List of rulers of Edom

The following is a list of the known rulers of the Kingdom of Edom in the Levant.


Descendants of Esau

Esau עֵשָׂו (Edom אֱדֹֽום) Married three wives[1]

  • Reuel[2] רְעוּאֵֽל By Basemath בָּשְׂמַ֥ת (daughter of Elon the Hittite, wife of Ishmael?)[3] Also called Mahalath (the sister of Nebaioth, the firstborn of Ishmael) Married just after Jacob's flight to Haran
    • Nahath נַ֥חַת
    • Zerah זֶ֖רַח (father of Jobab 2nd Duke of Edom?)

According to Al-Biruni Alexander the Great was descendant of Esau.

    • Shammah שַׁמָּ֣ה
    • Mizzah מִזָּ֑ה
  • Jeush יְע֥וּשׁ By Oholibamah[4] אָהֳלִֽיבָמָה֙ (daughter of Anah עֲנָ֔ה (the wife of Beeri?) the daughter of Zibeon צִבְעֹ֖ון the Hivite). (Also called Judith daughter of Beeri the Hittite) Married just before Jacob's flight to Haran
  • Jalam יַעְלָ֖ם
  • Korah קֹ֑רַח
  • Eliphaz[5] אֱלִיפָ֑ז By Adah[6] עָדָ֗ה daughter of Elon אֵילֹון֙ the Hittite. (possibly the same Eliphaz the Temanite in the Book of Job) Married before Jacob's flight to Haran
    • Teman תֵּימָ֣ן
    • Omar אֹומָ֔ר
    • Zepho צְפֹ֥ו
    • Gatam גַעְתָּ֖ם
    • Kenaz קְנַֽז
    • Amalek עֲמָלֵ֑ק (by his concubine Timna[7] תִמְנַ֣ע the sister of Lotan[8] the son of Seir)

Implied non-hereditary kings

Kingdoms of the Levant Map 830
Map of Edom.
king son of from city
Bela Beor Dinhabah
Jobab Zerah Bozrah
Husham Land of Teman
Hadad Bedad Avith
Samlah Masrekah
Shaul Rehoboth on the river
Baal-hanan Achbor
Hadad Pau (P'ai)


Yotvata and Edom Mountains
Mountains of Edom
  • Timnah (Timna)
  • Aliah (Alvah)
  • Jetheth
  • Oholibamah
  • Elah
  • Pinon
  • Kenaz
  • Teman II
  • Mibzar
  • Magdiel
  • Iram
  • To Israel c. 990-922
    •  ?
  • To Judah 922 - early 9th century
    • ?
  • To Assyria 724-612
    • Malik-rammu (Assyrian name; Edomite name Melek-ram) fl. c. 740
    • Shalman fl. c. 735 (Assyrian name; Edomite name unknown)
    • Kaus-gabri fl. c. 700 (Assyrian name; Edomite name Qos-geber)
    • Kaus-malaka fl c. 700 (Assyrian name; Edomite name Qos-melek)
  • To Babylon 612-539
    •  ?
  • Independence 539-c. 275
    •  ?
  • To the Seleucid Empire c. 200-160
    •  ? c. 270 - c. 200
    • Gorigas 160s
    •  ? 160-109
  • Governors of Idumea under the Hasmonean dynasty 109 BC.

Governors of Idumea under Herod

Note that the Herodian dynasty itself was of Idumaean extraction.

  • Joseph ben Antipater (brother of Herod the Great). c. 43-35
  • Costobarus (brother-in-law of Herod the Great).......30s
  • To Judea directly.................................30s-4
  • To Rome..........................................4 BC- AD 60

Governors of Idumea under the Revolutionary government of Judaea


  1. ^ Gen 26
    When Esau was forty years old, he married
    Judith daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and also
    Basemath daughter of Elon the Hittite.
    35 They were a source of grief to Isaac and Rebekah.
    Genesis 28 (KJV)
    9Then went Esau unto Ishmael whom God blessed (Genesis 17:20), and took unto the wives which he had
    Mahalath the daughter of Ishmael Abraham's chosen son (Gen. 17:20), the sister of Nebajoth, to be his wife.
    Gen 36
    2Esau took his wives of the daughters of Canaan;
    Adah the daughter of Elon the Hittite, and
    Aholibamah the daughter of Anah the daughter of Zibeon the Hivite;
    3also Basemath daughter of Ishmael and sister of Nebaioth
  2. ^ Gen 36 13And these are the sons of Reuel;
    Nahath, and Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah: these were the (grand)sons of Bashemath Esau's wife.
  3. ^ Gen 36
    10These are the names of Esau's sons;
    Eliphaz the son of Adah the wife of Esau,
    Reuel the son of Bashemath the wife of Esau.
  4. ^ Gen 36 14And these were the sons of
    Aholibamah, the daughter of Anah the daughter of Zibeon (the Hivite?), Esau's wife: and she bare to Esau
    Jeush, and Jaalam, and Korah.
  5. ^ Gen 36 11And the sons of Eliphaz were Teman, Omar, Zepho, and Gatam, and Kenaz.
  6. ^ Gen 36
    10These are the names of Esau's sons;
    Eliphaz the son of Adah the wife of Esau,
    Reuel the son of Basemath the wife of Esau.
  7. ^ Gen 36 12And Timna was concubine to Eliphaz Esau's son;

