List of philosophies

Philosophical schools of thought and philosophical movements.

A

Absurdism - Actual idealism - Actualism - Advaita Vedanta - Aesthetic Realism - Aesthetics - African philosophy - Agential realism - Agnosticism - American philosophy - Anarchy - Animism - Antinatalism - Anti-realism - Antireductionism - Analytic philosophy - Anarchism - Ancient philosophy - Anthropocentrism - Anomalous monism - Applied ethics - Aristotelianism - Asceticism - Authoritarianism - Averroism - Avicennism - Axiology

B

Ba'athism - Bioconservatism - Bioethics - Biolibertarianism - Biosophy - Buddhist philosophy -

C

Calvinism - Capitalism - Cartesianism - Catechism - Categorical imperative - Centrism - Chaos theory - Charvaka - Chinese naturalism - Chinese philosophy - Christian ecology - Christian existentialism - Christian humanism - Christian philosophy - Christian theology - Christology - Classical liberalism - Collectivism - Cognitivism - Communitarianism - Compatibilism and incompatibilism - Confirmation holism - Conformism - Confucianism - Consequentialism - Conservatism - Constructivist epistemology - Continental philosophy - Cosmopolitanism - Critical rationalism - Critical realism - Cynicism - Czech philosophy

D

Danish philosophy - Daoism - Deconstruction - Deism - Democratic transhumanism - Denialism - Deontology - Determinism - Dialectic - Dialectical materialism - Didacticism - Digital philosophy - Discordianism - Dualistic cosmology - Dvaita

E

Ecocentrism - Ecumenism - Egalitarianism - Egocentrism - Eliminative materialism - Empiricism - Ephesian school - Epiphenomenalism - Epicureanism - Epistemological nihilism - Epistemology - Eschatology - Esotericism - Ethical Egoism - Ethics - Eudaimonism - Existentialism - Externalism

F

Fascism - Feminist philosophy - Filial piety - Flower Sermon - Foundationalism - Free will - Fundamentalism

G

German idealism - German philosophy - Greek philosophy

H

Hasidism - Hedonism - Hegelianism - Hermeticism - Heterophenomenology - Hindu philosophy - Historical materialism - Historical revisionism - Historicism - Holism - Hongaku - Human exceptionalism - Humanism - Humanistic naturalism

I

Idealism - Identityism - Ideological criticism - Ignosticism - Illegalism - Illuminationism - Individualism - Indian logic - Indian philosophy - Indonesian philosophy - Induction / Inductionism - Informal logic - Innatism - Instrumental rationality - Instrumentalism - Interactionism (philosophy of mind) - Internalism and externalism - Interventionism - Intuitionism - Iranian philosophy - Irrealism - Islamic ethics - Islamic philosophy

J

Jainism - Japanese philosophy - Jesuism - Jewish philosophy - Juche - Judaism - Judeo-Islamic philosophies (800–1400) - Just war theory

K

Kantianism - Kashmir Shaivism - Korean philosophy

L

Legalism - Leibnizianism - Liberalism - Libertarianism (metaphysics) - Libertarianism - Literary theory - Logic / Informal logic - Logical atomism - Logical positivism - Logicians - Logicism - Logic in China - Logic in Islamic philosophy - Lutheranism

M

Manichaeism - Maoism - Marxism - Marxist philosophy of nature - Materialism - Mathematicism - Mazdakism - Medical ethics - Medieval philosophy - Medievalism - Mentalism - Mereological nihilism - Meta-philosophy - Metaphysics - Meta-ethics - Methodism - Mind-body dualism - Misology - Modernism - Modern Islamic philosophy - Mohism - Monism - Monotheism - Moral absolutism - Moral realism - Moral relativism - Moral skepticism - Mysticism -

N

Naïve realism - Naturalism - Natalism - Negationism - Neo-Confucianism - Neo-Hegelianism - Neo-Kantianism - Neoplatonism - Neopythagoreanism - Neo-Scholasticism - Neotaoism - Neuroethics - Neurophilosophy - Neurotheology - New realism - New Thought - Neutral monism - Nihilism - Nominalism - Nondualism - Non-philosophy - Negative Utilitarianism

O

Objective idealism - Objectivism (Ayn Rand) - Occasionalism - Ontology - Ontotheology - Open individualism - Organicism

P

Paganism - Pakistani philosophy - Pancritical rationalism - Pandeism - Panentheism - Panpsychism - Pantheism - Pastafarianism - 'Pataphysics - Perennial philosophy - Perfectionism - Peripatetic school - Personalism - Perspectivism - Pessimism - Phenomenalism - Phenomenology - Philosophical anthropology - Philosophical Satanism - Philosophy of archaeology - Philosophy of art - Philosophy of Arithmetic - Philosophy of artificial intelligence - Philosophy of action - Philosophy of biology - Philosophy of business - Philosophy of Common Sense - Philosophy of culture - Philosophy of color - The Philosophy of Chance - Philosophy of design - Philosophy of dialogue - Philosophy of eating - Philosophy of economics - Philosophy of education - Philosophy of engineering - Philosophy of environment - Philosophy of film - Philosophy of futility - Philosophy of geography - Philosophy of healthcare - Philosophy of history - Philosophy of information - Philosophy of language - Philosophy of logic - Philosophy of love - Philosophy of mathematics - Philosophy of mathematics education - Philosophy of mind - Philosophy of motion - Philosophy of music - Philosophy of nature - Philosophy of Natural Science - Philosophy of neuroscience - Philosophy of perception - Philosophy of philosophy - Philosophy of physics - Philosophy of psychology - Philosophy of psychiatry - Philosophy of religion - Philosophy of religious language - Philosophy of science - Philosophy of sex - Philosophy of self - Philosophy of social science - Philosophy of space and time - Philosophy of sport - Philosophy of statistics - Philosophy of thermal and statistical physics - Philosophy of war - Physicalism - Physical ontology - Platonic realism - Platonism - Pluralism - Political philosophy - Populism - Positivism - Postanalytic philosophy - Post-structuralism - Posthumanism - Post-materialism - Post-modernism - Postpositivism- Practical reason - Pragmatism - Praxis School - Presentism - Process philosophy - Progressivism - Property dualism - Pseudophilosophy - Psychological egoism - Pure practical reason - Pure reason - Pyrrhonian skepticism - Pythagoreanism

