List of rivers by length

This is a list of the longest rivers on Earth. It includes river systems over 1,000 kilometres (620 mi).

View of the River Nile, from a cruiseboat, between Luxor and Aswan in Egypt

Definition of length

There are many factors, such as the source[1], the identification or the definition of the mouth, and the scale of measurement[2] of the river length between source and mouth, that determine the precise meaning of "river length". As a result, the length measurements of many rivers are only approximations (see also coastline paradox). In particular, there exists disagreement as to whether the Nile[3] or the Amazon[4] is the world's longest river. The Nile has traditionally been considered longer, but in recent years two unpublished studies[5][6] have suggested that the Amazon is longer by measuring the river plus the adjacent Pará estuary and the longest connecting tidal canal.[7] A peer-reviewed article published in the International Journal of Digital Earth comes to the conclusion that the Nile is longer.[8]

Even when detailed maps are available, the length measurement is not always clear. A river may have multiple channels, or anabranches. The length may depend on whether the center or the edge of the river is measured. It may not be clear how to measure the length through a lake. Seasonal and annual changes may alter both rivers and lakes. Other factors that can change the length of a river include cycles of erosion and flooding, dams, levees, and channelization. In addition, the length of meanders can change significantly over time due to natural or artificial cutoffs, when a new channel cuts across a narrow strip of land, bypassing a large river bend. For example, due to 18 cutoffs created between 1766 and 1885, the length of the Mississippi River from Cairo, Illinois, to New Orleans, Louisiana, was reduced by 218 miles (351 km).[9]

These points make it difficult, if not impossible, to get an accurate measurement of the length of a river. The varying accuracy and precision also makes it difficult to make length comparisons between different rivers without a degree of uncertainty.

List of rivers longer than 1000 km

One should take the aforementioned discussion into account when using the data in the following table. For most rivers, different sources provide conflicting information on the length of a river system. The information in different sources is between parentheses.

