List of new religious movements

A new religious movement (NRM) is a religious, ethical, or spiritual group or community with practices of relatively modern origins. NRMs may be novel in origin or they may exist on the fringes of a wider religion, in which case they will be distinct from pre-existing denominations. Academics identify a variety of characteristics which they employ in categorizing groups as new religious movements. The term is broad and inclusive, rather than sharply defined. New religious movements are generally seen as syncretic, employing human and material assets to disseminate their ideas and worldviews, deviating in some degree from a society's traditional forms or doctrines, focused especially upon the self, and having a peripheral relationship that exists in a state of tension with established societal conventions.[1]:29[2]:107[3]:206

An NRM may be one of a wide range of movements ranging from those with loose affiliations based on novel approaches to spirituality or religion to communitarian enterprises that demand a considerable amount of group conformity and a social identity that separates their adherents from mainstream society. Use of the term NRM is not universally accepted among the groups to which it is applied.[4] Scholars have estimated that NRMs now number in the tens of thousands worldwide, with most in Asia and Africa. Most have only a few members, some have thousands, and very few have more than a million.[5]:17 Academics occasionally propose amendments to technical definitions and continue to add new groups.[1]:vii–xv


List of new religious movements
Name Founder Year founded Type
3HO[6]:131 Harbhajan Singh Khalsa[7]:162 1969[7]:162 Sikhism[7]:162
Adidam, previously Free Daist Avabhasan Communion, Free Daist Communion, Crazy Wisdom Fellowship, Johannine Daist Community, Laughing Man Institute, Dawn Horse Communion, Free Primitive Church of Divine Communion, Free Communion Church, Dawn Horse Fellowship[7]:146[8]:25–28 Adi Da[7]:146 1972[7]:146 Hindu-inspired[7]:146
Adonai-Shomo[8]:28 Frederick T. Howland[9]:707 1861[9]:707 Adventist Communal[9]:707
Adonism[10] Franz Sättler[10] 1925[10] Neopagan[10]
Adventures in Enlightenment, A Foundation[8]:28–29 Terry Cole-Whittaker 1985 Religious Science
Aetherius Society[7]:3[8]:29–31[11]:25–26 George King[7]:3 1954[7]:3 UFO-Christian[7]:3
The African Church[11]:26 Jacob Kehinde Coker[12] 1901[12] Anglican Communion
African initiated churches [11]:26–27 Multiple Christianity; Indigenous
African Theological Archministry, previously Order of Damballah Hwedo Ancestor Priests, Shango Temple, and Yoruba Temple[8]:31 Walter Eugene King[9]:934 1973[9]:934 Voodoo[9]:934
Agasha Temple of Wisdom[8]:32 Richard Zenor[9]:764 1943[9]:764 Spiritualism[9]:764
Agni Yoga (Roerichism)[6]:6[8]:32 Helena & Nicholas Roerich[9]:876 mid-1920s[9]:876 Theosophical[9]:876
Ahmadiyya Muslim Community[6]:6[8]:32–33[11]:27–28 Mirza Ghulam Ahmad[9]:985 1889[9]:985 Islam[9]:985
Aladura[6]:7[11]:28–29 Josiah Ositelu[9] 1930[9]:517 Pentecostal[9]:517
Alamo Christian Foundation, also known as Alamo Christian Church, Consecrated, Alamo Christian Ministries, and Music Square Church[6]:7[8]:33–34[11]:29 Tony Alamo; Susan Alamo[7]:13 1969[7]:13 Fundamentalist; Communal[7]:13
Altruria[8]:34–35 Edward Biron Payne[9]:707 1894[9]:707 Christian Socialist Communal[9]:707
American Buddhist Movement[8]:35–36 1980[9]:1116 Western Buddhism[9]:1116
American Buddhist Society and Fellowship, Inc.[8]:36 Robert Ernest Dickhoff[9]:1102 1945[9]:1102 Tibetan Buddhism[9]:1102
American World Patriarchs[8]:37–38 Uladyslau Ryzy-Ryski[9]:309 1972[9]:309 Eastern Liturgy[9]:309
Amica Temple of Radiance[8]:38 Ivah Berg Whitten[9]:876 1932[9]:876 Theosophical[9]:876
Ananda Marga[6]:11[8]:41[11]:30–31[13]:370 Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar[9]:1001 1955[9]:1001 Hinduism[9]:1001
Ancient British Church in North America[8]:43 Jonathan V. Zotique[9]:1142 Homosexually Oriented[9]:1142
Ancient Mystical Order Rosae Crucis[6]:11[8]:42–43[11]:31 H. Spencer Lewis[9]:841 1915[9]:841 Rosicrucianism[9]:841
Ancient Teachings of the Masters, also known as ATOM[8]:43 Darwin Gross[9]:1054 1983[9]:1054 Sant Mat[9]:1054
Anglo-Saxon Federation of America[6]:13[8]:43–44 Howard B. Rand[9]:651 1928[9]:651 British Israelism[9]:651
Ansaaru Allah Community[8]:44 As Siddid Al Imaan Al Haahi Al Mahdi[9]:986–987 late 1960s[9]:986–987" Black Islam[9]:986–987
Anthroposophy[6]:13[8]:44–47[11]:33–34 Rudolf Steiner[7]:20 1912[7]:20 Western Occultist[7]:20
Antiochian Catholic Church in America[8]:47 Gordon Mar Peter[9]:241 1980s[9]:241 Independent Catholic, Monophysite[9]:241
Antoinism[6] Louis-Joseph Antoine[6] 1910[6] Healing, Christian[6]
Apostolic Christian Church (Nazarean)[8]:47–48 Samuel Heinrich Froehlich[9]:548 1906[9]:548 European Free-Church[9]:548
Apostolic Christian Church of America[8]:47–48 Samuel Heinrich Froehlich[9]:548 1830[9]:548 European Free-Church[9]:548
Apostolic Church[6]:15 Daniel Powell Williams[7]:23 1916[7]:23 Pentecostal[7]:23
Apostolic Church of Christ (Pentecostal)[8]:48 Johnnie Draft; Wallace Snow[9]:464 1969[9]:464 Apostolic Pentecostal[9]:464
Apostolic Overcoming Holy Church of God[6]:16 William Thomas Phillips[9]:465 1920[9]:465 Apostolic Pentecostal[9]:465
Arcane School[11]:38 Alice and Foster Bailey[9]:857 1937[9]:857 Neo-Theosophical[9]:857
Arica School[6]:17[11]:38–39 Oscar Ichazo[9]:971 1968[9]:971 Sufism[9]:971
Arkeon[14] Vito Carlo Moccia[15] 1999[15] Reiki, Roman Catholicism[14]
Art of Living Foundation, also known as Association for Inner Growth and Ved Vignan Maha Vidya Preeth[9]:1004 Ravi Shankar[9]:1004 1981[9]:1004 Hinduism[9]:1004
Arya Samaj[6]:18[11]:40–41 Mul Shankara[9]:1004 1875[9]:1004 Hinduism[9]:1004
Aryan Nations, also known as Church of Jesus Christ Christian, Aryan Nations[11]:91 Wesley Swift[9]:654 late 1940s[9]:654 British Israelism[9]:654
Ásatrú [16] Stephen McNallen[16] 1970s[16] Neo-pagan[16]
Assemblies of God[11]:41–42 merger[17]:106 1914[17]:106 Pentecostalism[17]:106
Assemblies of the Lord Jesus Christ[6]:18 merger[9]:466 1952[9]:466 Apostolic Pentecostal[9]:466
Assembly of Christian Soldiers[6]:21 Jessie L. Thrift[9]:1131 1971[9]:1131 Unclassified, Ku Klux Klan-based[9]:1131
Association for Research and Enlightenment[6]:21[11]:42–43 Edgar Cayce[7]:31 1931[7]:31 Occultist[7]:31
Association of Vineyard Churches[6]:316 John Wimber[9]:446 1982[9]:446 Trinitarian Pentecostals[9]:446
Aum Shinrikyo, also known as Aleph[6]:23[11]:44–45[18][19] Shoko Asahara[9]:1073 1987[9]:1073 Japanese Buddhism[9]:1073
Ausar Auset Society[6]:24 R.A. Straughn[9]:842 mid-1970s[9]:842 Rosicrucianism[9]:842
Bábism[20] Báb[20] 1844[20] Islam[20]
Bahá'í Faith[6]:25–26[11]:48–49 Mírzá Ḥusayn-'Alí Nuri[9]:992 1863[9]:992 Middle Eastern, Baha'i[9]:992
Bawa Muhaiyaddeen Fellowship[11]:50–51 Bawa Muhaiyaddeen[9]:972 1971[9]:972 Sufism[9]:972
Bethel Ministerial Association[6]:32 Albert Franklin Varnell[9]:466 1934[9]:466 Apostolic Pentecostal[9]:466
Bible Presbyterian Church[6]:33 Carl McIntire[9]:370 1938[9]:370 Reformed Presbyterian[9]:370
Bible Way Church of Our Lord Jesus Christ[6]:34[8]:77 schism[9]:466 1957[9]:466 Apostolic Pentecostal[9]:466
The Blackburn Cult, also known as the Divine Order of the Royal Arms of the Great Eleven[21]:35 May Otis Blackburn[21]:1 1922[21]:1 Neopaganism and New Thought[21]:1
