face to c3 (7000m)[43] NO 30
Jorgen Aamot Norway 2005 8034 East Face to c3 (7000m)[44] NO 31
Jean Noel Urban France 2006 8034 SW Ridge NO 46
Luis Stitzinger Germany 2006 8034 SW Ridge 17hr ABC to ABC (5900m); skied entire descent[45] NO 37
Benedikt Bohm Germany 2006 8034 SW Ridge summit to c3[45] NO 29
Sebastian Haag Germany 2006 8034 SW Ridge summit to c3[45] NO 28
Benedikt Bohm Germany 2006 8034 SW Ridge 17hr ABC to ABC (5900m); skied entire descent[45] NO 29
Sebastian Haag Germany 2006 8034 SW Ridge 17hr ABC to ABC (5900m); skied entire descent[45] NO 28

Shisha Pangma

CHINA - 8027 meters

Skier Name Nationality Date Start Altitude (meters) Descent Route Notes O2 Age
Peter Woergoetter Austria 1985 8027 NE Face uncertain if descended from main or central summit[46] 44
Oswald Gassler Austria 1985 8027 NE Face uncertain if descended from main or central summit[46] 38
Mark Whetu New Zealand 1987 8027 Northern route AAJ'88/279 suggests whetu from summit[47] 28
Jean Noel Urban France 2005 8027 SW Face - scott rte main summit partial descent[48] NO 45
Giorgio Daidola Italy 1988 8027 Northern Route [49] NO
Pino Negri Italy 1988 8027 Northern Route [49]
Mike Marolt United States 2000 8008 Northern Route central summit; 1st N. Am. to ski from 8000m[50] NO 36
Steve Marolt United States 2000 8008 Northern route central summit; 1st N. Am. to ski from 8000m[50] NO 36
Fredrik Ericsson Sweden 2004 8008 central summit[51] NO 29
Jean Noel Urban France 2004 8008 SW Face - Loretan rte central summit partial descent[48] NO 44
Mark Newcomb United States 2005 8008 Untsch central summit[52] NO 38
Kent McBride United States 2005 8008 Untsch central summit[52] NO
Luis Stitzinger Germany 2013 8027 Inaki Route NE Face main summit to end moraine(5900m); skied entire descent[53] NO 44
Jerzy Kukuczka Poland 1987 ~8000 Northern Route from bivac at around 8000m, partial descent[47] NO 39

See also

Notes

For the eight Nepalese peaks, the Himalayan Database from Hawley and Salisbury is the best single reference, particularly because Elizabeth Hawley et al. often interviewed the teams and solicited trip reports enabling some verification of the claims.[8] Nevertheless, searching the Himalayan Database on "skiing/snowboarding" still occasionally omits expeditions who reported ski descents in their expedition notes but for some reason are not categorized under skiing/snowboarding or in several instances simply omit discussing skiing altogether in the database report. It is probably the case that information from many years ago, while admirably back filled by Hawley, focused on ascents without reference to descent by skis. For the Pakistani peaks sources include web references, the American Alpine Journal and other expedition accounts. Similar sources are referenced for Shisha Pangma in China. Little or no attempt has been made to verify claims. Disputed claims are noted in the notes. It is hoped that by publishing this preliminary database, alpinists and others will correct, update and fill out what can only be considered a preliminary attempt to accurately catalogue skiing above 8000m.