Continent color key
Africa Asia Australia Europe North America South America
River Length (km) Length (miles) Drainage area
Average discharge
Outflow Countries in the drainage basin
1. NileWhite NileKageraNyabarongoMwogoRukarara[n 1] 6,650
3,254,555 2,800 Mediterranean Ethiopia, Eritrea, Sudan, Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, Egypt, Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan
2. AmazonUcayaliTamboEneMantaro[n 1] 6,400
7,050,000 209,000 Atlantic Ocean Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Guyana
3. Yangtze
(Chang Jiang; Long River)
1,800,000 31,900 East China Sea China
4. MississippiMissouriJeffersonBeaverheadRed RockHell Roaring 6,275
2,980,000 16,200 Gulf of Mexico United States (98.5%), Canada (1.5%)
5. YeniseiAngaraSelengeIder 5,539
2,580,000 19,600 Kara Sea Russia (97%), Mongolia (2.9%)
6. Yellow River
(Huang He)
745,000 2,110 Bohai Sea China
7. ObIrtysh 5,410 3,364 2,990,000 12,800 Gulf of Ob Russia, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia
8. Río de la PlataParanáRio Grande[11] 4,880
2,582,672 18,000 Río de la Plata Brazil (46.7%), Argentina (27.7%), Paraguay (13.5%), Bolivia (8.3%), Uruguay (3.8%)
9. CongoChambeshi
3,680,000 41,800 Atlantic Ocean Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic, Angola, Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Cameroon, Zambia, Burundi, Rwanda
10. AmurArgunKherlen
(Heilong Jiang)
4,444 2,763 1,855,000 11,400 Sea of Okhotsk Russia, China, Mongolia
11. Lena 4,400
2,490,000 17,100 Laptev Sea Russia
12. Mekong
(Lancang Jiang)
4,350 2,705 810,000 16,000 South China Sea China, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam
13. MackenzieSlavePeaceFinlay 4,241
1,790,000 10,300 Beaufort Sea Canada
14. Niger 4,200
2,090,000 9,570 Gulf of Guinea Nigeria (26.6%), Mali (25.6%), Niger (23.6%), Algeria (7.6%), Guinea (4.5%), Cameroon (4.2%), Burkina Faso (3.9%), Côte d'Ivoire, Benin, Chad
15. BrahmaputraTsangpo 3,848 2,391 712,035 19,800[12][13] Ganges India (58.0%), China (19.7%), Nepal (9.0%), Bangladesh (6.6%), Disputed India/China (4.2%), Bhutan (2.4%)
16. MurrayDarlingCulgoaBalonneCondamine 3,672[14] 2,282
1,061,000 767 Southern Ocean Australia
17. TocantinsAraguaia 3,650 2,270 950,000 13,598 Atlantic Ocean, Amazon Brazil
18. Volga 3,645 2,266 1,380,000 8,080 Caspian Sea Russia
19. IndusSênggê Zangbo 3,610 2,250 960,000 7,160 Arabian Sea Pakistan (93%), India, China, Kashmir (Disputed region between Pakistan, India and China)
20. Shatt al-ArabEuphratesMurat 3,596
884,000 856 Persian Gulf Iraq (60.5%), Turkey (24.8%), Syria (14.7%)
21. MadeiraMamoréGrandeCaineRocha 3,380 2,100 1,485,200 31,200 Amazon Brazil, Bolivia, Peru
22. Purús 3,211 1,995 63,166 8,400 Amazon Brazil, Peru
23. Yukon 3,185 1,980[9] 850,000 6,210 Bering Sea United States (59.8%), Canada (40.2%)
24. São Francisco 3,180*
610,000 3,300 Atlantic Ocean Brazil
25. Syr DaryaNaryn 3,078 1,913 219,000 703 Aral Sea Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan
26. Salween
(Nu Jiang)
3,060 1,901 324,000 3,153[15] Andaman Sea China (52.4%), Myanmar (43.9%), Thailand (3.7%)
27. Saint LawrenceNiagaraDetroitSaint ClairSaint MarysSaint LouisNorth (Great Lakes) 3,058 1,900[9] 1,030,000 10,100 Gulf of Saint Lawrence Canada (52.1%), United States (47.9%)
28. Rio Grande 3,057 1,900[9] 570,000 82 Gulf of Mexico United States (52.1%), Mexico (47.9%)
29. Lower Tunguska 2,989 1,857 473,000 3,600 Yenisei Russia
30. DanubeBreg (Donau, Dunăre, Duna, Dunav, Dunaj) 2,888* 1,795* 817,000 7,130 Black Sea Romania (28.9%), Hungary (11.7%), Austria (10.3%), Serbia (10.3%), Germany (7.5%), Slovakia (5.8%), Bulgaria (5.2%), Croatia (4.5%),
31. Zambezi
2,693* 1,673* 1,330,000 4,880 Mozambique Channel Zambia (41.6%), Angola (18.4%), Zimbabwe (15.6%), Mozambique (11.8%), Malawi (8.0%), Tanzania (2.0%), Namibia, Botswana
32. Vilyuy 2,650 1,647 454,000 1,480 Lena Russia
33. Araguaia 2,627 1,632 358,125 5,510 Tocantins Brazil
34. GangesHooghlyPadma (Ganga) 2,620[16] 1,628 907,000 12,037[17] Bay of Bengal India, Bangladesh, Nepal, China
35. Amu DaryaPanj 2,620 1,628 534,739 1,400 Aral Sea Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan
36. Japurá (Rio Yapurá) 2,615* 1,625* 242,259 6,000 Amazon Brazil, Colombia
37. NelsonSaskatchewan 2,570 1,597 1,093,000 2,575 Hudson Bay Canada, United States
38. Paraguay (Rio Paraguay) 2,549 1,584 900,000 4,300 Paraná Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia, Argentina
39. Kolyma 2,513 1,562 644,000 3,800 East Siberian Sea Russia
40. Pilcomayo 2,500 1,553 270,000 Paraguay Paraguay, Argentina, Bolivia
41. Upper ObKatun 2,490 1,547 Ob Russia
42. Ishim 2,450 1,522 177,000 56 Irtysh Kazakhstan, Russia
43. Juruá 2,410 1,498 200,000 6,000 Amazon Peru, Brazil
44. Ural 2,428 1,509 237,000 475 Caspian Sea Russia, Kazakhstan
45. Arkansas 2,348 1,459 505,000
1,066 Mississippi United States
46. Colorado (western U.S.) 2,333 1,450 390,000 1,200 Gulf of California United States, Mexico
47. Olenyok 2,292 1,424 219,000 1,210 Laptev Sea Russia
48. Dnieper 2,287 1,421 516,300 1,670 Black Sea Russia, Belarus, Ukraine
49. Aldan 2,273 1,412 729,000 5,060 Lena Russia
50. UbangiUele[18] 2,270 1,410 772,800 4,000 Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic, Republic of Congo
51. Negro 2,250 1,398 720,114 26,700 Amazon Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia
52. Columbia 2,250 (1,953) 1,398 (1,214) 415,211 7,500 Pacific Ocean United States, Canada
53. PearlZhu Jiang 2,200 1,376 437,000 13,600 South China Sea China (98.5%), Vietnam (1.5%)
54. Red (USA) 2,188 1,360 78,592 875 Mississippi United States
55. Ayeyarwady
2,170 1,348 411,000 13,000 Andaman Sea Myanmar, China
56. Kasai 2,153 1,338 880,200 10,000 Congo Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo
57. OhioAllegheny 2,102 1,306 490,603 7,957 Mississippi United States
58. Orinoco 2,101 1,306 1,380,000 33,000 Atlantic Ocean Venezuela, Colombia, Guyana
59. Tarim 2,100 1,305 557,000 Lop Nur P. R. China
60. Xingu 2,100 1,305 Amazon Brazil
61. Orange 2,092 1,300     Atlantic Ocean South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Lesotho
62. Northern Salado 2,010 1,249 Paraná Argentina
63. Vitim 1,978 1,229 Lena Russia
64. Tigris 1,950 1,212 Shatt al-Arab Turkey, Iraq, Syria
65. Songhua 1,927 1,197 Amur P. R. China
66. Tapajós 1,900 1,181 Amazon Brazil
67. Don 1,870 1,162 425,600 935 Sea of Azov Russia, Ukraine
68. Stony Tunguska 1,865 1,159 240,000 Yenisei Russia
69. Pechora 1,809 1,124 322,000 4,100 Barents Sea Russia
70. Kama 1,805 1,122 507,000 4,100 Volga Russia
71. Limpopo 1,800 1,118 413,000 Indian Ocean Mozambique, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Botswana