Brahma Kumaris[6]:37[11]:56–57[22] Dada Lekhraj[9]:1006 1936[9]:1006 Hinduism[9]:1006
Branch Davidians[6]:38[11]:59 Victor T. Houteff[9]:617 1930[9]:617 Seventh Day Adventist[9]:617
Branhamism[23]:37–40 William M. Branham[23]:37–40 1951[23]:37–40 Oneness Pentecostal[23]:37–40
Breatharians also known as Inedia[11]:60–61 Wiley Brooks[24]:30 1970s[24]:30 Hinduism-influenced[24]:30
The Brethren (Jim Roberts group), also known as The Body of Christ and The Garbage Eaters[9]:1131–1132 Jimmie T. Roberts[9]:1131–1132 c. 1970[9]:1131–1132 Unclassified Christian Churches[9]:1131–1132
British Israelism, also called Anglo-Israelism[6]:39–40[11]:61–62
Bruderhof, also known as the Hutterian Brethren and Hutterian Society of Brothers[11]:63–64 Eberhard Arnold[25]:709 c. 1920[9]:709 Communal[9]:709
Brunstad Christian Church[6]:269–270
Builders of the Adytum[6]:41–42[11]:67–68 Paul Foster Case[9]:891 1922[9]:891 Ritual magic[9]:891
Candomblé[6]:43–44[11]:68–69 19th century[7]:61 Syncretistic; Neo-African; Divination[7]:61
Cao Dai, also known as Dai Dao Tam Ky Pho Do[6]:44[11]:69–70 Ngô Văn Chiêu; Lê Văn Trung[7]:61 1919[7]:61 Syncretistic; Vietnamese Millenarian[7]:61
Cargo cults[6]:45[11]:70 Syncretistic; Nativist[7]:62
CAUSA International[11]:72 Sun Myung Moon[9]:837–838 1970[9]:837–838 Unification Church[9]:837–838
Celestial Church of Christ[11]:73 Samuel Oshoffa[7]:64 1947[7]:64 Nativist Christian Pentecostal[7]:64
The Centers Network[11]:73–74
Chabad-Lubavitch[6]:206,368[11]:70 Shneur Zalman of Liadi. late 18th century Chasidic movement in Orthodox Judaism.
Charismatic Movement[11]:78 1950s[23]:70
Chen Tao, also called God's Salvation Church and God Saves the Earth Flying Saucer Foundation[11]:78–79
Cheondoism, also called Chendogyo[11]:80–81 Choe Je-u
Cherubim and Seraphim, also known as Sacred Cherubim and Seraphim Society and Eternal Sacred Order of Cherubim and Seraphim[11]:79 Moses Orimolade Tunolase[7]:65 c. 1925[7]:65 African Pentecostal[7]:65
Christ Apostolic Church[11]:82–83 Joseph Ayo Babalola[9]:479 1941[9]:479 Pentecostal[9]:479
Christadelphians, also called Thomasites[6]:50[11]:81–82 John Thomas[23]:48 1844[9]:107 Baptist family[9]:107
The Christian Community, also known as the Christian Community Church and Christengemeinschaft[11]:83 Rudolf Steiner
Friedrich Rittelmeyer[7]:70
1922[7]:70 Anthroposophy[7]:70
Christian Identity[6]:138[11]:84 1982[9]:652 British Israelism[9]:652
Christian Reformed Church in North America[11]:86 Gijsbert Haan[9]:365 1857[9]:365 Reformed Presbyterian[9]:365
Christian Science[6]:54[11]:86–87. Mary Baker Eddy[9]:741 1876[9]:741 Christian Science-Metaphysical;[9]:741 New Thought[26]
Christian World Liberation Front, also known as the Spiritual Counterfeits Project[11]:87–88 Jack Sparks; Fred Dyson; Pat Matrisciana[7]:76 1969[7]:76 Christian Fundamentalist-Millenarian[7]:76
Church of All Worlds[6]:58[11]:88–89 Tim Zell; Lance Christie[9]:909 1962[9]:909 Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism[9]:909
Church of Aphrodite[6]:58 Gleb Botkin[9]:911 1939[9]:911 Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism[9]:911
Church of Bible Understanding[6]:59[11]:89–90 Stewart Traill[7]:79 1971[7]:79 Adventist; Fundamentalist[7]:79
Church of Daniel's Band[6]:61 1893[9]:395 Non-Episcopal Methodism[9]:395
Church of God in Christ[6]:62 Charles H. Mason[7]:85 1908[7]:85 Pentecostal[7]:85
The Church of God (Jerusalem Acres)[6]:62 Grady R. Kent[9]:437 1957[9]:437 White Trinitarian Holiness Pentecostal[9]:437
Church of God Mountain Assembly[6]:63, 65 J.H. Parks, Steve N. Bryant, Tom Moses, William O. Douglas 1906[9]:437 White Trinitarian Holiness Pentecostal[9]:437
Church of God of Prophecy[6]:62–63 Ambrose Tomlinson[9]:438 1903[9]:438 White Trinitarian Holiness Pentecostal[9]:438
Church of God with Signs Following[27]:300–301 George Went Hensley[9]:489 1920s[9]:489 Holiness Pentecostal[9]:489
Church of Israel[6]:65 Dan Gayman[9]:653 1974[9]:653 British Israelism[9]:653
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Joseph Smith 1830 Latter-day Saint Movement; Millenarianism; Mormonism
The Church of Light[28]:210–211[29]:105–106 C.C. Zain[28]:210–211[29]:105–106 1932[28]:210–211[29]:105–106 Hermetism[28]:210–211[29]:105–106
Church of Satan[11]:91–92 Anton LaVey[30]:508–509 1966[30]:508–509 Satanism[30]:508–509
Church of the SubGenius J.R. "Bob" Dobbs 1979 UFO; Apocalypticism
Church of the Creator[9]:668 Rev. Dr. Grace Marama URI 1969 Liberal family[9]:668
Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster[31][32] or Pastafarianism Bobby Henderson 2005
Church of the Living Word, also known as The Walk[11]:92–93 John Robert Stevens[7]:386 1954[7]:386 Fundamentalist; Occultist[7]:386
Church of the Lord (Aladura)[11]:93 Josiah Ositelu[9]:517 1930[9]:517 Pentecostal Family[9]:517
Church of World Messianity[6]:94, 371[11]:94 Mokichi Okada[9]:1120 1934[9]:1120 Shintoism[9]:1120
Church Universal and Triumphant[6]:281[11]:94–95 Mark Prophet; Elizabeth Clare (Wolf) Prophet[7]:97 1958[7]:97 Theosophical; Occultist[7]:97
Collegiate Association for the Research of Principles, also known as CARP[11]:71 Sun Myung Moon[33][34] 1955[34] Unification Church[34]
Commandment Keepers: Holy Church of the Living God[6]:74[8]:180 Arnold Josiah Ford[9]:951 1924[9]:951 Black Judaism[9]:951
Community Chapel and Bible Training Center[6]:75 Donald Lee Barnett[9]:496 1967[9]:496 Latter Rain Pentecostal[9]:496
Concerned Christians[11]:96
Conservative Judaism[6]:76[11]:97 Sabato Morais, Marcus Jastrow, H. Pereira Mendes[9]:943 1887[9]:943 Mainline Judaism[9]:943
Covenant of the Goddess[6]:98[11]:48–49 merger[9]:915 1975[9]:915 Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism[9]:915
Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans[6]:99[11]:99 Margot Adler[9]:915 1987[9]:915 Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism[9]:915
The Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord[6]:78[11]:99–100 James D. Ellison[9]:654 mid-1970s[9]:654 British Israelism[9]:654
Creativity[35] Ben Klassen[35] early-1970's Pantheism; Agnostic Atheism; White Racialism.[35]
Crossroads Movement[11]:100 1970s[27]:100
Dalit Buddhist Movement, also known as the Neo-Buddhist movement or Navayana Buddhist movement B. R. Ambedkar 1956 Buddhism (Navayana or Neo Buddhism branch)
Dances of Universal Peace[36]
Dianic Wicca[6]:84 merger[9]:916 1971[9]:916 Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism[9]:916
Discordianism 1963 Absurdism
Eckankar[6]:91 Paul Twitchell[9]:1056 1971[9]:1056 Derived from Sant Mat but denies connection[9]:1056
Elan Vital (formerly Divine Light Mission)[6]:85–86[22]:126[37]:156 Shri Hans Ji Maharaj[9]:1055 1920s[9]:1055 Sant Mat[9]:1055
Emin Raymond Armin 1971 New Age
End Time Survivors Jesus Christians [38] David McKay [39] Fundamentalist Millennialism
Esoteric Nazism[40]
est (Erhard Seminars Training)[1]:44[22]:126–127[41] Werner Erhard[42]:193 1971[23]:108[43]:167,171–172 Human Potential Movement,[5]:35[23]:107–108[44] Self religions[45]
Evangelical Methodist Church[6]:97 J.H. Hamblen[9]:396 1946[9]:396 Non-Episcopal Methodist[9]:396
Family Federation for World Peace and Unification[46] Sun Myung Moon[46] 1994[46] Unification Church[46]
Falun Gong[47] Li Hongzhi[9]:1126 1992[9]:1126 Qigong movement
