List of non-extant papal tombs

This is a list of non-extant papal tombs, which includes tombs not included on the list of extant papal tombs. Information about these tombs is generally incomplete and uncertain.

Chronologically, the main locations of destroyed or unknown papal tombs have been: the obscure tombs of the first two centuries of popes near Saint Peter, the repeated waves of translations from the Catacombs of Rome, the demolition of the papal tombs in Old St. Peter's Basilica, and the 1306 and 1361 fires in the Basilica of St. John Lateran.

Papal tombs have also been destroyed by other instances of fire, remodeling, and war (most recently, World War II). Others are unknown due to creative or geographically remote methods of martyrdom, or—in the case of Pope Clement I—both. Burial in churches outside the Aurelian Walls of Rome (Italian: fuori le Mura)—in the basilicas of Paul or Lorenzo—have not generally survived.

Saintclementmartyr
Despite his being regarded as martyred into the Black Sea, multiple churches have laid claims to the translated relics of Pope Clement I.

Main locations

The main locations of destroyed or lost papal tombs include:

Other destroyed or unknown tombs

1st century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Tomb Sculptor Location Notes
88/92–97/101 StClement1 Clement I
Saint Clement
Desjatynna westerfeld According to doctrine, translated to the Church of the Tithes (Kiev)[6] According to doctrine thrown into the Black Sea near Crimea, translated to the Church of the Holy Apostles, then Basilica di San Clemente, then the Church of the Tithes.[6]

2nd century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Tomb Sculptor Location Notes
105/107–115/116 Pope Alexander I Alexander I
Saint Alexander
Competing claims (involving translation):[7]
115/116–125 SixtusI Sixtus I
Saint Sixtus
Competing claims (involving translation and a finger):[8]
174/175–189 Eleutherius Eleuterus
Saint Eleutherus
Competing claims:[9]

5th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Tomb Sculptor Location Notes
31 July 432–March/August 440 Sixtus III
Saint Sixtus
San Lorenzo fuori le mura - facade San Lorenzo fuori le Mura[10] Then called San Lorenzo al Verano; sarcophagus destroyed, possibly in 1943[10]
19 November 461 - 29 February 468 Nuremberg chronicles - Hilarius, Pope (CXXXVIv) Hilarius
Saint Hilarius
San Lorenzo fuori le mura - facade San Lorenzo fuori le Mura, crypt[11] Then called San Lorenzo al Verano
13 March 483 - 1 March 492 Felix3 Felix III (Felix II)
Saint Felix
Either San Paolo fuori le Mura or the crypt of Santissima Concenzione near Piazza Barberini[12]

6th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Tomb Sculptor Location Notes
1 June 536 - 11 November 537 Silverius Silverius
Saint Silverius
Isola Palmaria Palmaria[13] Non-contemporary shrine extant on Ponza Island[14]
29 March 537 - 7 June 555 Vigilius Vigilius Either San Marcello on the Via Salaria (Oxford Dictionary of Popes) or San Silvestre over the Catacomb of Priscilla on the Via Salaria (Catholic Encyclopedia)[15]

7th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Tomb Sculptor Location Notes
July 649 - 16 September 655 Pope Martin I Martin I
Saint Martin
Chersonesos columns Church of our Lady (Blachdernæ), near Chersonesus No trace of the Church or tomb remains[16]

9th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Tomb Sculptor Location Notes
25 January 817 - 11 February 824 Pope Paschalis I. in apsis mosaic of Santa Prassede in Rome Paschal I
Saint Paschal
Unknown, but likely destroyed Alleged to have been buried in the chapel of St. Zeno of Santa Prassade (disproved by modern research); possibly buried under the altar of the oratory of Saints Processus and Martiniano and lost when the oratory was moved in 1548 or 1605.[17]

10th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Tomb Sculptor Location Notes
July 903–September 903 Pope Leo V Leo V Unknown but destroyed Either cremated and thrown in the Tiber, buried (and thus destroyed) in Old Saint Peter's, or buried whole in Basilica of St. John Lateran[18]
1 October 965 - 6 September 972 John XIII Roma San Paolo fuori le mura BW 1 Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls Destroyed[19]