References

  1. ^ Club, Richard Sale & John Cleare; colour origination by Saxon Photolitho (2000). Climbing the world's 14 highest mountains: the history of the 8,000-meter peaks. Seattle (WA): The Mountaineers. ISBN 0898867274.
  2. ^ "Climbers who have reached the summit of all 14 eight-thousanders".
  3. ^ a b Molenaar, Maurice Isserman and Stewart Weaver; with maps and peak sketches by Dee (2008). Fallen giants: a history of Himalayan mountaineering from the age of empire to the age of extremes. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300115017.
  4. ^ a b [Skiing Everest] Directors: Les Guthman and Mike Marolt, 2009
  5. ^ Mehlman, Ham (2009). "Mike and Steve Marolt - Getting High on Skiis". unpublished.
  6. ^ Dawson, Louis. "Wild Snow". Excellent discussion of "purity" in back country skiing ascent/descents.
  7. ^ a b Perlman, Yuichiro Miura, with Eric (1978). The man who skied down Everest (1st ed.). San Francisco: Harper & Row. ISBN 0062505750.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd Salisbury, Richard (2004). The Himalayan database the expedition archives of Elizabeth Hawley. Golden, Colo.: American Alphine Club Press. ISBN 0930410998.
  9. ^ "Manaslu, Northeast Face" (PDF). American Alpine Journal: 226. 1982.
  10. ^ a b Macaigne, Pierre (1983). Le Skier de L'Impossible - Sylvain Saudan - Victoire A ski sur l'Himalaya:8068m. Paris: Publi SA - Éditions Pierre-Marcel Favre. ISBN 2828901297.
  11. ^ Hawley, Elizabeth (1989). American Alpine Journal: 283. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  12. ^ a b "Kammerlander".
  13. ^ "Geographical facts of the Main 8000ers". "Altitude of the Nepalese mountains are taken from the Finnmaps and for the Karakoram mountains they are from the Chinese snow map. The altitude of Shisha Pangma was taken from the Austrian Alpine Club map.
  14. ^ Tardivel, Pierre (1997). Memoires de Pleine Pente. Paris: Publialp. ISBN 2950630774.
  15. ^ "Everest 1996".
  16. ^ a b American Alpine Journal. 1979. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  17. ^ Watson, David. "K2 2009".
  18. ^ http://www.fredrikericsson.com/
  19. ^ a b http://www.skitour-magazin.de/alle-ausgaben/ausgabe-411/
  20. ^ American Alpine Journal: 283. 1989. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  21. ^ a b Campbell, Jordan (13 October 2013). "Marmot Athlete Adrian Ballinger Guides Complete Ski Descent of 8000-meter Peak: Cho Oyu". SNews. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
  22. ^ American Alpine Journal: 417. 2003. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  23. ^ a b Paumgarten, Nick (2010-09-08). "Twin Freaks". Outside.
  24. ^ Cite error: The named reference Madge was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  25. ^ a b Miller, Marissa. "Meet the Couple Who Met on Everest and Just Speed-Climbed the World's Sixth-Tallest Peak". Vogue. Retrieved 2016-10-25.
  26. ^ "Olek Ostrowski, "szalony chłopak z Bieszczad", o wejściu i zjeździe z Cho Oyu" (in Polish). Retrieved 2018-10-04.
  27. ^ a b c d e Spring, Joe (2012-10-10). "Benedikt Böhm Climbs and Skis Manaslu in Less Than 24 Hours". Outside Online.
  28. ^ "Ballinger".
  29. ^ "Baranove".
  30. ^ "Willet".
  31. ^ "Altitude Junkies".
  32. ^ "Jack".
  33. ^ a b "British Mountain Club".
  34. ^ a b American Alpine Journal: 226. 1982. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  35. ^ a b American Alpine Journal: 277. 1991. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  36. ^ http://www.explorersweb.com/everest_k2/news.php?id=17446
  37. ^ Golub, Janez (1996). American Alpine Journal: 290. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  38. ^ https://blogs.dw.com/abenteuersport/achttausender-nummer-acht-fuer-luis-stitzinger/
  39. ^ http://www.kammerlander.com/vita/biographie/
  40. ^ "Andrzej Bargiel Claims Broad Peak Summit and Ski Descent".
  41. ^ a b c d e f Croisot, Daniel (1985). "Gasherbrum II, Ski Descent" (PDF). American Alpine Journal: 311.
  42. ^ American Alpine Journal: 273–274. 1986. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  43. ^ Adventures Gasherbrum II. "Gasherbrum II".
  44. ^ "Adventures Gasherbrum II".
  45. ^ a b c d e "Gasherbrum II" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-12-07.
  46. ^ a b American Alpine Journal: 299. 1986. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  47. ^ a b http://www.sport.pl/sport/1,65025,14706836,Andrzej_Bargiel_zjechal_na_nartach_z_Sziszapangmy.html
  48. ^ a b "Urban".
  49. ^ a b American Alpine Journal: 287. 1989. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  50. ^ a b (personal communication from Mike Marolt)
  51. ^ "Shisha Pangma".
  52. ^ a b The Line: A journey to the Far Fringe of Skiing produced by Marmot
  53. ^ http://www.merkur.de/lokales/muenchen-lk-sued/ottobrunn/flottem-tempo-8027-meter-hoehe-2900676.html
Eight-thousander

The International Mountaineering and Climbing Federation or UIAA recognise eight-thousanders as the 14 mountains that are more than 8,000 metres (26,247 ft) in height above sea level, and are considered to be sufficiently independent from neighbouring peaks. However, there is no precise definition of the criteria used to assess independence, and since 2012 the UIAA has been involved in a process to consider whether the list should be expanded to 20 mountains. All eight-thousanders are located in the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges in Asia, and their summits are in the death zone.

The first person to summit all 14 eight-thousanders was Italian Reinhold Messner in 1986, who completed the feat without the aid of supplementary oxygen. In 2010, Spaniard Edurne Pasaban became the first woman to summit all 14 eight-thousanders, but with the aid of supplementary oxygen; in 2011 Austrian Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner became the first woman to summit all 14 eight-thousanders without the aid of supplementary oxygen. From 1950–1964, all eight-thousanders were summited. As of May 2019, K2 remains the only eight-thousander not summited in a Winter ascent.

List of Mount Everest records

This article lists different records related to Mount Everest. One of the most commonly sought after records is a "summit", to reach the highest elevation point on Mount Everest.