72. Chulym 1,799 1,118 134,000 Ob Russia
73. Guaporé (Itenez) 1,749 1,087 Mamoré Brazil, Bolivia
74. Indigirka 1,726 1,072 360,400 1,810 East Siberian Sea Russia
75. Snake 1,670 1,038 279,719 1,611 Columbia United States
76. Senegal 1,641 1,020 419,659 Atlantic Ocean Guinea, Senegal, Mali, Mauritania
77. Uruguay 1,610 1,000 370,000 Atlantic Ocean Uruguay, Argentina, Brazil
78. Blue Nile 1,600 994 326,400 Nile Ethiopia, Sudan
78. Churchill 1,600 994 Hudson Bay Canada
78. Khatanga 1,600 994 Laptev Sea Russia
78. Okavango 1,600 994 Okavango Delta Namibia, Angola, Botswana
78. Volta 1,600 994 Gulf of Guinea Ghana, Burkina Faso, Togo, Côte d'Ivoire, Benin
83. Beni 1,599 994 283,350 8,900 Madeira Bolivia
84. Platte 1,594 990 Missouri United States
85. Tobol 1,591 989 Irtysh Kazakhstan, Russia
85. Alazeya 1,590 988 64,700 East Siberian Sea Russia
86. JubbaShebelle 1,580* 982* Indian Ocean Ethiopia, Somalia
87. Içá (Putumayo) 1,575 979 Amazon Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador
88. Magdalena 1,550 963 263,858 9,000 Caribbean Colombia
89. Han 1,532 952 Yangtze P. R. China
89. Kura/Mt'k'vari 1,515 941 188,400 575 Caspian Sea Turkey, Georgia, Azerbaijan
91. Oka 1,500 932 245,000 1,258 Volga Russia
91. Upper Murray 1,500[19] 932
Lower Murray Australia
93. Guaviare 1,497 930 Orinoco Colombia
94. Pecos 1,490 926 Rio Grande United States
95. Murrumbidgee River 1,485 [20] 923 84,917 120 Murray River Australia
96. Upper YeniseiLittle Yenisei (Kaa-Hem) 1,480 920 Yenisei Russia, Mongolia
97. Godavari 1,465 910 312,812 3,061 Bay of Bengal India
98. Colorado (Texas) 1,438 894 Gulf of Mexico United States
98. Río Grande (Guapay) 1,438 894 102,600 264 Ichilo Bolivia
100. Belaya 1,420 882 142,000 858 Kama Russia
100. CooperBarcoo 1,420 880 Lake Eyre Australia
102. Marañón 1,415 879 Amazon Peru
103. Dniester 1,411 (1,352) 877 (840) 72,100 310 Black Sea Ukraine, Moldova
104. Benue 1,400 870 Niger Cameroon, Nigeria
104. Ili (Yili) 1,400 870 Lake Balkhash P. R. China, Kazakhstan
104. WarburtonGeorgina 1,400 870 365,000 Lake Eyre Australia
107. Sutlej 1,372 852 Chenab China, India, Pakistan
108. Yamuna 1,370 851 366,223 2,950 Ganges India
109. Vyatka 1,370 851 129,000 890 Kama Russia
110. Fraser 1,368 850 220,000 3,475 Pacific Ocean Canada, United States[21]
111. Grande 1,360 845 Paraná Brazil
113. Brazos 1,352 840 Gulf of Mexico United States
114. Liao 1,345 836 Bohai Sea P. R. China
115. Lachlan River 1,338 [20] 831 84,700 49 Murrumbidgee River Australia
116. Yalong 1,323 822 Yangtze P. R. China
117. Iguaçu 1,320 820 Paraná Brazil, Argentina
117. Olyokma 1,320 820 Lena Russia
119. Northern DvinaSukhona 1,302 809 357,052 3,332 White Sea Russia
120. Krishna 1,300 808 Bay of Bengal India
120. Iriri 1,300 808 Xingu Brazil
122. Narmada 1,289 801 Arabian Sea India
123. Lomami[22] 1,280 795 Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo
124. Ottawa 1,271 790 146,300 1,950 Saint Lawrence Canada
125. LermaRio Grande de Santiago 1,270 789 119,543 Pacific Ocean Mexico
126. ElbeVltava 1,252 778 148,268 711 North Sea Germany, Czech Republic
127. Zeya 1,242 772 Amur Russia
128. Juruena 1,240 771 Tapajós Brazil
129. Upper Mississippi 1,236 768 Mississippi United States
130. Rhine 1,233 768 185,000 [23] 2,330 North Sea Germany (57.3%), Switzerland (15.1%), Netherlands (12.3%), France (12.2%), Luxembourg (1.4%), Austria (1.3%), Belgium (0.4%), Liechtenstein (0.1%), Italy (0.03%)
131. Athabasca 1,231 765 95,300 Mackenzie Canada
132. Canadian 1,223 760 Arkansas United States
133. North Saskatchewan 1,220 758 Saskatchewan Canada
134. VistulaBug 1,213 754 194,424 1,080 Baltic Sea Poland, Belarus, Ukraine
135. Vaal 1,210 752 Orange South Africa
136. Shire 1,200 746 Zambezi Mozambique, Malawi
136. Ogooué (or Ogowe) 1,200 746 223,856 4,706 Atlantic Ocean Gabon, Republic of the Congo
138. Nen
1,190 739 Songhua P. R. China
139. Kızıl River 1,182 734 115,000 400 Black Sea Turkey
139. Markha River 1,181 734 99,000 405 Vilyuy River Russia
140. Green 1,175 730 Colorado (western U.S.) United States
141. Milk 1,173 729 Missouri United States, Canada
142. Chindwin 1,158 720 Ayeyarwady Myanmar
143. Sankuru 1,150 715 Kasai Democratic Republic of the Congo
143. Wu 1,150 715 80,300 1,108 Yangtze China
145. Red (Asia) 1,149 714 143,700 2,640 Gulf of Tonkin China, Vietnam
146. James (Dakotas) 1,143 710 Missouri United States
146. Kapuas 1,143 710 South China Sea Indonesia
148. Desna 1,130 702 88,900 360 Dnieper Russia, Belarus, Ukraine
148. Helmand 1,130 702 Hamun-i-Helmand Afghanistan, Iran
148. Madre de Dios 1,130 702 125,000 4,915 Beni Peru, Bolivia
148. Tietê 1,130 702 Paraná Brazil
148. Vychegda 1,130 702 121,000 1160 Northern Dvina Russia
153. Sepik 1,126 700 77,700 Pacific Ocean Papua New Guinea, Indonesia
154. Cimarron 1,123 698 Arkansas United States
155. Anadyr 1,120 696 Gulf of Anadyr Russia
155. Paraíba do Sul 1,120 696 Atlantic Ocean Brazil
157. Jialing River 1,119 695 Yangtze P. R. China
158. Liard 1,115 693 Mackenzie Canada
159. Cumberland 1,105 687 46,830 862 Mississippi United States
160. White 1,162 722[24] Mississippi United States
161. Huallaga 1,100 684 Marañón Peru
161. Kwango 1,100 684 263,500 2,700 Kasai Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo
161. Draa 1,100 684 Atlantic Ocean Morocco
164. Gambia 1,094 680 Atlantic Ocean The Gambia, Senegal, Guinea
165. Tyung 1,092 679 49,800 Vilyuy River Russia
165. Chenab 1,086 675 Indus India, Pakistan
166. Yellowstone 1,080 671 114,260 Missouri United States
166. Ghaghara 1,080 671 127,950 2,990 Ganges India, Nepal, China
168. Huai River 1,078 670 270,000 1,110 Yangtze China
169. Aras 1,072 665 102,000 285 Kura Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran
170. Chu River 1,067 663 62,500 none Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan
171. Seversky Donets 1,078 (1,053) 670 (654) 98,900 159 Don Russia, Ukraine
172. Bermejo 1,050 652 Paraguay Argentina, Bolivia
172. Fly 1,050 652 Gulf of Papua Papua New Guinea, Indonesia
172. Kuskokwim 1,050 652 Bering Sea United States
175. Tennessee 1,049 652 Ohio United States
176. OderWarta 1,045 649 118,861 550 Baltic Sea Poland, Germany, Czech Republic
177. Aruwimi[22] 1,030 640 Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo
178. Daugava 1,020 634 87,900 678 Gulf of Riga Latvia, Belarus, Russia
179. Gila 1,015 631 Colorado (western U.S.) United States
180. Loire 1,012 629 115,271 840 Atlantic Ocean France
181. Essequibo 1,010 628 Atlantic Ocean Guyana
181. Khoper 1,010 628 61,100 150 Don Russia
183. Tagus
1,006 625 80,100 444 Atlantic Ocean Spain, Portugal
184. Flinders River 1,004 [20] 624 109,000 122 Gulf of Carpentaria Australia