11th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Tomb Sculptor Location Notes
June 1003–December 1003 Papa Joao XVII John XVII Unknown but destroyed Either San Paolo fuori le Mura, Basilica of St. John Lateran or Santa Sabina[20]
25 December 1003–July 1009 Ioannes XVIII John XVIII Unknown but destroyed Either San Paolo fuori le Mura or Basilica of St. John Lateran[21]
1032–1044 Pope Benedict IX Illustration Benedict IX Grottaferrata-abbazia01 Abbey of Grottaferrata Discovered on March 4, 1739; destroyed during World War II[22]
1045 Silvestro3 Sylvester III Unknown[23]
13 April 1055–28 July 1057 Vicii bild Victor II Santa Maria Rotunda (Ravenna) Destroyed; claimed reburied in San Reparata (Florence) unsupported by evidence[24]
2 August 1057–29 March 1058 B Stephan IX Stephen IX, O.S.B. Duomo Firenze Apr 2008 (12) Santa Reparata (Florence) Tomb discovered in 1357 during the laying of the foundation for the new Duomo[24]
6 December 1058–27 July 1061 Papa Nicolau II Nicholas II Duomo Firenze Apr 2008 (12) Santa Reparata (Florence) Possibly reburied in the outer left aisle of St. Peter's; no remains of tomb in either today[24]
30 September 1061–21 April 1073 Papa alessandro II Alexander II Unknown but lost Either St. John Lateran or St. Peter's[24]

12th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Tomb Sculptor Location Notes
21 October 1187–17 December 1187 B Gregor VIII Gregory VIII, Can. Reg. PisaDuomoSunset20020322 Pisa Cathedral, Chapel of Our Lady Destroyed in the fire of 1600;[25] ordered the desecration of the tomb of Antipope Victor IV in Lucca on his way to Pisa, where he died

13th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Tomb Sculptor Location Notes
18 July 1216–18 March 1227 Interior of Santi Giovanni e Paolo (Venice) - Honorius III by Leandro Bassano Honorius III SantaMariaMaggiore front Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore No longer extant[26]
12 December 1254–25 May 1261 B Alexander IV Alexander IV Duomo di viterbo, esterno 01 Viterbo Cathedral Destroyed in 1490;[27] no longer extant[28]

Notes

  1. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 23-26.
  2. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 23.
  3. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 10-11.
  4. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 272-277.
  5. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 70-109.
  6. ^ a b Reardon, 2004, pp. 23–24.
  7. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 24.
  8. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 24–25.
  9. ^ Reardon, 2005, p. 26.
  10. ^ a b Reardon, 2004, p. 40.
  11. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 41.
  12. ^ Reardon, 2004, 41–42.
  13. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 44.
  14. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 270.
  15. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 45.
  16. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 53.
  17. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 61.
  18. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 69.
  19. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 73.
  20. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 79.
  21. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 80.
  22. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 81.
  23. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 82.
  24. ^ a b c d Reardon, 2004, p. 85.
  25. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 98.
  26. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 100.
  27. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 103.
  28. ^ Frothingham, A. L., Jr. (1891). "Notes on Roman Artists of the Middle Ages. III. Two Tombs of the Popes at Viterbo by Vassallectus and Petrus Oderisi". The American Journal of Archaeology and of the History of the Fine Arts, 7(1/2): 38.

References

  • Reardon, Wendy J. 2004. The Deaths of the Popes. Macfarland & Company, Inc. ISBN 0-7864-1527-4
Papal tombs in old St. Peter's Basilica

The papal tombs in old St. Peter's Basilica were the final resting places of the popes, most which dated from the fifth to sixteenth centuries. The majority of these tombs were destroyed during the sixteenth through seventeenth century demolition of old St. Peter's Basilica, except for one which was destroyed during the Saracen Sack of the church in 846. The remainder were transferred in part to new St. Peter's Basilica, which stands on the site of the original basilica, and a handful of other churches of Rome.

Tomb

A tomb (from Greek: τύμβος tumbos) is a repository for the remains of the dead. It is generally any structurally enclosed interment space or burial chamber, of varying sizes. Placing a corpse into a tomb can be called immurement, and is a method of final disposition, as an alternative to for example cremation or burial.

1st–4th centuries
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
5th–8th centuries
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
9th–12th centuries
Papal selection before 1059
Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
13th–16th centuries
Viterbo (1257–1281)
Orvieto (1262–1297)
Perugia (1228–1304)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
Western Schism (1378–1417)
Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)
Reformation Papacy (1534–1585)
Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)
17th–20th centuries
Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848)
Roman Question (1870–1929)
Vatican City (1929–present)
21st century
History of the papacy

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