List of rulers of Oman

The Sultan of the Sultanate of Oman is the monarch and head of state of Oman. It is the most powerful position in the country. The sultans of Oman are members of the Al Said dynasty, which is the ruling family of Oman since the mid-18th century.

Since 23 July 1970, Qaboos bin Said al Said is the current sultan.

Sultan of Oman
سلطان عمان
Royal Standard of Oman
Incumbent
Omani Qaboos bin Said Al Said (cropped)
Qaboos
since 23 July 1970
Details
StyleHis Majesty
Heir apparentNone currently designated
First monarchAl-Julanda bin Mas'ood (imamate)
Ahmad bin Said (Al Bu Said dynasty)
Formation751 (imamate)
1744 (Al Said Dynasty)
ResidenceSeveral palaces
Websitewww.oman.om

List of Imams (751–1406)

Imams Tribe Residence Began to reign Reference
Transliteration of the Arab names Names in Arab script
Al-Julanda bin Mas'ood الجلندى بن مسعود Azd ? 751 [1]
Mohammed bin Abi Affan محمد بن أبي عفان Azd Nizwa ? [2]
Al-Warith bin Ka'ab الوارث بن كعب Yahmad Nizwa 801 [3]
Ghassan bin Abdullah غسان بن عبد الله Yahmad Nizwa 807 [4]
Abdulmalik bin Humaid عبد المالك بن حميد Azd ? 824 [5]
Al-Muhanna bin Jayfar المهنا بن جيفر Yahmad Nizwa 840 [6]
Al-Salt bin Malik الصلت بن مالك Azd ? 851 [7]
Rashid bin Al-Nadhar راشد بن النظر ? ? 886 [8]
Azzan bin Tamim عزان بن تميم ? Nizwa 890 [9]
Mohammed bin Al-Hassan محمد بن الحسن Azd ? 897 [10]
Azzan bin Al-Hazbar عزان بن الهزبر Yahmad ? 898 [11]
Abdullah bin Mohammed عبد الله بن محمد ? ? 899 [12]
Al-Salt bin Al-Qasim الصلت بن القاسم ? ? 900 [13]
Al-Husn bin Said الحسن بن سعيد ? ? 900 [14]
Al-Hawari bin Matraf الحواري بن مطرف ? ? 904 [15]
Omar bin Mohammed عمر بن محمد ? ? 912 [16]
Mohammed bin Yazid محمد بن يزيد Kinda ? ? [17]
Al-Hakm bin Al-Milaa Al-Bahri الحكم بن الملا البحري ? Nizwa ? [18]
Said bin Abdullah سعيد بن عبد الله ? ? 939 [19]
Rashid bin Waleed راشد بن الوليد ? Nizwa ? [20]
Al-Khalil bin Shadhan الخليل بن شاذان ? ? 1002 [21]
Rashid bin Said راشد بن سعيد ? ? 1032 [22]
Hafs bin Rashid حفص بن راشد ? ? 1068 [23]
Rashid bin Ali راشد بن علي ? ? 1054 [24]
Musa bin Jabir ابن جابر موسى ? Nizwa 1154 [25]
Salim bin Rashid Al Kharusi Azdi, Yamani, Qahtani ? 1331 - 1338 [26]
Malik bin Aly مالك بن علي ? ? 1406 [27]

List of Imams (1406–1749)

Nabhani dynasty (1406–1624)

Name Portrait Reign start Reign end Notes
Makhzum bin al Fallah No image 1406 1435
Abul Hassan of Oman No image 1435 1451
Omar bin al Khattab No image 1451 1490
Omar al Sharif No image 1490 1500
Muhammad bin Ismail No image 1500 1529 Portuguese protectorate imposed on 15 April 1515.
Barakat bin Muhammad No image 1529 1560
Abdulla bin Muhammad No image 1560 1624

Yaruba dynasty (1624–1749)

