List of political parties in China

China, officially the People's Republic of China, is formally a multi-party state under the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC) in a United Front similar to the popular fronts of former Communist-era Eastern European countries such as the National Front of Democratic Germany.

Under the one country, two systems scheme, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau, which were previously colonies of European powers, operate under a different political system to the rest of China. Currently, both Hong Kong and Macau possess multi-party systems.[1]

Relationships with the Communist Party

In practice, only one political party holds effective power at the national level, namely the CPC. Its dominance is such that China is effectively a one-party state. Eight minor parties are part of the United Front and also take part in the political system, but they have limited power on a national level. The minor parties in the Front are almost completely subservient to the CPC; they must accept the "leading role" of the CPC as a condition of their continued existence. The Chinese political system allows for the participation of some non-CPC members and minor parties in the National People's Congress (NPC), but they are vetted by the CPC. The Constitution of China states in the preamble: "The system of the multi-party cooperation and political consultation led by the Communist Party of China will exist and develop for a long time to come."[2]

Parties

Current institutional parties

English name
(abbreviation)
Chinese name
(abbreviation)
Date founded Existed Location founded Members Current leader Official website
Communist Party of China (CPC) – ruling party 中国共产党(中共) 1 July 1921 98 years, 48 days Shanghai, China 89,450,000 General Secretary
Xi Jinping
[3]
Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Kuomintang (RCCK) 中国国民党革命委员会(民革) 1 January 1948 71 years, 229 days British Hong Kong 127,930 Chairman
Prof. Wan Exiang
[4]
China Democratic League (CDL) 中国民主同盟(民盟) 19 March 1941 78 years, 152 days Chongqing, China 282,000 Chairman
Prof. Ding Zhongli
[5]
China Democratic National Construction Association (CDNCA) 中国民主建国会(民建) 16 December 1945 73 years, 245 days Chongqing, China 170,000 Chairman
Prof. Hao Mingjin
[6]
China Association for Promoting Democracy (CAPD) 中国民主促进会(民进) 30 December 1945 73 years, 231 days Shanghai, China 156,808 Chairman
Prof. Cai Dafeng
[7]
Chinese Peasants' and Workers' Democratic Party (CPWDP) 中国农工民主党(农工党) 9 August 1930 89 years, 9 days Shanghai, China 145,000 Chairman
Prof. Chen Zhu
[8]
China Zhi Gong Party (CZGP) 中国致公党(致公党) 10 October 1925 93 years, 312 days Los Angeles, California, United States 48,000 Chairman
Prof. Wan Gang
[9]
Jiusan Society (JS) 九三学社 3 September 1945 73 years, 349 days Chongqing, China 167,218 Chairman
Prof. Wu Weihua
[10]
Taiwan Democratic Self-Government League (TDSGL) 台湾民主自治同盟(台盟) 12 November 1947 71 years, 279 days British Hong Kong 3,000 Chairwoman
Su Hui
[11]

Suppressed parties

The following parties have been and are currently suppressed in China. Due to censorship and suppression, they most likely have their headquarters outside the Chinese mainland.

Historical Republic of China

Sun Yat Sen together with the members of the Singapore Branch of Tongmen Hui
Sun Yat-sen together with the members of the Singapore branch of the Tongmenghui

The Republic of China (ROC) was founded by the Kuomintang (KMT) leader Dr. Sun Yat-sen in 1912. The Kuomintang's prior revolutionary political group, the Revive China Society, was founded on 24 November 1894. It later merged with various other revolutionary groups to form the Tongmenghui in 1905. In August 1911, the Tongmenghui further merged with various other political parties i]n Beijing to form the KMT. In July 1914, the KMT re-organized itself as the Chinese Revolutionary Party in Tokyo, Japan. In 1919, the party officially renamed itself as Kuomintang of China, which literally translates to Chinese Nationalist Party.[24] It was China's first major political party. In 1921, the Communist Party of China (CPC) was founded by Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao in Shanghai as a study society and an informal network. Slowly, the CPC began to grow. These were the two major political parties in China during the time when the ROC ruled mainland China from 1911 to 1949.

During the Chinese Civil War, under the leadership of the CPC the People's Liberation Army defeated the National Revolutionary Army of the Kuomintang in 1949. The Kuomintang had no choice but to leave mainland China and move to the island of Taiwan in 1945 from Japan, then fled there with the aim to retake mainland China and retained the name Republic of China even though the CPC claimed that it had ceased to exist after 1949.