  • When the length of a river is followed by an asterisk, it is an average of multiple information sources. If the difference in lengths between given information sources is significant, all lengths are listed. But if the lengths from secondary information sources are similar, they are averaged and that figure has an asterisk.
  • Scientists debate whether the Amazon or the Nile is the longest river in the world. Traditionally, the Nile is considered longer, but recent information suggests that the Amazon may be longer. Differences in the recorded length of the Amazon mainly depend on whether or not it is valid to take a course south of the Ilha de Marajó at the Amazon's mouth. New evidence, (dated 16 June 2007) obtained from a high-altitude scientific venture in the Andes, claims that "the Amazon is longer than the Nile by 100km, with its longest headwater being the Carhuasanta stream originating in the south of Peru on the Nevado Mismi mountain's northern slopes and flowing into the Río Apurímac".[25] However, the origin of the river at Nevado Mismi had already been known more than one decade earlier (see Jacek Palkiewicz), and satellite based measuring from this origin to the Amazon mouth has resulted in not more than 6,400 km.
  • Generally, the most commonly used/anglicised name of the river is used. The name in a native language or alternate spelling may be shown.
Miss R dam 27
The Mississippi River just north of St. Louis.
DSCN4262 rmosesspstlawrence e
Saint Lawrence River along the New York-Quebec border.