Name Portrait Reign start Reign end Notes
Nasir bin Murshid No image 1624 1649
Sultan bin Saif No image 1649 1679 Portuguese protectorate ended with their expulsion on 1 January 1650.
Bil'arab bin Sultan No image 1679 1692
Saif bin Sultan No image 1692 1711
Sultan bin Saif II No image 1711 1718
Saif bin Sultan II No image 1718 1719
Muhanna bin Sultan No image 1719 1720
Saif bin Sultan II No image 1720 1722 Second reign
Ya'arab bin Bel'arab No image 1722 1722
Saif bin Sultan II No image 1722 1724 Third reign
Muhammad bin Nasir No image 1724 1728 Not a member of the dynasty
Saif bin Sultan II No image 1728 1742 Fourth reign; at first in the coastal area only
Bal'arab bin Himyar No image 1728 1737 First reign; in the interior
Sultan bin Murshid No image 1742 1743
Bal'arab bin Himyar No image 1743 1749 Second reign; in the interior

List of Sultans

Al Said dynasty (1749–present)

Name Portrait Reign start Reign end Notes
Ahmad bin Said al-Busaidi No image 10 June 1749 15 December 1783 From 1744 in the coastal region
Said bin Ahmad No image 15 December 1783 1784 Last direct male descendant of Al Bu Said to hold the office of Imam. He abdicated secular power to his son Hamad and retired to Al-Rustaq where he died in 1803.[28]
Hamad bin Said No image 1784 13 March 1792
Sultan bin Ahmad No image 13 March 1792 20 November 1804
Salim bin Sultan No image 20 November 1804 14 September 1806 Co-Rulers
Said bin Sultan Said Bin Sultan
Said II bin Sultan 14 September 1806 19 October 1856 Sole Ruler
Thuwaini bin Said No image 19 October 1856 11 February 1866 Killed
Salim II bin Thuwaini No image 11 February 1866 3 October 1868 Deposed
Azzan bin Qais No image 3 October 1868 30 January 1871 Killed
Turki bin Said Turki ibn Said 30 January 1871 4 June 1888
Faisal bin Turki Faysal bin Turki 4 June 1888 9 October 1913 British protectorate imposed on 20 March 1891.[29][30]
Taimur bin Feisal 9 October 1913 10 February 1932 Abdicated
Said III bin Taimur 10 February 1932 23 July 1970 Deposed
Qaboos bin Said Omani Qaboos bin Said Al Said (cropped) 23 July 1970 Incumbent British protectorate ended on 2 December 1971.

Succession

Unlike the heads of other Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Qaboos has not publicly named an heir. Article 6 of the constitution says the royal family should choose a new sultan within three days of the position falling vacant. If the royal family council fails to agree, a letter containing a name penned by Sultan Qaboos should be opened in the presence of a defence council of military and security officials, supreme court chiefs, and heads of the two quasi-parliamentary advisory assemblies.[31] Analysts see the rules as an elaborate means of Sultan Qaboos securing his choice for successor without causing controversy by making it public during his lifetime, since it is considered unlikely that the royal family would be able to agree on a successor on its own.[31]

Qaboos has no children; there are other male members of the Omani royal family including several paternal uncles and their families. Using same-generation primogeniture, the successor to Qaboos would appear to be the children of his late uncle, Sayyid Tariq bin Taimur Al Said, Oman's first prime minister before the sultan took over the position himself (and his former father-in-law).[32] Oman watchers believe the top contenders to succeed Qaboos are three of Tariq's sons: Assad bin Tariq Al Said, the personal representative of the Sultan; Shihab bin Tariq, a retired naval commander; and Haitham bin Tariq Al Said, the Minister of Heritage and National Culture.[31][33] First Deputy Prime Minister Fahd bin Mahmud al-Said, a distant cousin of the Sultan, and Taimur bin Assad, the son of Assad bin Tariq, are also mentioned as potential candidates.[31]

Standard of the Sultan

Royal Standard of Oman

Standard of the Sultan of Oman.