Family International, previously known as the Children of God, the Family of Love and the Family[7]:133[22]:126[48] David Berg[7]:133 1968[7]:133 Fundamentalist,[7]:133 Jesus movement offshoot,[48] with countercultural and Evangelical beliefs[30]:185
Fellowship of Isis[6]:103 Olivia Robertson[9]:888 1976[9]:888 Spiritual organization[9]:888
Feraferia[49] Frederick Adams[49] 1967[49] Neopagan, Goddess[49]
Findhorn Foundation[6]:104 Eileen Caddy; Peter Caddy; Alexis Edwards; Roger Benson[7]:138 1963[7]:138 Christian-Anthroposophistical-Rosicrucian[7]:138
Fire Baptized Holiness Church of God of the Americas[6]:104 W.E. Fuller[9]:482 1898[9]:482 Black Trinitarian Pentecostal[9]:482
Followers of Christ[9]:1137 Marion Reece (or Riess)[9]:1137[50] late 19th century[9]:1137 Unclassified[9]:1137 Pentecostal [50]
Fraternitas Rosae Crucis[6]:108 Paschal Beverly Randolph[9]:843 1858[9]:843 Rosicrucianism[9]:843
Friends of the Western Buddhist Order (FWBO)[51] now known as Triratna Buddhist Community Sangharakshita (Dennis Lingwood) 1967[51] Buddhism
Fundamentalist Christianity[6]:113–114
General Church of the New Jerusalem[6]:117 schism[9]:763 1890[9]:763 Swedenborgianism[9]:763
The Genesis II Church of Health and Healing Jim Humble 2009 or 2010[52] UFO-New Age inspired Pseudoscience[53][54][55]
Ghost Dance[6]:119
Global Peace Foundation[56] Hyun Jin Moon[57] 2007[56] Unification Church[56]
Grail Movement[6]:122–123 Oskar Ernst Bernhardt[9]:786 1924[9]:786 Spiritualist, Psychic and New Age; Channeling[9]:786
Hanuman Foundation[6]:129 Richard Alpert (Ram Dass)[23]:51 1980[9]:1013 Hinduism[9]:1013
Heaven's Gate[58] Marshall Herff Applewhite; Bonnie Lu Nettles[58] 1973[58] New Age, UFO[58]
Himalayan Institute of Yoga Science and Philosophy[6]:133 Swami Rama[9]:1014 1971[9]:1014 Hinduism[9]:1014
I AM Activity[6]:138 Guy Ballard[9]:873 I AM Groups; Ascended Masters[9]:873
Iglesia Ni Cristo[59] Felix Y. Manalo[60] 1914[60] Restorationism; Unitarianism
Isha Foundation [61] Jaggi Vasudev 1992 Hinduism
Independent Fundamental Churches of America[6]:142 R. Lee Kirkland[7]:179 1922[7]:179 Unaffiliated Fundamentalist[7]:179
Insight Meditation Society[6]:143 Jack Kornfield, Sharon Salzberg, Joseph Goldstein[9]:1067 1976[9]:1067 Theravada Buddhism[9]:1067
International House of Prayer also known as (IHOP or IHOPKC) Mike Bickle 1999 Christian Charismatic, Post-tribulational, Historic premillennialism
International Church of the Foursquare Gospel[6]:108 Aimee Semple McPherson[9]:451 1923[9]:451 White Trinitarian Pentecostal[9]:451
International Community of Christ also known as Church of the Second Advent (CSA) and Jamilians[23]:139 Eugene Douglas Savoy[23]:139 1972[23]:139 New Age Occultist[23]:139
Jediism[62]:62 2000s[62]:62 Star Wars-inspired New Age[62]:62
Jehovah's Witnesses[6]:150, 152–153 Charles Taze Russell[9]:637 1870[9]:637 Adventist; Bible Student Groups[9]:637
Jesus Army (also known as "Jesus Fellowship Church" and "Bugbrooke Jesus Fellowship")[6]:153 Noel Stanton (split from Baptist Union)[13]:149–163 1977[13]:149–163 Fundamentalist, Communal[13]:149–163
Jesus Movement[6]:153[63] late 1960s[7]:196 Fundamentalist[7]:196
Jews for Jesus[6]:155 Moishe Rosen[7]:197 1970[7]:197 Fundamentalist Christianity[7]:197
John Frum[6]:155 1936[7]:197 Syncretistic; Millenarian[7]:197
Kabbalah Centre[30]:292–293 Philip Berg[30]:292–293 1970s[30]:292–293 New Age[30]:292–293
Kemetic Orthodoxy[64] Tamara Siuda[64] 1988[64] Kemetic[64]
Kerista[6]:158 John Presmont[9]:730 1956[9]:730 Communal—After 1960[9]:730
Kopimism Isak Gerson 2012 Internet religion
Konkokyo[6]:161 Bunjiro Kawate[9]:1122 1859[9]:1122 Shintoism[9]:1122
Kripalu Center (Kirpalu)[6]:161 Amrit Desai[9]:1019 1966[9]:1019 Hinduism[9]:1019
Lama Foundation[6]:164 Steve Durkee[9]:731 1967[9]:731 Communal—After 1960[9]:731
Latter Day Saint movement[6]:190, 192 Joseph Smith[23]:187 1830[23]:187 Latter Day Saint movement; Mormonism;
Latter Rain Movement[6]:165 schism led by George Hawtin and Percy Hunt[7]:209 1946[7]:209 Millenarian Pentecostal[7]:209
Laymen's Home Missionary Movement[6]:165 Paul S. L. Johnson[9]:639 c. 1920[9]:639 Adventist; Bible Student Groups[9]:639
Lectorium Rosicrucianum[6]:165–166 1924[9]:844 Rosicrucianism[9]:844
The Living Word Fellowship[65] John Robert Stevens[9]:506 1951[9]:506 Latter Rain Pentecostals[9]:506
Local Church movement[6]:169, 171 Ni Shu-tsu (Watchman Nee)[9]:609–610 1920s[9]:609–610 Independent Fundamentalist; Other Bible Students[9]:609–610
Love Family, also known as the Church of Jesus Christ at Armageddon and Love Israel[11]:90–91 Paul Erdman[7]:216 1969[7]:216 Communalism[7]:216
Lucis Trust[6]:172–173 Alice A. Bailey[7]:217 1923[7]:217 Occultist; Theosophical[7]:217
Madkhalism[66][67] Rabee Al-Madkhali[68][69] early 1990s[70][71][72] Islam[73][74]
Mahikari[6]:176 Kotama Okada[9]:1123 1959[9]:1123 Shintoism[9]:1123
Maranatha Campus Ministries[6]:178 Bob Weiner[7]:223 1972[7]:223 Pentecostalism[7]:223
Mazdaznan[6]:181 Otoman Zar-Adusht Ha'nish[9]:991 1902[9]:991 Zoroastrianism[9]:991
Meher Baba followers[37] Merwan Sheriar Irani[9]:991 1921[9]:991 Hindu-inspired[9]:991
Messianic Judaism[6]:184 Christianity
Million Man March[75] Louis Farrakhan[75] 1995[75] Nation of Islam[75]
Mita Congregation[6]:186 Juanita García Peraza[9]:462 1940[9]:462 Deliverance Pentecostal[9]:462
Monastic Order of Avallon[76] Henri Hillion de Coatmoc'han[76] 1972[76] Neo-pagan[76]
Moody Church[6]:186 Dwight L. Moody[9]:602 1864[9]:602 Fundamentalist and Evangelical Churches[9]:602
Moorish Science Temple of America[6]:186, 188 Timothy Drew[9]:988 1925[9]:988 Black Islam[9]:988
Moral Re-Armament[6]:188, 190 Frank N. D. Buchman[7]:233 1921[7]:233
Movement of Spiritual Inner Awareness[6]:194 John-Roger Hinkins[9]:1054 1971[9]:1054 Sant Mat[9]:1054
Namdhari[6]:196 Balak Singh[7]:243 mid-19th century[7]:243 Sikhism[7]:243
Nation of Islam[77] Elijah Muhammad[7]:245 mid-1930s[7]:245 Black Muslims[7]:245
Nation of Yahweh[78]:217[6]:200 Hulon Mitchell, Jr.[9]:952–953 1970s[9]:952–953 Black Judaism[9]:952–953
National Spiritualist Association of Churches[6]:197 Harrison D Barrett, James M. Peebles, Cora L. Richmond[9]:772 1893[9]:772 Spiritualism[9]:772
Native American Church[6]:202 1906[9]:809 Entheogen Groups[9]:809
New Apostolic Church[6]:205 Heinrich Geyer[9]:1139 1863[9]:1139 Unclassified Christian Churches[9]:1139
New Kadampa Tradition[79]:310–311 Geshe Kelsang Gyatso[9]:1112 mid-1970s[9]:1112 Tibetan Buddhism[9]:1112
The New Message from God[80] Marshall Vian Summers 1992[81] UFO
New Reformed Orthodox Order of the Golden Dawn[6]:207 1969[9]:923 Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism[9]:923
New Thought[6]:208 Phineas Parkhurst Quimby[7]:258 mid-19th century[7]:258 Metaphysical[7]:258
Oahspe Faithists[82] John Ballou Newbrough 1882 UFO
Odinism[83] Orestes Brownson[83] 1848 [83] Neo-paganism[83]
Oomoto[6]:216 Mrs. Nao Deguchi[7]:266 1899[7]:266 Millenarian Shintoism[7]:266
Open Bible Standard Churches[6]:217 merger[9]:454 1935[9]:454 White Trinitarian Pentecostals[9]:454
Opus Dei[22]:126[30]:427–428[84][85]:3, 122–123[86][87][88]:251 Saint Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer[30]:427–428 1928[30]:427–428 Roman Catholic[30]:427–428
Ordo Templi Orientis[7]:270 Carl Kellner;[7]:270[30]:430 Theodor Reuss[30]:430 1895;[7]:270 1906[30]:430 Thelema[30]:430