River systems that may have existed in the past


The Amazon basin formerly drained westwards into the Pacific Ocean, until the Andes rose and reversed the drainage.[26]

The Congo basin is completely surrounded by high land, except for its long narrow exit valley past Kinshasa, including waterfalls around Manyanga. That gives the impression that most of the Congo basin was formerly on a much higher land level and that it was rejuvenated by much of its lower course being removed. Before Gondwanaland broke up due to continental drift, the Congo would likely have flowed into the Amazon.

West Siberian Glacial Lake drainage

This river would have been about 10,000 km (6,200 mi) long, in the last Ice Age. Its longest headwater was the Selenga river of Mongolia: it drained through ice-dammed lakes and the Aral Sea and the Caspian Sea to the Black Sea.


During the last glacial maximum, much of what is now the southern part of the North Sea was land, known to archaeologists as Doggerland. At this time, the Thames, the Meuse, the Scheldt, and the Rhine probably joined before flowing into the sea, in a system known by palaeogeographers as the Loubourg or Lobourg River System.[27] There is some debate as to whether this river would have flowed southwest into what is now the English Channel, or flowed north, emerging into the North Sea close to modern Yorkshire. If the latter hypothesis is true, the Rhine would have attained a length of close to 1,650 kilometres (1,030 mi). The former hypothesis would have produced a shorter river, some 1,400 kilometres (870 mi) in length. Current scientific research favours the former opinion, with the Thames and Rhine meeting in a large lake, the outflow of which was close to the present-day Straits of Dover.[28]

