This is a list of the longest rivers on Earth. It includes river systems over 1,000 kilometres (620 mi).
There are many factors, such as the source, the identification or the definition of the mouth, and the scale of measurement of the river length between source and mouth, that determine the precise meaning of "river length". As a result, the length measurements of many rivers are only approximations (see also coastline paradox). In particular, there exists disagreement as to whether the Nile or the Amazon is the world's longest river. The Nile has traditionally been considered longer, but in recent years two unpublished studies have suggested that the Amazon is longer by measuring the river plus the adjacent Pará estuary and the longest connecting tidal canal. A peer-reviewed article published in the International Journal of Digital Earth comes to the conclusion that the Nile is longer.
Even when detailed maps are available, the length measurement is not always clear. A river may have multiple channels, or anabranches. The length may depend on whether the center or the edge of the river is measured. It may not be clear how to measure the length through a lake. Seasonal and annual changes may alter both rivers and lakes. Other factors that can change the length of a river include cycles of erosion and flooding, dams, levees, and channelization. In addition, the length of meanders can change significantly over time due to natural or artificial cutoffs, when a new channel cuts across a narrow strip of land, bypassing a large river bend. For example, due to 18 cutoffs created between 1766 and 1885, the length of the Mississippi River from Cairo, Illinois, to New Orleans, Louisiana, was reduced by 218 miles (351 km).
These points make it difficult, if not impossible, to get an accurate measurement of the length of a river. The varying accuracy and precision also makes it difficult to make length comparisons between different rivers without a degree of uncertainty.
One should take the aforementioned discussion into account when using the data in the following table. For most rivers, different sources provide conflicting information on the length of a river system. The information in different sources is between parentheses.
|River||Length (km)||Length (miles)||Drainage area
|Outflow||Countries in the drainage basin|
|1.||Nile–White Nile–Kagera–Nyabarongo–Mwogo–Rukarara[n 1]||6,650
|3,254,555||2,800||Mediterranean||Ethiopia, Eritrea, Sudan, Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, Egypt, Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan|
|7,050,000||209,000||Atlantic Ocean||Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Guyana|
(Chang Jiang; Long River)
|1,800,000||31,900||East China Sea||China|
|4.||Mississippi–Missouri–Jefferson–Beaverhead–Red Rock–Hell Roaring||6,275
||2,980,000||16,200||Gulf of Mexico||United States (98.5%), Canada (1.5%)|
||2,580,000||19,600||Kara Sea||Russia (97%), Mongolia (2.9%)|
|7.||Ob–Irtysh||5,410||3,364||2,990,000||12,800||Gulf of Ob||Russia, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia|
|8.||Río de la Plata–Paraná–Rio Grande||4,880
||2,582,672||18,000||Río de la Plata||Brazil (46.7%), Argentina (27.7%), Paraguay (13.5%), Bolivia (8.3%), Uruguay (3.8%)|
||3,680,000||41,800||Atlantic Ocean||Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic, Angola, Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Cameroon, Zambia, Burundi, Rwanda|
|4,444||2,763||1,855,000||11,400||Sea of Okhotsk||Russia, China, Mongolia|
|4,350||2,705||810,000||16,000||South China Sea||China, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam|