Pentecostal Church of God[6]:225 1919[17]:109 Pentecostalism[17]:109
Peoples Temple[6]:226[89] Jim Jones[9]:832 1955[9]:832 Other Psychic, New Age Groups[9]:832
Philosophical Research Society[6]:228 Manly Palmer Hall[9]:849 1934[9]:849 Occult Orders[9]:849
Pilgrims of Arès[90] Michel Potay[90] 1974[90]
Plymouth Brethren[6]:228–229[11]:61 John Nelson Darby[7]:281 1830[7]:281 Millenarian[7]:281
Potter's House also known as Christian Fellowship Ministries (CFM), The Door, Victory Chapel, Christian Center, Crossroads Chapel, etc.[23]:51–52 Wayman Mitchell[23]:51–52 1970[23]:51–52 Pentecostalism[23]:51–52
Radha Soami Satsang Beas[6]:234 Seth Shiv Dayal Singh[9]:1059 1861[9]:1059 Sant Mat[9]:1059
Raëlism[6]:234 Claude Vorilhon (Rael)[9]:806 1973[9]:806 Flying Saucer Groups[9]:806
Rainbow Family[6]:234, 236 Barry Adams[9]:732 late-1960s[9]:732 Communal—After 1960[9]:732
Rajneesh movement[6]:236, 238 Rajneesh Chandra Mohan[9]:1051 1966[9]:1051 Eastern Family[9]:1051
Ramtha[91] J. Z. Knight[92] 1977[93] New Age[91]
Rastafari[6]:241,243[94] Leonard Howell, Joseph Hibbert, Archibald Dunkley, Robert Hinds[9]:954 1935[9]:954 Black Judaism[9]:954
Reformed Druids of North America[6]:244 1960s[7]:299 Neo-Paganism[7]:299
Religious Science[6]:245–246 Ernest Holmes[7]:301 1948[7]:301 New Thought[7]:301
Risshō Kōsei Kai[6]:248 Nikkyo Niwano and Myoko Naganuma[95] 1938 [95] Nichiren Buddhist[95]
Rosicrucian Fellowship[6]:249 Carl Louis von Grasshof[9]:845 1909[9]:845 Rosicrucianism[9]:845
Sacred Name Movement[6]:251 Clarence Orvil Dodd 1930s Aventist; Church of God (Seventh-Day);
Sahaja Yoga[96] Shri Mataji Nirmala Devi[9]:1029 1970[9]:1029 Hinduism[9]:1029
Saiva Siddhanta Church[6]:251 Subramuniy[9]:1029 1957[9]:1029 Hinduism[9]:1029
The Salvation Army[6]:252, 254 William Booth[9]:419 1865[9]:419 Nineteenth Century Holiness[9]:419
Sant Nirankari Mission[6]:210 Baba Buta Singh Ji 1929 Sikhism
Santa Muerte Cult[97] 2000s Syncretic Folk Catholic
Scientology[22]:126[98][99][100] L. Ron Hubbard[9]:816 1955[9]:816 UFO, Other Psychic, New Age Groups[9]:816
Self-Realization Fellowship[6]:261 Paramahansa Yogananda[9]:1031 1935[9]:1031 Hinduism[9]:1031
Semitic Neopaganism[101] Raphael Patai[101] 1960s[101] Neo-paganism, Feminism[101]
Seventh-day Adventist Church[6]:262 Ellen G. White[9]:621 1860[9]:621 Seventh Day Adventists[9]:621
Seventh-day Adventist Reform Movement[6]:262–263 schism[9]:622–623 1925[9]:622–623 Seventh Day Adventists[9]:622–623
Shakers[6]:263, 265 Ann Lee[9]:724 1750s[9]:724 Communal—Before 1960[9]:724
Shepherd's Rod, also known as the Davidian Seventh-day Adventist Association[8]:189 Victor T. Houteff[9]:619 1935[9]:619 Seventh Day Adventists[9]:619
Shiloh Youth Revival Centers[6]:266 John J. Higgins, Jr.[9]:734 1969[9]:734 Communal—After 1960[9]:734
Shinnyo-en[6]:266–267 Shinjo Ito and Tomoji Ito[9]:1081 1936[9]:1081 Japanese Buddhism[9]:1081
Shinreikyo[6]:266 Kanichi Otsuka[9]:1123 post–World War II[9]:1123 Shintoism[9]:1123
Shri Ram Chandra Mission[102] Shri Ram Chandraji Maharaj[102] 1945[102] Hinduism[102]
Sivananda Yoga Vedanta Centres[6]:268–269 Kuppuswami Iyer[9]:1035 1935[9]:1035 Hinduism[9]:1035
Soka Gakkai International[6]:271[103] Tsunesaburo Makiguchi[9]:1082 1930[9]:1082 Nichiren Buddhism[9]:1082
Subud[6]:279 Muhammed Subuh[9]:981 1933[9]:981 Sufism[9]:981
Sufi Ruhaniat International[6]:279 Samuel L. Lewis[7]:342 1968[7]:342 Sufism[7]:342
Sukyo Mahikari[6]:281 Sekiguchi Sakae[7]:344 1978[7]:344 Mahikari Syncretistic[7]:344
Summum[6]:281 Claude Rex Nowell[9]:1141 1975[9]:1141 Unclassified Christian Churches[9]:1141
Syntheism[104] Alexander Bard[104] 2012[104] Pantheist, Humanist, Netocratic
Temple of Satan[105][106][107] Lucien Greaves and Malcolm Jarry[108] 2012[109] Satanism, Nontheistic[106]
Tenrikyo[6]:287–288 Miki Nakayama[9]:1124 1838[9]:1124 Shintoism[9]:1124
Terasem[110] Martine Rothblatt 2004 Transhumanism
Triratna Buddhist Community (formerly FWBO)[51] Sangharakshita (Dennis Lingwood) 1967[51] Buddhism
Tolstoyan primitivism[111]:672 Leo Tolstoy[111]:672 1901[111]:672 Christian anarchism, Pacifism[111]:672
Toronto Blessing[112] Randy Clark[13]:122–123 1994[13]:122–123 Pentecostalism[13]:122–123
Transcendental Meditation[6]:292–293, 295–296 Brahmananda Saraswati (Guru Dev), Maharishi Mahesh Yogi[9]:1045 1958[9]:1045 Hinduism[9]:1045
True Buddha School[113] Lu Sheng-yen[113] Late 1980s Tibetan Buddhism/Taoism[113]
Twelve Tribes[6]:212, 334–335 Gene and Marsha Spriggs[9]:737 1972[9]:737 Messianic Jewish Communal—After 1960[9]:737
Two by Twos, also known as Cooneyites, Christian Conventions, the Workers and Friends, the Truth, etc.[6]:298 William Irvine[11]:330 1897[114] Independent fundamentalist family[9]:611
Umbanda[6]:299 Zélio Fernandino de Moraes[115] 1920[115] Spiritism[115]
Unarius Academy of Science[6]:300, 302–303 Ernest Norman, Ruth Norman 1954 UFO Religion
Unification Church[6]:300, 302–303 Sun Myung Moon[7]:365 1954[7]:365 Unification Church[7]:365
Unitarian Universalism[27]:335 consolidation[23]:308–310 1961[23]:308–310 Unitarian Universalism[23]:308–310
United Holy Church of America[6]:304 Isaac Cheshier[9]:487 1900[9]:487 Black Trinitarian Pentecostal[9]:487
United House of Prayer for All People[6]:304–305 Marcelino Manoel de Graca[7]:371 1925[7]:371 African American Pentecostal[7]:371
United Israel World Union[6]:305 David Horowitz[9]:959 1944[9]:959 Other Jewish Groups[9]:959
United Lodge of Theosophists[6]:305 Robert Crosbie[9]:855 1909[9]:855 Theosophy[9]:855
United Pentecostal Church International[6]:287–306 merger[9]:476 1945[9]:476 Apostolic Pentecostals[9]:476
Unity Church[6]:306–307 Charles Fillmore[7]:373 1903[7]:373 New Thought[7]:373
Universal Great Brotherhood[6]:310 Serge Raynaud de la Ferriere[9]:883 late 1940s[9]:883 Other Theosophical Groups[9]:883
Universal Life Church[6]:311 Kirby Hensley[9]:680 1962[9]:680 Liberal Family[9]:680
Universal White Brotherhood[116] Peter Deunov[9]:880 1900[9]:880 Other Theosophical Groups[9]:880
Urantia Foundation[23]:319–322 William S. Sadler[23]:319–322 1934[23]:319–322 UFO,[23]:319–322 Spiritualist, Psychic, New Age[9]:839 and Christian occultist[7]:380
Vajradhatu[6]:313 Chögyam Trungpa[9]:1115 1973[9]:1115 Tibetan Buddhism[9]:1115
Vale do Amanhecer[117] Tia Neiva[117] 1959[117] Spiritualism[117]
Vedanta Society[6]:314 Swami Vivekananda[7]:382 1894[7]:382 Hinduism[7]:382
Volunteers of America[6]:316 Ballington Booth and Maud Booth[9]:420 1896[9]:420 Nineteenth Century Holiness[9]:420
The Way International[6]:318 Victor Paul Wierwille[9]:608 1942[9]:608 Independent fundamentalist family[9]:608
The Way of the Livingness (Universal Medicine)[118] Serge Benhayon[118] 1999[118] Theosophical[119]
White Eagle Lodge[6]:319 Lady Elizabeth Carey[9]:884 1943[9]:884 Other Theosophical Groups[9]:884
Wicca[120] Gerald Gardner[23]:338 c. 1949[23]:338 Occultist[23]:338
Women's Federation for World Peace[121]:203–205 Hak Ja Han[121]:203–205 1992[121]:203–205 Unification Church[121]:203–205
Wotansvolk[122] David Lane 1990s neo-völkisch paganism
The Word Foundation[6]:320 Harold W. Percival[9]:856 c. 1904[9]:856 Theosophy[9]:856
World Peace and Unification Sanctuary Church[123][124] Hyung Jin Moon and Yeon Ah Lee Moon 2015 Unification Church-based Ultra-Orthodoxy/Fundamentalism