Mount Everest

Mount Everest, known in Nepali as Sagarmatha (सगरमाथा), in Tibetan as Chomolungma (ཇོ་མོ་གླང་མ) and in Chinese as Zhumulangma (珠穆朗玛), is Earth's highest mountain above sea level, located in the Mahalangur Himal sub-range of the Himalayas. The international border between Nepal (Province No. 1) and China (Tibet Autonomous Region) runs across its summit point.

The current official elevation of 8,848 m (29,029 ft), recognized by China and Nepal, was established by a 1955 Indian survey and subsequently confirmed by a Chinese survey in 1975. In 2005, China remeasured the rock height of the mountain, with a result of 8844.43 m (29,017 ft). There followed an argument between China and Nepal as to whether the official height should be the rock height (8,844 m, China) or the snow height (8,848 m, Nepal). In 2010, an agreement was reached by both sides that the height of Everest is 8,848 m, and Nepal recognizes China's claim that the rock height of Everest is 8,844 m.In 1865, Everest was given its official English name by the Royal Geographical Society, upon a recommendation by Andrew Waugh, the British Surveyor General of India. As there appeared to be several different local names, Waugh chose to name the mountain after his predecessor in the post, Sir George Everest, despite Everest's objections.Mount Everest attracts many climbers, some of them highly experienced mountaineers. There are two main climbing routes, one approaching the summit from the southeast in Nepal (known as the "standard route") and the other from the north in Tibet. While not posing substantial technical climbing challenges on the standard route, Everest presents dangers such as altitude sickness, weather, and wind, as well as significant hazards from avalanches and the Khumbu Icefall. As of 2017, nearly 300 people have died on Everest, many of whose bodies remain on the mountain.The first recorded efforts to reach Everest's summit were made by British mountaineers. As Nepal did not allow foreigners into the country at the time, the British made several attempts on the north ridge route from the Tibetan side. After the first reconnaissance expedition by the British in 1921 reached 7,000 m (22,970 ft) on the North Col, the 1922 expedition pushed the north ridge route up to 8,320 m (27,300 ft), marking the first time a human had climbed above 8,000 m (26,247 ft). Seven porters were killed in an avalanche on the descent from the North Col. The 1924 expedition resulted in one of the greatest mysteries on Everest to this day: George Mallory and Andrew Irvine made a final summit attempt on 8 June but never returned, sparking debate as to whether or not they were the first to reach the top. They had been spotted high on the mountain that day but disappeared in the clouds, never to be seen again, until Mallory's body was found in 1999 at 8,155 m (26,755 ft) on the north face. Tenzing Norgay and Edmund Hillary made the first official ascent of Everest in 1953, using the southeast ridge route. Norgay had reached 8,595 m (28,199 ft) the previous year as a member of the 1952 Swiss expedition. The Chinese mountaineering team of Wang Fuzhou, Gonpo, and Qu Yinhua made the first reported ascent of the peak from the north ridge on 25 May 1960.

Skiing Everest

Skiing Everest is an American adventure documentary directed by Les Guthman and Mike Marolt; written by Les Guthman, and featuring high-altitude skiers Mike Marolt, Steve Marolt, John Callaghan, Jim Gile, Hans Kammerlander, Chris Davenport, Laura Bakos, Mark Newcomb. The film also features Fredrik Ericsson, who died skiing on K2 in 2010.Filmed by Mike Marolt over ten years, Skiing Everest tells the story of a group of close friends, led by Marolt and his twin brother Steve, who grew up in Aspen, Colorado, and went on to become the first skiers from the Western Hemisphere to ski from above 8,000 meters (26,247 ft.) when they skied from the summit of Shisha Pangma in Tibet in 2000, and then challenged the highest slopes in the world on Mount Everest and Cho Oyu.The film follows the Marolts and their childhood friends Jim Gile, and John Callahan, who was an Olympic cross-country skier, on skiing expeditions into the death zone above 26,000 ft., without using bottled oxygen. At the top of the world, they lock into their skis and challenge the most dangerous slopes in the world.

Skiing Everest also tells the history of high-altitude skiing, dating back to the 1930s, and includes interviews with Hans Kammerlander, who was the first to ski from the summit of Everest; Laura Bakos, the first woman to ski from the summit of an 8,000 m. peak; and Chris Davenport, the two-time world extreme skiing champion, who is an avid ski mountaineer as well. And it tells the Marolts' personal story: the sons of U.S. Olympic skier Max Marolt, who grew up in Aspen, before it became an internationally famous ski destination and who took to skiing in the hope of escaping what was an isolated, decaying former mining town.

Skiing Everest was shown in film festivals and theaters in 2009-2011 and was bought by ESPN in July 2011 for broadcast in the United States and Europe. It debuted on ESPN Classic in November 2011 with six primetime broadcasts over the weekend of November 18–20.Skiing Everest was converted from 2D to 3D in 2012 by Blue Hemisphere 3D. It will premiere in December 2012 and be released in theaters and on 3D Blu-ray Disc in January 2013.

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