||2,090,000||9,570||Gulf of Guinea||Nigeria (26.6%), Mali (25.6%), Niger (23.6%), Algeria (7.6%), Guinea (4.5%), Cameroon (4.2%), Burkina Faso (3.9%), Côte d'Ivoire, Benin, Chad|
|15.||Brahmaputra–Tsangpo||3,848||2,391||712,035||19,800||Ganges||India (58.0%), China (19.7%), Nepal (9.0%), Bangladesh (6.6%), Disputed India/China (4.2%), Bhutan (2.4%)|
|17.||Tocantins–Araguaia||3,650||2,270||950,000||13,598||Atlantic Ocean, Amazon||Brazil|
|19.||Indus–Sênggê Zangbo||3,610||2,250||960,000||7,160||Arabian Sea||Pakistan (93%), India, China, Kashmir (Disputed region between Pakistan, India and China)|
||884,000||856||Persian Gulf||Iraq (60.5%), Turkey (24.8%), Syria (14.7%)|
|21.||Madeira–Mamoré–Grande–Caine–Rocha||3,380||2,100||1,485,200||31,200||Amazon||Brazil, Bolivia, Peru|
|23.||Yukon||3,185||1,980||850,000||6,210||Bering Sea||United States (59.8%), Canada (40.2%)|
|25.||Syr Darya–Naryn||3,078||1,913||219,000||703||Aral Sea||Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan|
|3,060||1,901||324,000||3,153||Andaman Sea||China (52.4%), Myanmar (43.9%), Thailand (3.7%)|
|27.||Saint Lawrence–Niagara–Detroit–Saint Clair–Saint Marys–Saint Louis–North (Great Lakes)||3,058||1,900||1,030,000||10,100||Gulf of Saint Lawrence||Canada (52.1%), United States (47.9%)|
|28.||Rio Grande||3,057||1,900||570,000||82||Gulf of Mexico||United States (52.1%), Mexico (47.9%)|
|30.||Danube–Breg (Donau, Dunăre, Duna, Dunav, Dunaj)||2,888*||1,795*||817,000||7,130||Black Sea||Romania (28.9%), Hungary (11.7%), Austria (10.3%), Serbia (10.3%), Germany (7.5%), Slovakia (5.8%), Bulgaria (5.2%), Croatia (4.5%),|
|2,693*||1,673*||1,330,000||4,880||Mozambique Channel||Zambia (41.6%), Angola (18.4%), Zimbabwe (15.6%), Mozambique (11.8%), Malawi (8.0%), Tanzania (2.0%), Namibia, Botswana|
|34.||Ganges–Hooghly–Padma (Ganga)||2,620||1,628||907,000||12,037||Bay of Bengal||India, Bangladesh, Nepal, China|
|35.||Amu Darya–Panj||2,620||1,628||534,739||1,400||Aral Sea||Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan|
|36.||Japurá (Rio Yapurá)||2,615*||1,625*||242,259||6,000||Amazon||Brazil, Colombia|
|37.||Nelson–Saskatchewan||2,570||1,597||1,093,000||2,575||Hudson Bay||Canada, United States|
|38.||Paraguay (Rio Paraguay)||2,549||1,584||900,000||4,300||Paraná||Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia, Argentina|
|39.||Kolyma||2,513||1,562||644,000||3,800||East Siberian Sea||Russia|
|40.||Pilcomayo||2,500||1,553||270,000||Paraguay||Paraguay, Argentina, Bolivia|
|44.||Ural||2,428||1,509||237,000||475||Caspian Sea||Russia, Kazakhstan|
|46.||Colorado (western U.S.)||2,333||1,450||390,000||1,200||Gulf of California||United States, Mexico|
|48.||Dnieper||2,287||1,421||516,300||1,670||Black Sea||Russia, Belarus, Ukraine|
|50.||Ubangi–Uele||2,270||1,410||772,800||4,000||Congo||Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic, Republic of Congo|
|51.||Negro||2,250||1,398||720,114||26,700||Amazon||Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia|
|52.||Columbia||2,250 (1,953)||1,398 (1,214)||415,211||7,500||Pacific Ocean||United States, Canada|
|53.||Pearl–Zhu Jiang||2,200||1,376||437,000||13,600||South China Sea||China (98.5%), Vietnam (1.5%)|
|54.||Red (USA)||2,188||1,360||78,592||875||Mississippi||United States|
|2,170||1,348||411,000||13,000||Andaman Sea||Myanmar, China|
|56.||Kasai||2,153||1,338||880,200||10,000||Congo||Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo|
|58.||Orinoco||2,101||1,306||1,380,000||33,000||Atlantic Ocean||Venezuela, Colombia, Guyana|
|59.||Tarim||2,100||1,305||557,000||Lop Nur||P. R. China|
|61.||Orange||2,092||1,300||Atlantic Ocean||South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Lesotho|
|64.||Tigris||1,950||1,212||Shatt al-Arab||Turkey, Iraq, Syria|