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b The Nile is usually said to be the longest river in the world, with a length of about 6,650 km,[3] and the Amazon the second longest, with a length of at least 6,400 km.[4] In recent decades debate has intensified over the true source and the placement of the mouth, and therefore the length, of the Amazon River.[5][10] Brazilian and Peruvian Studies in 2007 and 2008 added the waterway from the Amazon's southern outlet through tidal canals and the Pará estuary of the Tocantins and then concluded that the Amazon has a length of 6,992 km and was longer than the Nile, whose length was calculated as 6,853 km.[6] A peer-reviewed article, published in 2009, states a length of 7,088 km for the Nile and 6,575 km for the Amazon, measured by using a combination of satellite image analysis and field investigations to the source regions.[8] Therefore, as of 2018 the length of both rivers remains open to interpretation and continued debate.[4][7] Note that the disputed values have been put in parentheses.
  1. ^ "Where Does the Amazon River Begin?". National Geographic News. 2014-02-15. Retrieved 2018-12-25.
  2. ^ for more on this, see coastline paradox
  3. ^ a b "Nile River". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
  4. ^ a b c "Amazon River". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
  5. ^ a b "Amazon river 'longer than Nile'". BBC News. 16 June 2007. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
  6. ^ a b "Studies from INPE indicate that the Amazon River is 140km longer than the Nile". Brazilian National Institute for Space Research. Archived from the original on 11 April 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
  7. ^ a b "How Long Is the Amazon River?". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-12-24.
  8. ^ a b Liu, Shaochuang; Lu, P; Liu, D; Jin, P; Wang, W (2009-03-01). "Pinpointing the sources and measuring the lengths of the principal rivers of the world". Int. J. Digital Earth. 2: 80–87. doi:10.1080/17538940902746082.
  9. ^ a b c d J.C. Kammerer (1 September 2005). "Largest Rivers in the United States". US Geological Survey. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
  10. ^ Roach, John. "Amazon Longer Than Nile River, Scientists Say". National Geographic. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  11. ^ "Río de la Plata". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
  12. ^ "Scientists pinpoint sources of four major international rivers". Xinhua News Agency. 22 August 2011. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
  13. ^ "Brahmaputra River". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  14. ^ "Longest Rivers". Geoscience Australia. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  15. ^ Syvitski, James P. M., Vörösmarty, Charles J., Kettner, Albert J., Green, Pamela. "Impact of Humans on the Flux of Terrestrial Sediment to the Global Coastal Ocean". Archived from the original on 2006-09-19. Retrieved 2006-02-27.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  16. ^ Parua, Pranab Kumar (3 January 2010). The Ganga: water use in the Indian subcontinent. Springer. p. 272. ISBN 978-90-481-3102-0. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
  17. ^ Ganges–Farakka
  18. ^ Bossche, J.P. vanden; G. M. Bernacsek (1990). Source Book for the Inland Fishery Resources of Africa, Volume 1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. p. 338. ISBN 978-92-5-102983-1.
  19. ^ "Longest Rivers". Murray Darling Basin Authority. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
  20. ^ a b c Longest Rivers at Geoscience Australia
  21. ^ "The Chilliwack River Valley: An Outdoor Enthusiast's Paradise". Camping & RVing BC. Camping and RVing British Columbia Coalition. 10 October 2017. Archived from the original on 11 March 2016. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  22. ^ a b Bossche, J.P. vanden; G. M. Bernacsek (1990). Source Book for the Inland Fishery Resources of Africa, Volume 1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. p. 333. ISBN 978-92-5-102983-1.
  23. ^ If the Meuse is considered a tributary, the Rhine basin is 218,300 km².
  24. ^ Rogers, Aaron W. "White River - Encyclopedia of Arkansas". Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  25. ^ Daily Telegraph, Monday 18 June 2007, page 18
  26. ^ "Amazon river flowed into the Pacific millions of years ago". Retrieved 2017-12-11.
  27. ^ Vaikmäe, R., Edmunds, W. M., and Manzano, M., (2001) "Weichselian palaeoclimate and palaeoenvironment in Europe: Background for palaeogroundwater formation", in "Palaeowaters in Coastal Europe: Evolution of Groundwater Since the Late Pleistocene" (W. M. Edmunds and C. J. Milne (eds)). London:The Geological Society. p. 177
  28. ^ Bridgland, D. R., and D’Olier, B. (1995) "The Pleistocene evolution of the Thames and Rhine drainage systems in the southern North Sea Basin (abstract)", Geological Society, London, Special Publications, v. 96, p. 27-45, in Lyell Collection. Retrieved 12 November 2015.

External links

Amazon River

The Amazon River (UK: , US: ; Spanish and Portuguese: Amazonas) in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world, and by some definitions it is the longest.The headwaters of the Apurímac River on Nevado Mismi had been considered for nearly a century as the Amazon's most distant source, until a 2014 study found it to be the headwaters of the Mantaro River on the Cordillera Rumi Cruz in Peru. The Mantaro and Apurímac join, and with other tributaries form the Ucayali River, which in turn meets the Marañón River upstream of Iquitos, Peru, to form what countries other than Brazil consider to be the main stem of the Amazon. Brazilians call this section the Solimões River above its confluence with the Rio Negro to form what Brazilians call the Amazon at the Meeting of Waters (Portuguese: Encontro das Águas) at Manaus, the river's largest city.