References

  1. ^ Buckley, Roger (1997). Hong Kong: The Road to 1997. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-46979-1.
  2. ^ "The National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China". npc.gov.cn. 2007-11-15.
  3. ^ "Info". english.cpc.com.cn.
  4. ^ "Info". minge.gov.cn.
  5. ^ "Info". dem-league.org.cn.
  6. ^ "Info". cdnca.org.cn.
  7. ^ "Info". mj.org.cn.
  8. ^ "Info". ngd.org.cn.
  9. ^ "Info". zg.org.cn.
  10. ^ "Info". 93.org.cn.
  11. ^ "Info". taimeng.org.cn.
  12. ^ a b Gittings, John (2005). The Changing Face of China: From Mao to Market. Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-19-280612-2.
  13. ^ a b Goldsmith, Jack L.; and Wu, Tim (2006). Who Controls the Internet?: Illusions of a Borderless World. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515266-2.
  14. ^ "Chinese Pan-Blue Alliance Members Arrested". Epoch Times. 18 February 2008.
  15. ^ Moore, Malcolm. "Former teacher names Bo Xilai chairman of 'new political party'". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 10 November 2013.
  16. ^ Benjamin Kang Lim and Ben Blanchard (9 November 2013). "Bo Xilai supporters launch new political party in China". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Retrieved 10 November 2013.
  17. ^ Shao, Heng. "Bizarre China Report: The Grand Wedding, Power Play & Smog-Inspired Creativity". Forbes.
  18. ^ "北京民政局发出取缔"至宪党"决定". Deutsche Welle. 14 December 2013. Retrieved 28 December 2016.
  19. ^ Su, Yuan (2017). 1978-1979: Diary. China Cultural Communication Press.
  20. ^ "'四人帮'在福建打游击". 展望. 01. 1977-01-01.
  21. ^ "福建四人帮战讯". 展望. 1977-12-01.
  22. ^ Demick, Barbara (20 March 2012). "China puts a stop to Maoist revival". Los Angeles Times.
  23. ^ "Zhihu". zhihu.com.
  24. ^ "- 中國國民黨全球資訊網 KMT Official Website". 中國國民黨全球資訊網.

External links

See also

History of political parties in China

In the history of political parties in China, the first major party in China was the Kuomintang (KMT), which moved to Taiwan in 1949. It was founded in Guangdong Province on August 25, 1912 from a union of several revolutionary groups. The Republic of China was founded by Kuomintang's leader Dr. Sun Yat-sen later that year. In 1921, the Communist Party of China (CPC) was founded by Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao in Shanghai as a study society, and an informal political network.

During the Chinese Civil War, under the CPC's leadership, the People's Liberation Army defeated the Kuomintang's National Revolutionary Army in 1949. As a last resort, the Kuomintang leadership left mainland China, and moved to Taiwan. Since then, there have been two very different Chinese political entities, one ruling mainland China, and the other ruling Taiwan.

Orders of precedence in China

The Orders of precedence in China is the ranking of political leaders in China for the purposes of event protocol and to arrange the ordering of names in official news bulletins, both written and televised. It is also sometimes used to assess perceived level of political power. Although there is no formally published ranking, there is usually an established convention and protocol, and the relative positions of Chinese political figures can usually be deduced from the order in meetings and especially by the time and order in which figures are covered by the official media.

Depending on the person and the time period, the hierarchy will vary accordingly. Since the 1980s, Chinese political positions have become increasingly institutionalized. However, part of the power Chinese leaders carry still derives from who they are, rather than what position they hold.

Individuals can hold multiple top leadership titles but also be unable to claim to be the de facto ruler as was the case with Chairman Hua Guofeng, when "paramount leader" Deng Xiaoping was present. The traditional ranking system was based upon the hierarchical line of the politburo standing committee. The names on this list includes all those officially considered "Party and State Leaders" (Chinese: 党和国家领导人).

Political lists

This page is a list of political lists.

List of annulled elections -

List of anti-nuclear protests in the United States -

List of basic political science topics -

List of basic public affairs topics -

List of civic and political organizations -

List of close elections -

List of confederations -

List of countries spanning more than one continent -

List of democracy and elections-related topics -

List of democratic socialist parties and organizations -

List of enclaves and exclaves -

List of government and military acronyms -

List of major social nudity organizations -

List of murdered political human rights activists -

List of narrow elections -

List of national governments -

List of political metaphors -

List of political party symbols -

List of political scientists -

List of politics by country articles -

List of wars between democracies -

List of revolutions and rebellions -

List of rump states -

List of social democratic parties -

List of socialist countries -

List of socialist songs -

List of sovereign states -

List of suffragists and suffragettes -

List of timelines -

List of years in politics -

Lists of countries -

List of political parties by United Nations geoscheme -

United Front (China)

The United Front (Chinese: 統一戰線; pinyin: Tǒngyī Zhànxiàn) in China is a popular front of the legally permitted parties in the country, led by the Communist Party of China (CPC). Besides the CPC, it includes eight minor parties and the All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce. It is managed by the CPC Central Committee United Front Work Department (Chinese: 中共中央统一战线工作部). Its current department head is You Quan. The member parties of the Front are completely subservient to the CPC, and must accept the "leading role" of the CPC as a condition of their continued existence.

China Political parties in China
Major
Minor
Sovereign states
States with
limited recognition
Dependencies and
other territories

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