See also


  1. ^ a b c Beckford, James A., ed. (1 January 1987). New religious movements and rapid social change. London: Sage Publications. ISBN 978-0-8039-8003-7.
  2. ^ Nelson, Geoffrey K. (3 December 1987). Cults, new religions and religious creativity. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 978-0-7102-0855-2.
  3. ^ Swenson, Donald S. (15 August 2009). Society, spirituality, and the sacred : a social scientific introduction (2nd ed.). Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-9680-7.
  4. ^ Coney, Judith (June 1998). "A Response to: Religious Liberty in Western Europe by Massimo Introvigne, Vol. 5, No. 2". ISKCON Communications Journal. 6 (1).
  5. ^ a b Wilson, Bryan R.; Cresswell, Jamie, eds. (5 May 1999). New religious movements : challenge and response. London [u.a.]: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-20049-3.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin (28 December 1992). Rosen, Roger (ed.). The illustrated encyclopedia of active new religions, sects, and cults (1st ed.). New York: Rosen Pub. Group. ISBN 978-0-8239-1505-7.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin (1 June 1997). The illustrated encyclopedia of active new religions, sects, and cults (Rev. ed.). New York: Rosen Pub. Group. ISBN 978-0-8239-2586-5.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Lewis, James R. (July 1998). The encyclopedia of cults, sects, and new religions ([Nachdr.] ed.). Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1-57392-222-7.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gq gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz ha hb hc hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm hn ho hp hq hr hs ht hu hv hw hx hy hz ia ib ic id ie if ig ih ii ij ik il im in io ip iq ir is it iu iv iw ix iy iz ja jb jc jd je jf jg jh ji jj jk jl jm jn jo jp jq jr js jt ju jv jw jx jy jz ka kb kc kd ke kf kg kh ki kj kk kl km kn ko kp kq kr ks kt ku kv kw kx ky kz la lb lc ld le lf lg lh li lj lk ll lm ln lo lp lq lr ls lt lu lv lw lx ly lz ma mb mc md me mf mg mh mi mj mk ml mm mn mo mp mq mr ms mt mu mv mw mx my mz na nb nc nd ne nf ng nh ni nj nk nl nm nn no np nq nr ns nt nu nv nw nx ny nz oa ob oc od oe of og oh oi oj ok ol om on oo op oq or os ot ou ov ow ox oy oz pa pb pc pd Melton, J. Gordon (December 2002). Encyclopedia of American religions (7th ed.). Detroit: Gale. ISBN 978-0-7876-6384-1.
  10. ^ a b c d Hakl, Hans Thomas (2010). "Franz Sättler (Dr. Musallam) and the Twentieth-Century Cult of Adonism". The Pomegranate: The International Journal of Pagan Studies. 12 (1). ISSN 1528-0268.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh Chryssides, George D. (15 November 2001). Historical dictionary of new religious movements. Lanham, Md. [u.a.]: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-4095-9.
  12. ^ a b Omoyajowo 1995, pp. xv, 113.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Chryssides, George D. (1999). Exploring new religions. London: Continuum. ISBN 978-0-8264-3890-4.
  14. ^ a b Introvigne, Massimo. "The 2008 International Conference - Twenty Years of Studies of New Religious Movements: Autohagiography or Post-Mortem?". (in Italian). Retrieved 2017-07-05.
  15. ^ a b Pitrelli, Stefano; Vecchio, Gianni Del (2011-03-10). Occulto Italia (in Italian). Bur. ISBN 9788858615720.
  16. ^ a b c d Strmiska and Sigurvinsson 2005, pp. 127–180.
  17. ^ a b c d e Clark, Elmer T. (June 1940). The Small Sects in America (1st ed.). New York: Abingdon Press. ISBN 978-0-687-38703-8.
  18. ^ Partridge, 2004, p. 261.
  19. ^ Saliba, 2003, p. 171.
  20. ^ a b c d Encyclopædia Iranica 1989, "Babism".
  21. ^ a b c d Fort, Samuel (9 October 2014). Cult of the Great Eleven. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. ISBN 978-1-5027-8258-8.
  22. ^ a b c d e f Bhugra, Dinesh, ed. (1996). Psychiatry and religion : context, consensus and controversies. London [u.a.]: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-08955-5.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Nichols, Larry A.; Mather, George; Schmidt, Alvin J. (13 August 2006). Dictionary of cults, sects, and world religions (Rev. and updated ed.). Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan. ISBN 978-0-310-23954-3.
  24. ^ a b c Bergman, Gregory (30 May 2006). Isms. Avon, MA: Adams Media. ISBN 978-1-59337-483-9.
  25. ^ "Eberhard Arnold: Founder of the Bruderhof". Retrieved 2017-05-25.
  26. ^ See:
    • Saliba, John A. Understanding New Religious Movements. Rowman Altamira, 2003, p. 26: "The Christian Science-Metaphysical Family. This family, known also as "New Thought" in academic literature, stresses the need to understand the functioning of the human mind in order to achieve the healing of all human ailments."
    • Lewis, James R. Legitimating New Religions. Rutgers University Press, 2003, p. 94: "Groups in the metaphysical (Christian Science–New Thought) tradition ... usually claim to have discovered spiritual laws which, if properly understood and applied, transform and improve the lives of ordinary individuals, much as technology has transformed society."
  27. ^ a b c Chryssides, George D. (17 April 2006). The A to Z of new religious movements (Rev. pbk. ed.). Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-5588-5.
  28. ^ a b c d Lewis, James R. (2002). The encyclopedia of cults, sects, and new religions (2nd ed.). Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1-57392-888-5.
  29. ^ a b c d Greer, John Michael (8 October 2003). The new encyclopedia of the occult. St. Paul, MN: Llewellyn Publications. ISBN 978-1-56718-336-8.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Clarke, Peter B., ed. (22 December 2005). Encyclopedia of new religious movements. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-45383-7.
  31. ^ Atheist, Friendly. "Thanks to a Technicality, Pastafarianism is Now an Official Religion in Poland!". Retrieved 7 February 2018.
  32. ^ "Pastafarian recognized in Texas ID". Retrieved 7 February 2018.
  33. ^ "In 1955, Reverend Moon established the Collegiate Association for the Research of the Principle (CARP). CARP is now active on many campuses in the United States and has expanded to over eighty nations. This association of students promotes intercultural, interracial, and international cooperation through the Unification world view." [1]
  34. ^ a b c Storey, John Woodrow; Glenn H. Utter (2002). Religion and Politics. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-57607-218-9.
  35. ^ a b c Robinson 2005.
  36. ^ Van Bruinessen 2007, p. 258.
  37. ^ a b Beckford, James A. (15 September 2003). Social theory and religion. Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0-521-77336-2.
  38. ^ Smith, Geraldine. "Conference Program/ New Religious Movements/ The Millenialists Project: A Comparative Study Between the End of Time Survivors and Survivalism in Western Modernity". Australian Association for the Study of Religion. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
  39. ^ Smith, Geraldine. "The Millenialists Project: A Comparative Study Between the End of Time Survivors and Survivalism in Western Modernity". AASR. Australian Association of Study of Religion. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
  40. ^ Goodrick-Clarke, p. 17.
  41. ^ See:
    • Lewis 2004, p. 187. "These two opposing strategies of new religious movements for delivering compensators I will term 'compensation delivery systems' (CDS). The gradual CDS can best be described as religion as a multi-level marketing (MLM) tactic - a term I take from the business world [...] Exemplars of new religious movements with a gradual CDS are Scientology and Erhard Seminar Training in its various manifestations."
    • Saliba 2003, p. 88. "Many of the new religions attract individuals by the promise of peace of mind, spiritual well-being, gratifying experiences, and material success. In so doing they stress their concern for the individual and highlight one's personal worth and self-development. This is especially so in human growth movements such as Scientology, The Forum (previously known as Erhard Seminar Training [EST]), and qualsi-religious encounter groups."
  42. ^ Aupers, Stef (2005). "'We Are All Gods': New Age in the Netherlands 1960–2000". In Sengers, Erik (ed.). The Dutch and Their Gods: Secularization and Transformation of Religion in the Netherlands. Studies in Dutch Religious History. 3. Hilversum: Verloren. ISBN 978-90-6550-867-6.
  43. ^ Clarke, Peter; Sutherland, Stewart, eds. (31 December 1991). The study of religion, traditional and new religions (Reprint ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-06432-3.
  44. ^ See"
    • Nelson 1987, p. 177. "Finally his study of EST (Erhard Systems Training) provides an insight into the work of the human potential movement which aims at self realisation."