At an average discharge of about 209,000 cubic metres per second (7,400,000 cu ft/s; 209,000,000 L/s; 55,000,000 USgal/s)—approximately 6,591 cubic kilometres per annum (1,581 cu mi/a), greater than the next seven largest independent rivers combined—the Amazon represents 20% of the global riverine discharge to the ocean. The Amazon basin is the largest drainage basin in the world, with an area of approximately 7,050,000 square kilometres (2,720,000 sq mi). The Amazon River is disputed longest river in the world (Brazilian government claims it to be longer than the Nile, while every other nation claims that the Nile is the longest River in the world). The portion of the river's drainage basin in Brazil alone is larger than any other river's basin. The Amazon enters Brazil with only one-fifth of the flow it finally discharges into the Atlantic Ocean, yet already has a greater flow at this point than the discharge of any other river.


The Ganges ( GAN-jeez), or Ganga (Hindustani: [ˈɡəŋɡaː]), is a trans-boundary river of the Indian subcontinent which flows through the nations of India and Bangladesh. The 2,525 km (1,569 mi) river rises in the western Himalayas in the Indian state of Uttarakhand, and flows south and east through the Gangetic Plain of North India. After entering West Bengal, it divides into two rivers: the Hooghly and the Padma River. The Hooghly, or Adi Ganga, flows through several districts of West Bengal and into the Bay of Bengal near Sagar Island. The other, the Padma, also flows into and through Bangladesh, and joins the Meghna river which ultimately empties into the Bay of Bengal.

The Ganges is one of the most sacred rivers to Hindus. It is also a lifeline to millions of Indians who live along its course and depend on it for their daily needs. It is worshipped in Hinduism and personified as the goddess Gaṅgā. It has also been important historically, with many former provincial or imperial capitals (such as Kannauj, Kampilya, Kanpur, Kara, Prayag or Allahabad, Kashi, Pataliputra or Patna, Hajipur, Munger, Bhagalpur, Baranagar, Murshidabad, Baharampur, Nabadwip, Saptagram and Kolkata) located on its banks.

The Ganges is highly polluted. Pollution threatens not only humans, but also more than 140 fish species, 90 amphibian species and the endangered Ganges river dolphin. The Ganges is a major source of global ocean plastic pollution. The levels of fecal coliform bacteria from human waste in the waters of the river near Varanasi are more than 100 times the Indian government's official limit. The Ganga Action Plan, an environmental initiative to clean up the river, has been a major failure thus far, due to rampant corruption, lack of will on behalf of the government and its bureaucracy, lack of technical expertise, poor environmental planning, and lack of support from religious authorities.

Kahn River

The river Kahn or Khan as it is now known is a river flowing through Indore, the commercial capital of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It doesn't contain freshwater but instead has become polluted over the course of time carries sewage due to pollution.

For the past few years efforts are being made to revive the dying river by the means of projects.

Largest rivers

See one of the following:

List of rivers by length

List of rivers by discharge

List of drainage basins by area

List of drainage basins by area

The list of drainage basins by area identifies basins (also known as "catchments" or, in North American usage, "watersheds"), sorted by area, which drain to oceans, mediterranean seas, rivers, lakes and other water bodies. All basins larger than 400,000 km2 (150,000 sq mi) are included as well as selected smaller basins. It includes drainage basins which do not flow to the ocean (endorheic basins). It includes oceanic sea drainage basins which have hydrologically coherent areas (oceanic seas are set by IHO convention).

The oceans drain approximately 83% of the land in the world. The other 17% – an area larger than the basin of the Arctic Ocean – drains to internal endorheic basins.

Note that there are substantial areas of the world that do not "drain" in the commonly understood sense. In Arctic deserts much of the snowfall sublimates directly into the air and does not melt into flowing water, while in equatorial deserts precipitation may evaporate before joining any substantial water course. However, these areas can still be included in topographically defined basins if one considers the hypothetical flow of water (or ice), and thus nutrients or pollutants, over the surface of the ground (or ice sheet); this is the approach taken here. For example, the Antarctic ice sheet can be divided into basins, and most of Libya is included in the Mediterranean Sea basin even though almost no water from the interior actually reaches the sea.

List of rivers by discharge

This is a list of rivers by their average discharge, that is, their water flow rate. Here, only those rivers are shown whose discharge is more than 2,000 cubic metres per second (530,000 US gal/s; 440,000 impgal/s; 2,000,000 L/s). For context, the volume of an Olympic-size swimming pool is 2,500 cubic metres. So the flow rate at the mouth of the Amazon is sufficient to fill more than 83 such pools each second.

List of rivers of Europe

This page lists the principal rivers of Europe with their main attributes.

Lists of rivers

This is a comprehensive list of lists of rivers, organized primarily by continent and country.