Q

Quantum mysticism - Quietism

R

Raëlism - Rastafari - Rationalism - Realism - Reconstructivism - Reductionism - Reductive materialism - Reformational philosophy - Relationalism - Relativism - Relevance logic - Religious humanism - Religious philosophy - Reliabilism - Renaissance humanism - Romanian philosophy - Romanticism - Russian cosmism - Russian philosophy

S

Sabellianism - Scholasticism - Scientism - Secularism - Secular humanism - Semantic holism - Sensualism - Sexualism - Sexism - Shamanism - Sikhism - Simulism - Singularitarianism - Skepticism - Socialism - Social philosophy - Solipsism - Sophism - Spiritualism - Stoicism - Structuralism - Subjective idealism - Subjectivism - Sufi metaphysics - Śūnyatā - Supersessionism - Synoptic philosophy - Systems philosophy

T

Taoism - Teleology - Tetralemma - Thelema - Theology - Thomism - Traditionalist School - Transcendent theosophy (al-Hikmat al-Muta’liyah) - Transcendental idealism - Transcendentalism - Transcendental perspectivism - Transhumanism - Transmodernism - Type physicalism

U

Universalism - Utilitarian bioethics - Utilitarianism

V

Value pluralism - Value theory - Verificationism - Vienna Circle - Virtue ethics - Vitalism - Voluntaryism

W

Wahdat-ul-Wujood - Wahdat-ul-Shuhud - Western philosophy

Z

Zen - Zoroastrianism - Zurvanism

See also

-ism

-ism is a suffix in many English words, originally derived from the Ancient Greek suffix -ισμός (-ismós), and reaching English through the Latin -ismus, and the French -isme. It means "taking side with" or "imitation of", and is often used to describe philosophies, theories, religions, social movements, artistic movements and behaviors. The suffix "-ism" is neutral and therefore bears no connotations associated with any of the many ideologies it identifies; such determinations can only be informed by public opinion regarding specific ideologies.

The concept of an -ism may resemble that of a grand narrative.

Glossary of philosophy

A glossary of terms used in philosophy.

Lists of lists of people by belief

These are articles that list people of a particular religious or political belief or other worldview.

Philosophical theory

A philosophical theory or philosophical position is a set of beliefs that explains or accounts for a general philosophy or specific branch of philosophy. The use of the term theory here is a statement of colloquial English and not reflective of the term theory. While any sort of thesis or opinion may be termed a position, in analytic philosophy it is thought best to reserve the word "theory" for systematic, comprehensive attempts to solve problems.

School of thought

A school of thought, or intellectual tradition, is the perspective of a group of people who share common characteristics of opinion or outlook of a philosophy, discipline, belief, social movement, economics, cultural movement, or art movement.

Schools are often characterized by their currency, and thus classified into "new" and "old" schools. There is a convention, in political and philosophical fields of thought, to have "modern" and "classical" schools of thought. An example is the modern and classical liberals. This dichotomy is often a component of paradigm shift. However, it is rarely the case that there are only two schools in any given field.

Schools are often named after their founders such as the "Rinzai school" of Zen, named after Linji Yixuan; and the Asharite school of early Muslim philosophy, named after Abu l'Hasan al-Ashari. They are often also named after their places of origin, such as the Ionian school of philosophy, which originated in Ionia; the Chicago school of architecture, which originated in Chicago, Illinois; the Prague school of linguistics, named after a linguistic circle founded in Prague; and the Tartu–Moscow Semiotic School, whose representatives lived in Tartu and Moscow.

Western philosophy

Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world. Historically, the term refers to the philosophical thinking of Western culture, beginning with Greek philosophy of the pre-Socratics such as Thales (c. 624 – c. 546 BC) and Pythagoras (c. 570 BC – c. 495 BC), and eventually covering a large area of the globe. The word philosophy itself originated from the Ancient Greek: philosophia (φιλοσοφία), literally, "the love of wisdom" (φιλεῖν philein, "to love" and σοφία sophia, "wisdom").

The scope of philosophy in the ancient understanding, and the writings of (at least some of) the ancient philosophers, were all intellectual endeavors. This included the problems of philosophy as they are understood today; but it also included many other disciplines, such as pure mathematics and natural sciences such as physics, astronomy, and biology (Aristotle, for example, wrote on all of these topics).

Concepts in religion
Conceptions of God
Existence of God
Theology
Religious language
Problem of evil
Philosophersof religion

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