|65.||Songhua||1,927||1,197||Amur||P. R. China|
|67.||Don||1,870||1,162||425,600||935||Sea of Azov||Russia, Ukraine|
|71.||Limpopo||1,800||1,118||413,000||Indian Ocean||Mozambique, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Botswana|
|73.||Guaporé (Itenez)||1,749||1,087||Mamoré||Brazil, Bolivia|
|74.||Indigirka||1,726||1,072||360,400||1,810||East Siberian Sea||Russia|
|76.||Senegal||1,641||1,020||419,659||Atlantic Ocean||Guinea, Senegal, Mali, Mauritania|
|77.||Uruguay||1,610||1,000||370,000||Atlantic Ocean||Uruguay, Argentina, Brazil|
|78.||Blue Nile||1,600||994||326,400||Nile||Ethiopia, Sudan|
|78.||Okavango||1,600||994||Okavango Delta||Namibia, Angola, Botswana|
|78.||Volta||1,600||994||Gulf of Guinea||Ghana, Burkina Faso, Togo, Côte d'Ivoire, Benin|
|85.||Alazeya||1,590||988||64,700||East Siberian Sea||Russia|
|86.||Jubba–Shebelle||1,580*||982*||Indian Ocean||Ethiopia, Somalia|
|87.||Içá (Putumayo)||1,575||979||Amazon||Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador|
|89.||Han||1,532||952||Yangtze||P. R. China|
|89.||Kura/Mt'k'vari||1,515||941||188,400||575||Caspian Sea||Turkey, Georgia, Azerbaijan|
|94.||Pecos||1,490||926||Rio Grande||United States|
|95.||Murrumbidgee River||1,485 ||923||84,917||120||Murray River||Australia|
|96.||Upper Yenisei–Little Yenisei (Kaa-Hem)||1,480||920||Yenisei||Russia, Mongolia|
|97.||Godavari||1,465||910||312,812||3,061||Bay of Bengal||India|
|98.||Colorado (Texas)||1,438||894||Gulf of Mexico||United States|
|98.||Río Grande (Guapay)||1,438||894||102,600||264||Ichilo||Bolivia|
|103.||Dniester||1,411 (1,352)||877 (840)||72,100||310||Black Sea||Ukraine, Moldova|
|104.||Ili (Yili)||1,400||870||Lake Balkhash||P. R. China, Kazakhstan|
|107.||Sutlej||1,372||852||Chenab||China, India, Pakistan|
|110.||Fraser||1,368||850||220,000||3,475||Pacific Ocean||Canada, United States|
|113.||Brazos||1,352||840||Gulf of Mexico||United States|
|114.||Liao||1,345||836||Bohai Sea||P. R. China|
|115.||Lachlan River||1,338 ||831||84,700||49||Murrumbidgee River||Australia|
|116.||Yalong||1,323||822||Yangtze||P. R. China|
|119.||Northern Dvina–Sukhona||1,302||809||357,052||3,332||White Sea||Russia|
|120.||Krishna||1,300||808||Bay of Bengal||India|
|123.||Lomami||1,280||795||Congo||Democratic Republic of the Congo|
|125.||Lerma–Rio Grande de Santiago||1,270||789||119,543||Pacific Ocean||Mexico|
|126.||Elbe–Vltava||1,252||778||148,268||711||North Sea||Germany, Czech Republic|
|129.||Upper Mississippi||1,236||768||Mississippi||United States|
|130.||Rhine||1,233||768||185,000 ||2,330||North Sea||Germany (57.3%), Switzerland (15.1%), Netherlands (12.3%), France (12.2%), Luxembourg (1.4%), Austria (1.3%), Belgium (0.4%), Liechtenstein (0.1%), Italy (0.03%)|
|134.||Vistula–Bug||1,213||754||194,424||1,080||Baltic Sea||Poland, Belarus, Ukraine|
|136.||Ogooué (or Ogowe)||1,200||746||223,856||4,706||Atlantic Ocean||Gabon, Republic of the Congo|
|1,190||739||Songhua||P. R. China|
|139.||Kızıl River||1,182||734||115,000||400||Black Sea||Turkey|
|139.||Markha River||1,181||734||99,000||405||Vilyuy River||Russia|
|140.||Green||1,175||730||Colorado (western U.S.)||United States|
|141.||Milk||1,173||729||Missouri||United States, Canada|
|143.||Sankuru||1,150||715||Kasai||Democratic Republic of the Congo|
|145.||Red (Asia)||1,149||714||143,700||2,640||Gulf of Tonkin||China, Vietnam|
|146.||James (Dakotas)||1,143||710||Missouri||United States|
|146.||Kapuas||1,143||710||South China Sea||Indonesia|
|148.||Desna||1,130||702||88,900||360||Dnieper||Russia, Belarus, Ukraine|
|148.||Madre de Dios||1,130||702||125,000||4,915||Beni||Peru, Bolivia|
|153.||Sepik||1,126||700||77,700||Pacific Ocean||Papua New Guinea, Indonesia|