Long River

Long River may refer to:

The Yangtze River, from the literal translation of its usual Chinese name Changjiang (长江)

Any of several rivers named Long (龍江, meaning "Dragon River")

Long Island River (Minnesota), a river of Minnesota, US

Long River (Guangxi), a river system in Guangxi Province, China

Long River, Prince Edward Island, a community in Canada


The Nile (Arabic: النيل‎, written as al-Nīl; pronounced as an-Nīl) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is the longest river in Africa and the disputed longest river in the world (Brazilian government claims that the Amazon River is longer than the Nile). The Nile, which is about 6,650 km (4,130 mi) long, is an "international" river as its drainage basin covers eleven countries, namely, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Sudan, Republic of the Sudan and Egypt. In particular, the Nile is the primary water source of Egypt and Sudan.The river Nile has two major tributaries, the White Nile and Blue Nile. The White Nile is considered to be the headwaters and primary stream of the Nile itself. The Blue Nile, however, is the source of most of the water and silt. The White Nile is longer and rises in the Great Lakes region of central Africa, with the most distant source still undetermined but located in either Rwanda or Burundi. It flows north through Tanzania, Lake Victoria, Uganda and South Sudan. The Blue Nile begins at Lake Tana in Ethiopia and flows into Sudan from the southeast. The two rivers meet just north of the Sudanese capital of Khartoum.The northern section of the river flows north almost entirely through the Sudanese desert to Egypt, then ends in a large delta and flows into the Mediterranean Sea. Egyptian civilization and Sudanese kingdoms have depended on the river since ancient times. Most of the population and cities of Egypt lie along those parts of the Nile valley north of Aswan, and nearly all the cultural and historical sites of Ancient Egypt are found along river banks.


A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, creek, brook, rivulet, and rill. There are no official definitions for the generic term river as applied to geographic features, although in some countries or communities a stream is defined by its size. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location; examples are "run" in some parts of the United States, "burn" in Scotland and northeast England, and "beck" in northern England. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek, but not always: the language is vague.Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle; water generally collects in a river from precipitation through a drainage basin from surface runoff and other sources such as groundwater recharge, springs, and the release of stored water in natural ice and snowpacks (e.g., from glaciers). Potamology is the scientific study of rivers, while limnology is the study of inland waters in general. Most of the major cities of the world are situated on the banks of rivers, as they are, or were, used as a source of water, for obtaining food, for transport, as borders, as a defensive measure, as a source of hydropower to drive machinery, for bathing, and as a means of disposing of waste.

Salween River

The Salween or officially the Thanlwin River (Phlone: ကၟံင့်ယှောတ်ခၠေါဟ်, Shan language ၼမ်ႉၶူင်း, Burmese:

သံလွင်မြစ်; IPA: [θàɴlwɪ̀ɴ mjɪʔ]; Thai: แม่น้ำสาละวิน Mae Nam Salawin; IPA: [mɛ̂ː náːm sǎːləwin]), known in China as the Nu River (Chinese: 怒江; pinyin: Nù Jiāng), is a river about 2,815 kilometres (1,749 mi) long that flows from the Tibetan Plateau into the Andaman Sea in Southeast Asia.

It drains a narrow and mountainous watershed of 324,000 square kilometres (125,000 sq mi) that extends into the countries of China, Burma and Thailand. Steep canyon walls line the swift, powerful and undammed Salween, one of the longest free-flowing rivers in the world. Its extensive drainage basin supports a biodiversity comparable with the Mekong and is home to about 7 million people. In 2003, key parts of the mid-region watershed of the river were included within the Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.The people who live on the Salween are relatively isolated from the rest of the world. The river is only navigable up to 90 kilometres (56 mi) from the mouth, and only in the rainy season.

The Burma Road was constructed between 1937 and 1938 during the Second Sino-Japanese War and crossed the river at the Huitong bridge. The Huitong bridge was blown by the retreating Chinese army and the river became the frontline from 1942 to 1944.

The Salween Campaign of World War II, was launched in order to liberate occupied China and open the Burma Road again and connect it to the Ledo Road.

Logging began on the mountains surrounding the Salween in the late 20th century, and has damaged the river's ecology. In recent years, there have been a number of proposals to dam the Salween River, both upstream in China and downstream in Myanmar, which have prompted social and environmental concerns as well as widespread opposition. Construction of at least one upstream dam on a tributary of the Salween is currently underway in China's Yunnan province, with many more expected to follow.

Saraswati River (Madhya Pradesh)

The river Saraswati is a river flowing through Indore, the commercial capital of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is a tributary of the polluted Kahn River.

It also doesn't contain freshwater but instead has become polluted over the course of time carries sewage due to pollution.

For the past few years efforts are being done to revive the dying river by the means of projects.

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