    • Puttick 2004, p. 406. "est was one of the most successful manifestations of the human potential movement (HPM) ..."
  45. ^ See:
    • Ramstedt 2007, p. 6. "How can one find a definition of 'New Age' that will serve to bring so many different features together? One major difficulty in defining 'New Age' is that different writers draw different boundaries. Paul Heelas, for example, includes a significant number of what he calls the 'self religions': groups like Landmark Forum (also known simply as The Forum, formerly est or Erhard Seminar Training) and Programmes Limited (formerly Exegesis). Some writers trace the New Age back to William Blake (1757–1827); others see it as originating in the 'hippie' counter-culture in the USA in the 1960s, while the scholar of the New Age, Wouter Hanegraaff, places it later still, regarding it as beginning in the second half of the 1970s."
  46. ^ a b c d Introvigne, Massimo, 2000, The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7, page 47–52
  47. ^ Lewis 2004, p. 195.
  48. ^ a b Melton 2009, p. 676.
  49. ^ a b c d Ellwood 1971.
  50. ^ a b Peters 2008, pp. 186–187.
  51. ^ a b c d Irons 2008, p. 206.
  52. ^ News, A. B. C. (29 October 2016). "Husband Says Fringe Church's 'Miracle Cure' Killed His Wife". ABC News. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
  53. ^ about, David Ono, bio (28 October 2016). "'Church of Bleach': ABC News confronts founder of Genesis II Church". Retrieved 7 February 2018.
  54. ^ Zapotosky, Matt (10 March 2016). "This church's cancer-curing elixir is really bleach, federal authorities say". Retrieved 7 February 2018 – via
  55. ^ Macaskill, Grace (27 January 2018). "Desperate parents forcing kids to drink bleach to cure autism in sick cult". Retrieved 7 February 2018.
  56. ^ a b c Philippine Daily Inquirer 2008.
  57. ^ Global Leadership Council Archived 2011-10-28 at the Wayback Machine
  58. ^ a b c d Partridge, 2004, p. 406.
  59. ^ Associated Press (10 October 2011). "Iglesia Ni Cristo purchases US town". Archived from the original on 2018-01-28. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  60. ^ a b "About the Iglesia Ni Cristo". Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  61. ^ "'The Mystic' Is Coming to London". 30 January 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
  62. ^ a b c Bouma, Gary (26 March 2007). Australian soul : religion and spirituality in the twenty-first century. Port Melbourne, Vic.: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-67389-1.
  63. ^ Gallagher 2006, p. 86.
  64. ^ a b c d Krogh 2004, p. 167.
  65. ^ Tucker 2004, pp. 360–362.
  66. ^ Omar Ashour, Libyan Islamists Unpacked Archived 2013-06-17 at the Wayback Machine: Rise, Transformation and Future. Brookings Doha Center, 2012.
  67. ^ Mohammad Pervez Bilgrami, Arab Counter-revolution on Threshold of Plummeting. World Bulletin, Sunday, September 21, 2014.
  68. ^ ICG Middle East Report N°31. Saudi Arabia Backgrounder: Who Are the Islamists? Amman/Riyadh/Brussels: International Crisis Group, 21 September 2004.
  69. ^ Roel Meijer, Global Salafism: Islam's New Religious Movement, pg. 49. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009.
  70. ^ Notes, Whatever Happened to the Islamists?: Salafis, Heavy Metal Muslims and the Lure of Consumerist Islam, pg. 291. Eds. Amel Boubekeur and Olivier Roy. New York: Columbia University Press, 2012. ISBN 978-0-231-15426-0
  71. ^ Hossam Tammam and Patrick Haenni, Islam in the insurrection? Archived 2013-10-29 at the Wayback Machine Al-Ahram Weekly, 3–9 March 2011, Issue No. 1037.
  72. ^ Professor Girma Yohannes Iyassu Menelik, The Emergence and Impacts of Islamic Radicalists, pg. 16. Munich: GRIN Publishing GmbH, 2009.
  73. ^ Omayma Abdel-Latif, "Trends in Salafism." Taken from Islamist Radicalisation: The Challenge for Euro-Mediterranean Relations, pg. 74. Eds. Michael Emerson, Kristina Kausch and Richard Youngs. Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies, 2009. ISBN 978-92-9079-865-1
  74. ^ Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought, Sheikh Rabi' Ibn Haadi 'Umayr Al Madkhali. The Muslim 500: The World's Most Influential Muslims
  75. ^ a b c d Nelson Jr., William E. (1998). "Black Church Politics and The Million Man March". In Best, Felton O. (ed.). Black Religious Leadership from the Slave Community to the Million Man March; flames of fire. Lewiston, New York: The Edwin Mellen Press. p. 245.
  76. ^ a b c d Marhic 1996, pp. 25–29.
  77. ^ Enroth 2005, p. 169.
  78. ^ Atkins, Stephen E. (30 August 2002). Encyclopedia of modern American extremists and extremist groups. Westport, Conn. [u.a.]: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-31502-2.
  79. ^ Barrett, David V. (2001). The new believers : a survey of sects, cults and alternative religions (Revised ed.). London: Cassell. ISBN 978-0-304-35592-1.
  80. ^ Roberts, Michael (2011-02-04). "Marshall Vian Summers's latest message from God coming Sunday from Boulder". Westword. Retrieved 2015-06-01.
  81. ^ "The Society for the Greater Community Way of Knowledge". Archived from the original on 2008-11-22.
  82. ^ "City and Suburban News: New York, Brooklyn, Long Island, Staten Island, New Jersey" (PDF). The New York Times. 1883-11-26. Retrieved 2009-12-29.
  83. ^ a b c d Goodrick-Clarke 2002, p. 257.
  84. ^ Hayes 2006, pp. 16, 18–19
  85. ^ Arweck, Elisabeth (13 January 2006). Researching new religious movements : responses and redefinitions (1st ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-27754-9.
  86. ^ Walsh 2004, pp. 174, 180–182.
  87. ^ Gold 2004, p. 46.
  88. ^ >Buxant, Coralie; Vassilis Saroglou (April 2008). "Joining and leaving a new religious movement: A study of ex-members' mental health". Mental Health, Religion & Culture. 11 (3): 251–271. doi:10.1080/13674670701247528.
  89. ^ Reiterman 1982, pp. 49–52
  90. ^ a b c Mayer 2004, pp. 123–143.
  91. ^ a b Dawson 2006, p. 3.
  92. ^ Singer 1995, pp. 45, 120.
  93. ^ York 2004, p. 105.
  94. ^ Partridge 2004, pp. 62–64.
  95. ^ a b c Tamura 2001, pp. 203–204.
  96. ^ INFORM 2001.
  97. ^ Mexico's Top Two Santa Muerte Leaders Finally Meet, Huffington Post
  98. ^ Partridge 2003, pp. 188, 263–265.
  99. ^ Lewis 2003, p. 42.
  100. ^ Reece 2007, pp. 182–186.
  101. ^ a b c d Raphael 1998, pp. 198–215.
  102. ^ a b c d Mayer 1993, p. 213.
  103. ^ Wilson 1999, p. 10.
  104. ^ a b c Piesing, Mark (2014-10-07). "Is the internet God? Alexander Bard's Syntheism paves the way for a new elite". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2018-07-20. Bard helped to found Syntheism in 2012. It is based on the idea that if man creates God, then it’s about time we created a religion relevant to the 21st century.
  105. ^ The Oxford Handbook of New Religious Movements, Volume 2; James R. Lewis, Inga B. Tollefsen; Oxford University Press, 2016; pgs. 441-453
  106. ^ a b "Why the Satanic Temple Is Opening Its Doors to American Muslims". Esquire. 2015-11-21. Retrieved 2015-12-02. co-founded the Temple in 2012 ... The Satanic Temple is an openly atheistic religion that Mesner says does not advocate for any supernatural belief. Really, the "Satanic" term is only there because they have the right to use it, as does any other religion.
  107. ^ "The Satanic Temple to open international headquarters in Salem". Fox 25 News Boston. 2016-09-16.
  108. ^ Oppenheimer, Mark (2015-07-10). "A Mischievous Thorn in the Side of Conservative Christianity". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2015-12-02.
  109. ^ "Bashir: Satanists hail Florida Gov. Rick Scott". MSNBC. 2013-01-14.
  110. ^ Roy, Jessica (April 17, 2014). "The Rapture of the Nerds". Newsfeed – Faith. Time Inc. Network. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
  111. ^ a b c d Barzun, Jacques (2000). From dawn to decadence : 500 years of western cultural life, 1500 to the present. New York: Perennial. ISBN 978-0-06-092883-4.
  112. ^ Lyon 2000, p. 106.
  113. ^ a b c "Montreal Religious Sites Project". Retrieved 7 February 2018.
  114. ^ Johnson, Benton in Klass and Weisgrau 1999, p. 377.
  115. ^ a b c Smith and Prokopy 2003, p. 279–280.
  116. ^ (Fraternite Blanche Universelle) Mayer 1993, p. 370.
  117. ^ a b c d Dawson 2007, pp. 48–49.
  118. ^ a b c Leser, David (2012-08-25). "The Da Vinci Mode". The Sydney Morning Herald. Australia. Retrieved December 27, 2014.
  119. ^ UK Government (24 August 2011). "The Way of the Livingness, The Religion of the Soul Trust: Charity Commission decision". UK Gov. Charity Commission. Retrieved December 22, 2014.
  120. ^ Hanegraaff 1998, p. 87.
  121. ^ a b c d Bainbridge, William Sims (1997). The sociology of religious movements. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-91202-0.
  122. ^ Gardell 2004, pp. 205–206
  123. ^ "Two sons of Rev. Moon have split from his church — and their followers are armed".
  124. ^ "The cultlike church behind a ceremony with AR-15s and bullet crowns, explained". March 2018.