|155.||Anadyr||1,120||696||Gulf of Anadyr||Russia|
|155.||Paraíba do Sul||1,120||696||Atlantic Ocean||Brazil|
|157.||Jialing River||1,119||695||Yangtze||P. R. China|
|161.||Kwango||1,100||684||263,500||2,700||Kasai||Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo|
|164.||Gambia||1,094||680||Atlantic Ocean||The Gambia, Senegal, Guinea|
|166.||Ghaghara||1,080||671||127,950||2,990||Ganges||India, Nepal, China|
|169.||Aras||1,072||665||102,000||285||Kura||Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran|
|170.||Chu River||1,067||663||62,500||none||Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan|
|171.||Seversky Donets||1,078 (1,053)||670 (654)||98,900||159||Don||Russia, Ukraine|
|172.||Fly||1,050||652||Gulf of Papua||Papua New Guinea, Indonesia|
|172.||Kuskokwim||1,050||652||Bering Sea||United States|
|176.||Oder–Warta||1,045||649||118,861||550||Baltic Sea||Poland, Germany, Czech Republic|
|177.||Aruwimi||1,030||640||Congo||Democratic Republic of the Congo|
|178.||Daugava||1,020||634||87,900||678||Gulf of Riga||Latvia, Belarus, Russia|
|179.||Gila||1,015||631||Colorado (western U.S.)||United States|
|1,006||625||80,100||444||Atlantic Ocean||Spain, Portugal|
|184.||Flinders River||1,004 ||624||109,000||122||Gulf of Carpentaria||Australia|
The Congo basin is completely surrounded by high land, except for its long narrow exit valley past Kinshasa, including waterfalls around Manyanga. That gives the impression that most of the Congo basin was formerly on a much higher land level and that it was rejuvenated by much of its lower course being removed. Before Gondwanaland broke up due to continental drift, the Congo would likely have flowed into the Amazon.
This river would have been about 10,000 km (6,200 mi) long, in the last Ice Age. Its longest headwater was the Selenga river of Mongolia: it drained through ice-dammed lakes and the Aral Sea and the Caspian Sea to the Black Sea.
During the last glacial maximum, much of what is now the southern part of the North Sea was land, known to archaeologists as Doggerland. At this time, the Thames, the Meuse, the Scheldt, and the Rhine probably joined before flowing into the sea, in a system known by palaeogeographers as the Loubourg or Lobourg River System. There is some debate as to whether this river would have flowed southwest into what is now the English Channel, or flowed north, emerging into the North Sea close to modern Yorkshire. If the latter hypothesis is true, the Rhine would have attained a length of close to 1,650 kilometres (1,030 mi). The former hypothesis would have produced a shorter river, some 1,400 kilometres (870 mi) in length. Current scientific research favours the former opinion, with the Thames and Rhine meeting in a large lake, the outflow of which was close to the present-day Straits of Dover.
The Amazon River (UK: , US: ; Spanish and Portuguese: Amazonas) in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world, and by some definitions it is the longest.The headwaters of the Apurímac River on Nevado Mismi had been considered for nearly a century as the Amazon's most distant source, until a 2014 study found it to be the headwaters of the Mantaro River on the Cordillera Rumi Cruz in Peru. The Mantaro and Apurímac join, and with other tributaries form the Ucayali River, which in turn meets the Marañón River upstream of Iquitos, Peru, to form what countries other than Brazil consider to be the main stem of the Amazon. Brazilians call this section the Solimões River above its confluence with the Rio Negro to form what Brazilians call the Amazon at the Meeting of Waters (Portuguese: Encontro das Águas) at Manaus, the river's largest city.
