This is a partial list of novae in the Milky Way galaxy that have been discovered and recorded since 1891. Novae are stars that undergo dramatic explosions, but unlike supernovae, these do not result in the destruction of the original star. The likely rate of novae in the Milky Way is about 40 per year, but of these only about 10 per year are discovered by observers as of the 2000s (decade). This list attempts to include only the brighter or more notable novae.
Novae are initially designated via a "Nova [genitive form of constellation name] [year of discovery]" format, e.g. "Nova Cygni 1974" and "Nova Scorpii 2010". An official permanent name is usually soon assigned by the General Catalog of Variable Stars using the GCVS format for the naming of variable stars. When more than one nova is discovered in a constellation in one year, a numeric suffix is appended; hence "Nova Sagittarii 2011 #2", "Nova Sagitarii 2011 #3", etc.
|Year||Nova||Maximum brightness[note 1]|
|1866||T Coronae Borealis||+2.0|
|1946||T Coronae Borealis||+3.0|
|1956||RW Ursae Minoris||+6.0|
KT Eridani was a bright nova, which produced an outburst in 2009 in the constellation Eridanus. It was discovered on 2009 November 25 by K. Itagaki at Yamagata, Japan. It was first called Nova Eridani 2009 and is located at 04h 47m 54.21s −10° 10′ 43.1″. In the most common nova systems, the white dwarf accretes matter from a main sequence star. However, in KT Eri is thought to have a red giant companion star.Nova Centauri 2013
Nova Cen 2013 or V1369 Cen (PNV J13544700-5909080) was a bright nova in the constellation Centaurus. It was discovered on December 2, 2013 by amateur astronomer John Seach in Australia with a magnitude of 5.5.
On December 14, 2013 it peaked at about magnitude 3.3, making it the brightest nova so far of this millennium.Nova Centauri 2013 was observed emitting gamma-rays between 7–10 December 2013 by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The nova continued to brighten in gamma-rays and the peak coincided with the second optical maximum on 11 December 2013.The Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission detected X-ray emission from Nova Centauri 2013 on 18 and 25 February 2014 and 8 March 2014.In July 2015 it was announced that lithium has been detected in material ejected from Nova Centauri 2013. This is the first time lithium has been detected in a nova system. The amount detected was less than a billionth of the mass of the Sun. This finding is significant because it supports a theory that the extra lithium found in Population I stars (compared to Population II stars) comes from novae.Nova Muscae 2018
Nova Muscae 2018 (formerly PNV J11261220-6531086) is a bright nova in the constellation Musca, right ascension 11h 26m 15.16s, declination −65° 31′ 23.3″ (J2000.0). It was discovered on January 14, 2018 by Rob Kaufman of Bright, Victoria, Australia with a magnitude of 7.0.As well as being observed optically, the nova was also detected at radio wavelengths using the Australia Telescope Compact Array.Nova Persei 2018
Nova Persei 2018 is a bright nova in the constellation Perseus discovered on April 29, 2018. It was previously known as a dwarf nova with variable star designation V392 Persei.V339 Delphini
V339 Delphini or Nova Delphini 2013 (PNV J20233073+2046041) is a bright nova star in the constellation Delphinus. It was discovered on 14 August 2013 by amateur astronomer Koichi Itagaki in Japan and confirmed by the Liverpool Telescope on La Palma. The nova appeared with a magnitude 6.8 when it was discovered and peaked at magnitude 4.3 on 16 August 2013. A nova is produced by the fusion of accumulated material on the white dwarf nova progenitor acquired from its companion star. The nova system is thus a binary star, and a classical nova.V339 Del is the first nova that has been observed to synthesize the element lithium. Production of lithium-7 from the decay of beryllium-7, which was observed in the wind blown out of the nova. This is the first direct evidence of the supply of lithium to the interstellar medium by an astronomical object. Lithium-7 is fragile in the environment at the center of a nova, so being blown out of the environment at the center is necessary for the observation of lithium. The beryllium was produced by the fusion of helium-3 with helium-4. Nucleosynthesis of lithium is important in the study of chemical abundances in the universe.