See also

References

General
  • "Oman's Rulers Through History (Pre-Islam – 12th Century AD)". Ministry of Information of the Sultanate of Oman. Archived from the original on 2011-06-22. Retrieved 2010-07-19.
  • "Oman's Rulers Through History (13th Century AD – 18th Century AD)". Ministry of Information of the Sultanate of Oman. Archived from the original on 2010-09-26. Retrieved 2010-07-19.
  • "The Al Bu Said Dynasty". Ministry of Information of the Sultanate of Oman. Archived from the original on 2010-05-12. Retrieved 2010-07-19.
Specific
  1. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 7
  2. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 9
  3. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 10
  4. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 12
  5. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 15
  6. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 16
  7. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 19
  8. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 19
  9. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 20
  10. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 25
  11. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 25
  12. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 26
  13. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 26
  14. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 26
  15. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 26
  16. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 27
  17. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 28
  18. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 29
  19. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 29
  20. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 30
  21. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 35
  22. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 35
  23. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 35
  24. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 35
  25. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 36
  26. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 36
  27. ^ Salil-Ibn Razik 1871, p. 36
  28. ^ Rentz, George (1997) Oman and the south-eastern shore of Arabia Ithaca Press, Reading, Berkshire, United Kingdom : pages 204-205, ISBN 0-86372-199-0
  29. ^ See Persian Gulf Residency
  30. ^ Oman
  31. ^ a b c d Dokoupil, Martin (24 May 2012). "Succession Question Fuels Uncertainty in Oman". Reuters. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
  32. ^ HH Prince Sayyid Tarik bin Taimur al-Said Archived 1 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com. Retrieved on 14 July 2011.
  33. ^ "The Question of Succession". Muscat Confidential. Retrieved 2 August 2012.

Bibliography

External links

  • Buyers, Christopher. "Oman". The Royal Ark: Royal and Ruling Houses of Africa, Asia, Oceania and the Americas. Retrieved 2010-08-08.
Imam

Imam (; Arabic: إمام‎ imām; plural: أئمة aʼimmah) is an Islamic leadership position.

It is most commonly used as the title of a worship leader of a mosque and Muslim community among Sunni Muslims. In this context, imams may lead Islamic worship services, serve as community leaders, and provide religious guidance. In Yemen, the title was formerly given to the king of the country.

For Shi'a Muslims, the imam has a more central meaning and role in Islam through the concept of imamah; the term is only applicable to those members of Ahl al-Bayt, the house of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, designated as infallibles.

Jebel Akhdar War

The Jebel Akhdar War (Arabic: حرب الجبل الأخضر‎, romanized: Ḥarb al-Jebel el-ʾAkhḍar, lit. 'the Green Mountain War') or the Jebel Akhdar rebellion broke out in 1954 and again in 1957 in Oman, as an effort by the local Omanis in the interior of Oman led by their elected Imam, Ghalib Alhinai, to protect the Imamate of Oman from the occupation plans of Sultan Said bin Taimur, backed by the British government, who were eager to gain access to the oil wells in the interior lands of Oman. Sultan Said received direct financing to raise an armed force to occupy the Imamate of Oman from Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC), a consortium of oil companies that was majorly owned by what-is-known-today as Royal Dutch Shell, Total, ExxonMobil and British Petroleum (BP); the latter was majority-owned by the British government. The Imamate was eventually supported by Egypt and Saudi Arabia. The war lasted until 1959, when the British armed forces decided to take on direct interventions using air and ground attacks on the Imamate, which won the Sultanate the war. The declarations signed by the Sultans of Muscat to consult the British government on all important matters, the unequal trade treaties signed by the two sides favoring British interests, the cessation of the Omani Kuria Muria islands to the British, and the vast control over the Sultanate's government ministries, including defense and foreign affairs, exerted by the British rendered the Sultanate a de facto British colony. The UN General Assembly adopted the 'Question of Oman' resolution in 1965, 1966 and again in 1967 that called upon the British government to cease all repressive action against the locals and reaffirmed the inalienable right of the Omani people to self-determination and independence.