    and she bare to Eliphaz Amalek: these were the (grand)sons of Adah Esau's wife.
  8. ^ 1 Chron 1
    39And the sons of Lotan; Hori, and Homam: and Timna was Lotan's sister.

Avith ("ruin") was an Edomite city. It was the capital of the Edomite king Hadad ben Bedad. According to the Bible, Hadad ben Bedad was one of the kings of Edom before there were kings in Israel, that is, before the coronation of Saul ("widely" dated around 1025 BCE). Avith is mentioned only twice in the Hebrew Bible: in a list of Edomite kings in Genesis (Genesis 36:35), and in a copy of the same list found in Chronicles (1 Chronicles 1:46). Its location is unknown but presumably it was in what is now southern Israel or Jordan.


Edom (; Edomite: 𐤀𐤃𐤌 ’Edām; Hebrew: אֱדוֹם ʼÉḏōm, lit.: "red"; Akkadian: 𒌑𒁺𒈠𒀀𒀀 Uduma; Syriac: ܐܕܘܡ‎) was an ancient kingdom in Transjordan located between Moab to the northeast, the Arabah to the west and the Arabian Desert to the south and east. Most of its former territory is now divided between Israel and Jordan. Edom appears in written sources relating to the late Bronze Age and to the Iron Age in the Levant, such as the Hebrew Bible and Egyptian and Mesopotamian records. In classical antiquity, the cognate name Idumea was used for a smaller area in the same general region.

Edom and Idumea are two related but distinct terms which are both related to a historically-contiguous population but two separate, if adjacent, territories which were occupied by the Edomites/Idumeans in different periods of their history. The Edomites first established a kingdom ("Edom") in the southern area of modern-day Jordan and later migrated into the southern parts of the Kingdom of Judah ("Idumea", or modern-day southern Israel/Negev) when Judah was first weakened and then destroyed by the Babylonians, in the 6th century BCE.

Edom is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible and it is also mentioned in a list of the Egyptian pharaoh Seti I from c. 1215 BC as well as in the chronicle of a campaign by Ramesses III (r. 1186–1155 BC). The Edomites, who have been archaeologically identified, were a Semitic people who probably arrived in the region around the 14th century BCE. Archaeological investigation showed that the country flourished between the 13th and the 8th century BC and was destroyed after a period of decline in the 6th century BC by the Babylonians. After the loss of the kingdom, the Edomites were pushed westward towards southern Judah by nomadic tribes coming from the east; among them were the Nabataeans, who first appeared in the historical annals of the 4th century BC and already established their own kingdom in what used to be Edom, by the first half of the 2nd century BC. More recent excavations show that the process of Edomite settlement in the southern parts of the Kingdom of Judah and parts of the Negev down to Timna had started already before the destruction of the kingdom by Nebuchadnezzar II in 587/86 BCE, both by peaceful penetration and by military means and taking advantage of the already-weakened state of Judah.Once pushed out of their territory, the Edomites settled during the Persian period in an area comprising the southern hills of Judea down to the area north of Be'er Sheva. The people appear under a Greek form of their old name, as Idumeans or Idumaeans, and their new territory was called Idumea or Idumaea (Greek: Ἰδουμαία, Idoumaía; Latin: Idūmaea), a term that was used in New Testament times.

List of rulers of Ammon

The following is a list of rulers currently known from the history of the ancient Levantine kingdom Ammon. Ammon was originally ruled by a king, called the "king of the children of Ammon" (Ammonite: 𐤌𐤋𐤊 𐤁𐤍𐤏𐤌𐤍; Hebrew: מֶלֶךְ בְּנֵי עַמֹּון‎ melekh bənê-ʿAmmôn). After the conquest of the Neo-Babylonian and Achaemenid Empires, Ammon was maintained by an administrator (עֶבֶד ʿebhedh, literally "servant"; Greek: ἡγούμενος hēgoúmenos, "leader"). Only a modest number of Ammonite kings are known today, mostly from the Bible and epigraphic inscriptions.


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