  • Bayer, Devin (Aug 5, 2015). "History of Noendism". Retrieved 2015-08-05.
  • Coney, J. (1998). "A response to Religious Liberty in Western Europe by Massimo Introvigne". ISKON Communications Journal. 5 (2).
  • Dawson, Andrew (2007). New Era, New Religions: Religious Transformation in Contemporary Brazil. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-5433-9.
  • Dawson, Lorne L. (2006). Comprehending Cults: The Sociology of New Religious Movements. Don Mills, Ontario: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-542009-8.
  • Ellwood, Robert S. (1971). "Notes on a Neopagan Religious Group in America". History of Religions. XI (1): 125. doi:10.1086/462645.
  • Enroth, Ronald M. (2005). A Guide To New Religious Movements. InterVarsity Press. ISBN 978-0-8308-2381-9.
  • Fort, Samuel (2014). Cult of the Great Eleven. Nisirtu Press. ASIN B00OALI9O4.
  • Gallagher, Eugene V. (2006). Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-275-98713-8.
  • Gold, Lorna (2004). The Sharing Economy: Solidarity Networks Transforming Globalization. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-3345-7.
  • Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas (1993). The Occult Roots of Nazism. NYU Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-3060-7.
  • Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas (2002). Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism and the Politics of Identity. New York University Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-3155-0.
  • Hanegraaff, Wouter J. (1998). New Age Religion and Western Culture: Esotericism in the Mirror of Secular Thought. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-3854-1.
  • Hayes, Michael A. (2006). New Religious Movements in the Catholic Church. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8264-9357-6.
  • INFORM staff (2001). "Information about Sahaja Yoga" (PDF). INFORM. Retrieved 2009-09-30.
  • Introvigne, Massimo (June 15, 2001). "The Future of Religion and the Future of New Religions". Retrieved 2006-12-13.
  • Irons, Edward A. (2008). Encyclopedia of Buddhism (Encyclopedia of World Religions). New York: Checkmark Books. ISBN 978-0-8160-7744-1.
  • Ramstedt, Martin (2007). Kemp, Daren; Lewis, James R. (eds.). Handbook of the New Age. Brill Handbooks on Contemporary Religion. 1. Leiden: BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-15355-4.
  • Klass, Morton; Weisgrau, Maxine K. (1999). Across the Boundaries of Belief: Contemporary Issues in the Anthropology of Religion. Boulder, Colorado and Oxford, U.K.: Westview Press. ISBN 978-0-8133-2695-5.
  • Krogh, Marilyn; Pillifant, Brooke Ashley (2004). "Kemetic Orthodoxy: Ancient Egyptian Religion on the Internet: A Research Note". Sociology of Religion. 65 (2): 167–175. doi:10.2307/3712405. JSTOR 3712405.
  • "Mini-Consultation on Reaching Mystics and Cultists". Lausanne Occasional Paper. 11 (1.e). 1980.
  • Lewis, James R. (2002). Encyclopedia of Cults, Sects, and New Religions. Amherst, NY: Prometheus.
  • Lewis, James R. (2003). The Encyclopedic Sourcebook of UFO Religions. Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1-57392-964-6.
  • Lewis, James R. (2004). Controversial New Religions. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-515682-9.
  • Lewis, James R., ed. (2004). The Encyclopedic Sourcebook of New Age Religions. Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1-59102-040-0.
  • Lyon, David (2000). Jesus in Disneyland: Religion in Postmodern Times. Polity. ISBN 978-0-7456-1489-2.
  • MacEoin, Dennis (1989). "Babism". Encyclopædia Iranica.
  • Marhic, Renaud; Kerlidou, Alain (1996). Sectes & mouvements initiatiques en Bretagne: du celtisme au nouvel âge. Terre de brume editions. ISBN 978-2-908021-78-3.
  • Mayer, Jean-François (1993). Les nouvelles voies spirituelles, enquête sur la religiosité parallèle en Suisse (in French). Lausanne: L'Age d'Homme. ISBN 978-2-8251-0412-5.
  • Mayer, Jean-François; Kranenborg, Reender (23 August 2004). La naissance des nouvelles religions (in French). Genève: Georg. ISBN 978-2-8257-0877-4.
  • Melton, J. Gordon (2003). Encyclopedia of American Religions (Seventh edition). Farmington Hills, Michigan: The Gale Group, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7876-6384-1.
  • Melton, J. Gordon (2009). Melton's Encyclopedia of American Religions (8th edition). Gale. p. 676. ISBN 978-0-7876-9696-2.
  • Nelson, Geoffrey K. (1987). Cults, New Religions and Religious Creativity. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 978-0-7102-0855-2.
  • Omoyajowo, J. Akinyele. (1995). Makers of the Church in Nigeria. Lagos, Nigeria: CSS Bookshops Ltd. (Publishing Unit). ISBN 978-978-32292-6-6.
  • Partridge, Christopher (2004). New Religions: A Guide: New Religious Movements, Sects and Alternative Spiritualities. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-522042-1.
  • Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2003). UFO Religions. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-26324-5.
  • Peters, Shawn Francis (2008). When Prayer Fails: Faith Healing, Children, and the Law. New York, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-530635-4.
  • "RP to host global peace festivals". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Makati City. 12 December 2008. Archived from the original on 5 September 2012.
  • Puttick, Elizabeth (2004). Partridge, Christopher (ed.). Encyclopedia of New Religions: New Religious Movements, Sects and Alternative Spiritualities. Oxford: Lion. ISBN 978-0-7459-5073-0.
  • Raphael, Melissa (April 1998). "Goddess Religion, Postmodern Jewish Feminism, and the Complexity of Alternative Religious Identities". Nova Religio. 1 (2).
  • Reece, Gregory L. (2007). UFO Religion: Inside Flying Saucer Cults and Culture. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-451-0.
  • Reiterman, Tim; John Jacobs (1982). Raven: The Untold Story of Rev. Jim Jones and His People. Dutton. ISBN 978-0-525-24136-2.
  • Robinson, B. A. (2 March 2005). "The Creativity Movement". Retrieved 2013-08-04.
  • Saliba, John (2003). Understanding New Religious Movements. AltaMira Press. ISBN 978-0-7591-0356-6.
  • Singer, Margaret Thaler; Lalich, Janja (1995). Cults in Our Midst. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. ISBN 978-0-7879-0051-9.
  • Smith, Christian; Joshua Prokopy (1999). Latin American Religion in Motion. New York, New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-92106-0.
  • Strmiska, M.; Sigurvinsson, B. A. (2005). "Asatru: Nordic Paganism in Iceland and America". In Strmiska, M. (ed.). Modern Paganism in World Cultures: Comparative Perspectives. Santa Barbara, California: ABC CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-608-4.
  • Swenson, Donald (2009). Society, Spirituality, and the Sacred: A Social Scientific Introduction. North York, Ontario: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-9680-7.
  • Tamura, Yoshiro (2001). Japanese Buddhism: A Cultural History. Kosei Publishing Company. ISBN 978-4-333-01684-6.
  • Tucker, Ruth A. (2004). Another Gospel: Cults, Alternative Religions, and the New Age Movement. Zondervan. ISBN 978-0-310-25937-4.
  • Van Bruinessen, Martin (2007). Sufism and the 'Modern' in Islam (Library of Modern Middle East Studies). I. B. Tauris. p. 258. ISBN 978-1-85043-854-0.
  • Walsh, Michael (2004). Opus Dei: An Investigation into the Powerful Secretive Society within the Catholic Church. HarperOne. ISBN 978-0-06-075068-8.
  • York, Michael (1995). The Emerging Network. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. ISBN 978-0-8476-8001-6.
  • York, Michael (2004). Historical Dictionary of New Age Movements. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow. ISBN 978-0-8108-4873-3.

External links

Branch Davidians

The Branch Davidians (also known as The Branch) are a religious group that originated in 1955 from a schism among the Shepherd's Rod/Davidians. The Branch group was initially led by Benjamin Roden. Branch Davidians are most associated with the Waco siege of 1993, which involved David Koresh.

There is documented evidence (FBI negotiation transcripts between Kathryn Shroeder and Steve Schneider with interjections from Koresh himself) that David Koresh and his followers did not call themselves Branch Davidians. In addition, David Koresh, through forgery, stole the identity of the Branch Davidian Seventh-day Adventists for the purpose of obtaining the Mount Carmel Center property.The doctrinal beliefs of the Branch Davidians differ on teachings such as the Holy Spirit and his nature, and the feast days and their requirements. Both groups have disputed the relevance of the other's spiritual authority based on the proceedings following Victor Houteff's death. From its inception in 1930, the Davidians/Shepherd's Rod group believed themselves to be living in a time when Biblical prophecies of a final divine judgment were coming to pass as a prelude to Christ's Second Coming.