At an average discharge of about 209,000 cubic metres per second (7,400,000 cu ft/s; 209,000,000 L/s; 55,000,000 USgal/s)—approximately 6,591 cubic kilometres per annum (1,581 cu mi/a), greater than the next seven largest independent rivers combined—the Amazon represents 20% of the global riverine discharge to the ocean. The Amazon basin is the largest drainage basin in the world, with an area of approximately 7,050,000 square kilometres (2,720,000 sq mi). The Amazon River is disputed longest river in the world (Brazilian government claims it to be longer than the Nile, while every other nation claims that the Nile is the longest River in the world). The portion of the river's drainage basin in Brazil alone is larger than any other river's basin. The Amazon enters Brazil with only one-fifth of the flow it finally discharges into the Atlantic Ocean, yet already has a greater flow at this point than the discharge of any other river.Ganges
The Ganges ( GAN-jeez), or Ganga (Hindustani: [ˈɡəŋɡaː]), is a trans-boundary river of the Indian subcontinent which flows through the nations of India and Bangladesh. The 2,525 km (1,569 mi) river rises in the western Himalayas in the Indian state of Uttarakhand, and flows south and east through the Gangetic Plain of North India. After entering West Bengal, it divides into two rivers: the Hooghly and the Padma River. The Hooghly, or Adi Ganga, flows through several districts of West Bengal and into the Bay of Bengal near Sagar Island. The other, the Padma, also flows into and through Bangladesh, and joins the Meghna river which ultimately empties into the Bay of Bengal.
The Ganges is one of the most sacred rivers to Hindus. It is also a lifeline to millions of Indians who live along its course and depend on it for their daily needs. It is worshipped in Hinduism and personified as the goddess Gaṅgā. It has also been important historically, with many former provincial or imperial capitals (such as Kannauj, Kampilya, Kanpur, Kara, Prayag or Allahabad, Kashi, Pataliputra or Patna, Hajipur, Munger, Bhagalpur, Baranagar, Murshidabad, Baharampur, Nabadwip, Saptagram and Kolkata) located on its banks.
The Ganges is highly polluted. Pollution threatens not only humans, but also more than 140 fish species, 90 amphibian species and the endangered Ganges river dolphin. The Ganges is a major source of global ocean plastic pollution. The levels of fecal coliform bacteria from human waste in the waters of the river near Varanasi are more than 100 times the Indian government's official limit. The Ganga Action Plan, an environmental initiative to clean up the river, has been a major failure thus far, due to rampant corruption, lack of will on behalf of the government and its bureaucracy, lack of technical expertise, poor environmental planning, and lack of support from religious authorities.Kahn River
The river Kahn or Khan as it is now known is a river flowing through Indore, the commercial capital of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It doesn't contain freshwater but instead has become polluted over the course of time carries sewage due to pollution.
For the past few years efforts are being made to revive the dying river by the means of projects.Largest rivers
See one of the following:
List of rivers by length
List of rivers by discharge
List of drainage basins by areaList of drainage basins by area
The list of drainage basins by area identifies basins (also known as "catchments" or, in North American usage, "watersheds"), sorted by area, which drain to oceans, mediterranean seas, rivers, lakes and other water bodies. All basins larger than 400,000 km2 (150,000 sq mi) are included as well as selected smaller basins. It includes drainage basins which do not flow to the ocean (endorheic basins). It includes oceanic sea drainage basins which have hydrologically coherent areas (oceanic seas are set by IHO convention).
The oceans drain approximately 83% of the land in the world. The other 17% – an area larger than the basin of the Arctic Ocean – drains to internal endorheic basins.
Note that there are substantial areas of the world that do not "drain" in the commonly understood sense. In Arctic deserts much of the snowfall sublimates directly into the air and does not melt into flowing water, while in equatorial deserts precipitation may evaporate before joining any substantial water course. However, these areas can still be included in topographically defined basins if one considers the hypothetical flow of water (or ice), and thus nutrients or pollutants, over the surface of the ground (or ice sheet); this is the approach taken here. For example, the Antarctic ice sheet can be divided into basins, and most of Libya is included in the Mediterranean Sea basin even though almost no water from the interior actually reaches the sea.List of rivers by discharge
This is a list of rivers by their average discharge, that is, their water flow rate. Here, only those rivers are shown whose discharge is more than 2,000 cubic metres per second (530,000 US gal/s; 440,000 impgal/s; 2,000,000 L/s). For context, the volume of an Olympic-size swimming pool is 2,500 cubic metres. So the flow rate at the mouth of the Amazon is sufficient to fill more than 83 such pools each second.List of rivers of Europe
This page lists the principal rivers of Europe with their main attributes.Lists of rivers
This is a comprehensive list of lists of rivers, organized primarily by continent and country.Long River
Long River may refer to:
The Yangtze River, from the literal translation of its usual Chinese name Changjiang (长江)