List of Sultans of Zanzibar

The Sultans of Zanzibar (Arabic: سلاطين زنجبار‎) were the rulers of the Sultanate of Zanzibar, which was created on 19 October 1856 after the death of Said bin Sultan, who had ruled Oman and Zanzibar as the Sultan of Oman since 1804. The Sultans of Zanzibar were of a cadet branch of the Al Said Dynasty of Oman.In 1698, Zanzibar became part of the overseas holdings of Oman, falling under the control of the Sultan of Oman. In 1832, or 1840 (the date varies among sources), Said bin Sultan moved his capital from Muscat in Oman to Stone Town. He established a ruling Arab elite and encouraged the development of clove plantations, using the island's slave labour. Zanzibar's commerce fell increasingly into the hands of traders from the Indian subcontinent, whom Said encouraged to settle on the island. After his death in 1856, two of his sons, Majid bin Said and Thuwaini bin Said, struggled over the succession, so Zanzibar and Oman were divided into two separate principalities; Thuwaini became the Sultan of Oman while Majid became the first Sultan of Zanzibar. During his 14-year reign as Sultan, Majid consolidated his power around the East African slave trade. His successor, Barghash bin Said, helped abolish the slave trade in Zanzibar and largely developed the country's infrastructure. The third Sultan, Khalifa bin Said, also furthered the country's progress toward abolishing slavery.Until 1886, the Sultan of Zanzibar controlled a substantial portion of the east African coast, known as Zanj, and trading routes extending further into the continent, as far as Kindu on the Congo River. That year, the British and Germans secretly met and re-established the area under the Sultan's rule. Over the next few years, most of the mainland possessions of the Sultanate were taken by European imperial powers. With the signing of the Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty in 1890 during Ali bin Said's reign, Zanzibar became a British protectorate. In August 1896, Britain and Zanzibar fought a 38-minute war, the shortest in recorded history, after Khalid bin Barghash had taken power after Hamid bin Thuwaini's death. The British had wanted Hamoud bin Mohammed to become Sultan, believing that he would be much easier to work with. The British gave Khalid an hour to vacate the Sultan's palace in Stone Town. Khalid failed to do so, and instead assembled an army of 2,800 men to fight the British. The British launched an attack on the palace and other locations around the city. Khalid retreated and later went into exile. Hamoud was then installed as Sultan.In December 1963, Zanzibar was granted independence by the United Kingdom and became a constitutional monarchy under the Sultan. Sultan Jamshid bin Abdullah was overthrown a month later during the Zanzibar Revolution. Jamshid fled into exile, and the Sultanate was replaced by the People's Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba. In April 1964, the republic was united with Tanganyika to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, which became known as Tanzania six months later.

List of ambassadors of China to Oman

The Chinese ambassador in Muscat, Oman is the official representative of the government in Beijing to the Government of Oman.

List of ambassadors of Oman to China

The Omani ambassador in Beijing is the official representative of the Government in Muscat, Oman to the Government of the People's Republic of China.

List of ambassadors of Oman to the United States

The Omani ambassador in Washington, D. C. is the official representative of the Government in Muscat, Oman to the Government of the United States.

List of kingdoms and royal dynasties

Monarchism is a movement that supports the monarchy as a form of government.

Muscat and Oman

The Sultanate of Muscat and Oman (Arabic: سلطنة مسقط وعمان‎ Salṭanat Masqaṭ wa-‘Umān) was a thalassocratic nation that encompassed the present-day Sultanate of Oman and parts of present-day United Arab Emirates and Gwadar, Pakistan. The country is not to be confused with Trucial states, which were sheikhdoms under British protection since 1820. Muscat courts' verdits were based on Ibadhi Islamic sharia law and appeals were raised to the Sultan of Muscat who exercised supreme ruling.

Oman proper

Oman proper (Arabic: عُمَان ٱلْوُسْطَى‎, romanized: ʿUmān al-Wusṭā) may refer to Al Hajar Mountains, and the Imamate of Oman (Arabic: إِمَامَة عُمَان‎, romanized: Imāmat ʿUmān) refers to a historical area within the present-day Sultanate of Oman. The capital of the Imamate alternated historically between Rustaq and Nizwa. The Imamate's territory extended north to Ibri and south to Alsharqiyah region and the Wahiba Sands. The Imamate was bounded from the east by the Hajar Mountains and from the west by the Empty Quarter desert. The Hajar Mountains separated the Imamate of Oman from the Sultanate of Muscat. The elected Imam (ruler) resided in the capital, and Walis (governors) represented the Imamate in its different regions.The Imamate of Oman, similar to the Sultanate of Muscat, was ruled by the Ibadi sect. Imams exercised spiritual and temporal representation over the region. The Imamate is a 1,200 year old system of government pioneered by the Ibadi religious leaders of Oman, and was based upon the Islamic sharia. The Imamate holds that the ruler should be elected. The imam is considered as the head of the community but tribalism that is part of the Omani society encouraged a decentralized form of governance that would help sustain political unity among the Omanis. The Imamate set out a government system wherein the ruler should not have absolute political nor military power; rather power should be shared with local governors. In order to prevent local or external threats to the Imamate, the imam had to gather the support of the local communities and tribes in order to raise a force to fight for a certain cause. The imam needed in-depth understanding of tribal politics and political acumen in order to maintain political stability within the Imamate when conflicts occurred.

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Sultans of Oman since 1749

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