Any of several rivers named Long (龍江, meaning "Dragon River")
Long Island River (Minnesota), a river of Minnesota, US
Long River (Guangxi), a river system in Guangxi Province, China
Long River, Prince Edward Island, a community in CanadaNile
The Nile (Arabic: النيل, written as al-Nīl; pronounced as an-Nīl) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is the longest river in Africa and the disputed longest river in the world (Brazilian government claims that the Amazon River is longer than the Nile). The Nile, which is about 6,650 km (4,130 mi) long, is an "international" river as its drainage basin covers eleven countries, namely, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Sudan, Republic of the Sudan and Egypt. In particular, the Nile is the primary water source of Egypt and Sudan.The river Nile has two major tributaries, the White Nile and Blue Nile. The White Nile is considered to be the headwaters and primary stream of the Nile itself. The Blue Nile, however, is the source of most of the water and silt. The White Nile is longer and rises in the Great Lakes region of central Africa, with the most distant source still undetermined but located in either Rwanda or Burundi. It flows north through Tanzania, Lake Victoria, Uganda and South Sudan. The Blue Nile begins at Lake Tana in Ethiopia and flows into Sudan from the southeast. The two rivers meet just north of the Sudanese capital of Khartoum.The northern section of the river flows north almost entirely through the Sudanese desert to Egypt, then ends in a large delta and flows into the Mediterranean Sea. Egyptian civilization and Sudanese kingdoms have depended on the river since ancient times. Most of the population and cities of Egypt lie along those parts of the Nile valley north of Aswan, and nearly all the cultural and historical sites of Ancient Egypt are found along river banks.River
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, creek, brook, rivulet, and rill. There are no official definitions for the generic term river as applied to geographic features, although in some countries or communities a stream is defined by its size. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location; examples are "run" in some parts of the United States, "burn" in Scotland and northeast England, and "beck" in northern England. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek, but not always: the language is vague.Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle; water generally collects in a river from precipitation through a drainage basin from surface runoff and other sources such as groundwater recharge, springs, and the release of stored water in natural ice and snowpacks (e.g., from glaciers). Potamology is the scientific study of rivers, while limnology is the study of inland waters in general. Most of the major cities of the world are situated on the banks of rivers, as they are, or were, used as a source of water, for obtaining food, for transport, as borders, as a defensive measure, as a source of hydropower to drive machinery, for bathing, and as a means of disposing of waste.Salween River
The Salween or officially the Thanlwin River (Phlone: ကၟံင့်ယှောတ်ခၠေါဟ်, Shan language ၼမ်ႉၶူင်း, Burmese:
သံလွင်မြစ်; IPA: [θàɴlwɪ̀ɴ mjɪʔ]; Thai: แม่น้ำสาละวิน Mae Nam Salawin; IPA: [mɛ̂ː náːm sǎːləwin]), known in China as the Nu River (Chinese: 怒江; pinyin: Nù Jiāng), is a river about 2,815 kilometres (1,749 mi) long that flows from the Tibetan Plateau into the Andaman Sea in Southeast Asia.
It drains a narrow and mountainous watershed of 324,000 square kilometres (125,000 sq mi) that extends into the countries of China, Burma and Thailand. Steep canyon walls line the swift, powerful and undammed Salween, one of the longest free-flowing rivers in the world. Its extensive drainage basin supports a biodiversity comparable with the Mekong and is home to about 7 million people. In 2003, key parts of the mid-region watershed of the river were included within the Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.The people who live on the Salween are relatively isolated from the rest of the world. The river is only navigable up to 90 kilometres (56 mi) from the mouth, and only in the rainy season.
The Burma Road was constructed between 1937 and 1938 during the Second Sino-Japanese War and crossed the river at the Huitong bridge. The Huitong bridge was blown by the retreating Chinese army and the river became the frontline from 1942 to 1944.
The Salween Campaign of World War II, was launched in order to liberate occupied China and open the Burma Road again and connect it to the Ledo Road.
Logging began on the mountains surrounding the Salween in the late 20th century, and has damaged the river's ecology. In recent years, there have been a number of proposals to dam the Salween River, both upstream in China and downstream in Myanmar, which have prompted social and environmental concerns as well as widespread opposition. Construction of at least one upstream dam on a tributary of the Salween is currently underway in China's Yunnan province, with many more expected to follow.Saraswati River (Madhya Pradesh)
The river Saraswati is a river flowing through Indore, the commercial capital of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is a tributary of the polluted Kahn River.
It also doesn't contain freshwater but instead has become polluted over the course of time carries sewage due to pollution.
For the past few years efforts are being done to revive the dying river by the means of projects.