In the late 1980s, Koresh and his followers abandoned many Branch Davidian teachings. Koresh became the group's self-proclaimed final prophet. "Koreshians" were the majority resulting from the schism among the Branch Davidians, but some of the Branch Davidians did not join Koresh's group and instead gathered around George Roden or became independent. Following a series of violent shootouts between Roden's and Koresh's group, the Mount Carmel compound was eventually taken over by the "Koreshians". In 1993, the ATF and Texas Army National Guard raided one of the properties belonging to a new religious movement centered around David Koresh that evolved from the Branch Davidians for suspected weapons violations. It is unknown who shot first, but the ATF surrounded and tried to invade the home of the Branch Davidians. This raid resulted in a two-hour firefight in which four ATF agents were killed; this was followed by a standoff with government agents that lasted for 51 days. The siege ended in a fire that engulfed the Mount Carmel compound which led to the deaths of 76 Branch Davidians inside.


In modern English, the term cult has come to usually refer to a social group defined by its unusual religious, spiritual, or philosophical beliefs, or its common interest in a particular personality, object or goal. This sense of the term is controversial and it has divergent definitions in both popular culture and academia and it also has been an ongoing source of contention among scholars across several fields of study. It is usually considered pejorative.

In the sociological classifications of religious movements, a cult is a social group with socially deviant or novel beliefs and practices, although this is often unclear. Other researchers present a less-organized picture of cults, saying that they arise spontaneously around novel beliefs and practices. Groups said to be cults range in size from local groups with a few members to international organizations with millions.An older sense of the word cult—covered in a different article—is a set of religious devotional practices that are conventional within their culture and related to a particular figure, and often associated with a particular place. References to the "cult" of, for example, a particular Catholic saint, or the imperial cult of ancient Rome, use this sense of the word.

Beginning in the 1930s, cults became the object of sociological study in the context of the study of religious behavior. From the 1940s the Christian countercult movement has opposed some sects and new religious movements, and it labelled them as cults for their "un-Christian" unorthodox beliefs. The secular anti-cult movement began in the 1970s and it opposed certain groups, often charging them with mind control and partly motivated in reaction to acts of violence committed by some of their members. Some of the claims and actions of the anti-cult movement have been disputed by scholars and by the news media, leading to further public controversy.

The term "new religious movement" refers to religions which have appeared since the mid-1800s. Many, but not all of them, have been considered to be cults. Sub-categories of cults include: Doomsday cults, personality cults, political cults, destructive cults, racist cults, polygamist cults, and terrorist cults. Various national governments have reacted to cult-related issues in different ways, and this has sometimes led to controversy.

English-speakers originally used the word "cult" not to describe a group of religionists, but to refer to the act of worship or to a religious ceremony. The English term originated in the early 17th century, borrowed via the French culte, from the Latin noun cultus (worship). The word ultimately derived from the Latin adjective cultus (inhabited, cultivated, worshipped), based on the verb colere (to care, to cultivate).While the literal original sense of the word in English remains in use, a derived sense of "excessive devotion" arose in the 19th century. The terms cult and cultist came into use in medical literature in the United States in the 1930s for what would now be termed "faith healing", especially as practised in the US Holiness movement. This usage experienced a surge of popularity at the time, and extended to other forms of alternative medicine as well.

David Miscavige

David Miscavige () is the leader of the Church of Scientology. His official title is Chairman of the Board of the Religious Technology Center (RTC), a corporation that controls the trademarks and copyrights of Dianetics and Scientology.

Miscavige was a deputy to church founder L. Ron Hubbard (a "Commodore's messenger") while he was a teenager. He rose to a leadership position by the early 1980s and was named Chairman of the Board of RTC in 1987. Official church biographies describe Miscavige as "the ecclesiastical leader of the Scientology religion".Since he assumed his leadership position, there have been a number of allegations made against Miscavige. These include claims of forced separation of family members, coercive fundraising practices, harassment of journalists and church critics, and humiliation of church staff members, including physical assaults upon them by Miscavige. Miscavige and church spokespersons deny the majority of these claims, often criticizing the credibility of those who bring them.

Falun Gong

Falun Gong (UK: , US: ) or Falun Dafa (; Standard Mandarin Chinese: [fàlwə̌n tâfà]; literally, "Dharma Wheel Practice" or "Law Wheel Practice") is a Chinese religious spiritual practice that combines meditation and qigong exercises with a moral philosophy centered on the tenets of truthfulness, compassion, and forbearance (Chinese: 真、善、忍). The practice emphasizes morality and the cultivation of virtue, and identifies as a qigong practice of the Buddhist school, though its teachings also incorporate elements drawn from Taoist traditions. Through moral rectitude and the practice of meditation, practitioners of Falun Gong aspire to eliminate attachments, and ultimately to achieve spiritual enlightenment.

Falun Gong originated and was first taught publicly in northeastern China in 1992 by Li Hongzhi. It emerged toward the end of China's "qigong boom"—a period that saw a proliferation of similar practices of meditation, slow-moving energy exercises and regulated breathing. It differs from other qigong schools in its absence of fees or formal membership, lack of daily rituals of worship, its greater emphasis on morality, and the theological nature of its teachings. Western academics have described Falun Gong as a qigong discipline, a "spiritual movement", a "cultivation system" in the tradition of Chinese antiquity, or as a form of Chinese religion.

The practice initially enjoyed support from Chinese officialdom, but by the mid to late 1990s, the Communist Party and public security organizations increasingly viewed Falun Gong as a potential threat due to its size, independence from the state, and spiritual teachings. By 1999, government estimates placed the number of Falun Gong practitioners at 70 million. During that time, negative coverage of Falun Gong began to appear in the state-run press, and practitioners usually responded by picketing the source involved. Most of the time, the practitioners succeeded, but controversy and tension continued to build. The scale of protests grew until April 1999, when over 10,000 Falun Gong practitioners gathered near the central government compound in Beijing to request legal recognition and freedom from state interference. This demonstration is widely seen as catalyzing the persecution that followed.

On 20 July 1999, the Communist Party leadership initiated a nationwide crackdown and multifaceted propaganda campaign intended to eradicate the practice. It blocked Internet access to websites that mention Falun Gong, and in October 1999 it declared Falun Gong a "heretical organization" that threatened social stability. Falun Gong practitioners in China are reportedly subject to a wide range of human rights abuses: hundreds of thousands are estimated to have been imprisoned extrajudicially, and practitioners in detention are subject to forced labor, psychiatric abuse, torture, and other coercive methods of thought reform at the hands of Chinese authorities. As of 2009, human rights groups estimated that at least 2,000 Falun Gong practitioners had died as a result of abuse in custody. One observer reported that tens of thousands may have been killed to supply China's organ transplant industry (see Organ harvesting from Falun Gong practitioners in China). In the years since the persecution began, Falun Gong practitioners have become active in advocating for greater human rights in China.

Falun Gong founder Li Hongzhi has lived in New York City since 1996, and Falun Gong has a sizable global constituency. Inside China, estimates suggest that tens of millions continued to practice Falun Gong in spite of the persecution. Hundreds of thousands are estimated to practice Falun Gong outside China in over 70 countries worldwide.

Index of philosophy of religion articles

This is a list of articles in philosophy of religion.

A Grief Observed

A History of God

A Letter Concerning Toleration

A New Model of the Universe

A Secular Humanist Declaration

A. H. Almaas

Abandonment (existentialism)

Abd al-Karīm ibn Hawāzin al-Qushayri


Abraham Joshua Heschel

Absolute (philosophy)

Absolute atheism

Absolute Infinite


Abu'l Hasan Muhammad Ibn Yusuf al-'Amiri

Abu Sulayman al-Sijistani



Actus purus


Adi Shankara

Adriaan Koerbagh

Afshin Ellian


Age of Enlightenment

Agnostic atheism

Agnostic theism



Ahmad Sirhindi







Albrecht Ritschl

Alice von Hildebrand

All Truth Is God's Truth

Aloysius Martinich

Alvin Plantinga

Alvin Plantinga's free-will defense

American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly

Amsterdam Declaration

An Intelligent Person's Guide to Atheism



Analytical Thomism

Ananda Coomaraswamy


Anarchism and Islam



Anders Nygren


Animals in Buddhism

Anselm of Canterbury

Answer to Job

Anthony Kenny

Anthony Thiselton








Anton Kržan

Anton LaVey




Argument from a proper basis

Argument from beauty

Argument from consciousness

Argument from degree

Argument from desire

Argument from free will

Argument from inconsistent revelations

Argument from love

Argument from miracles

Argument from morality

Argument from nonbelief

Argument from poor design

Argument from religious experience


Aristotelian view of a god




Atheist's Wager

Atheist existentialism

Ātman (Buddhism)

Augustine of Hippo

Avadhuta Gita


Avidyā (Buddhism)

Avraham son of Rambam


Ayyavazhi phenomenology

Baptists in the history of separation of church and state


Basic Points Unifying the Theravāda and the Mahāyāna

Beatific vision

Best of all possible worlds

Beyond Belief: Science, Religion, Reason and Survival

Bhagavad Gita


Bhumi (Buddhism)

Biblical literalism





Bodhisattva Precepts




Brian Davies (philosopher)

Brights movement

British Humanist Association

Bruno Bauer


Buddhism and evolution

Buddhist philosophy

C. S. Lewis

C. S. Lewis bibliography

C. Stephen Evans

Cappadocian Fathers

Catholic guilt


Charles Blount (deist)


Chovot ha-Levavot

Christian de Quincey

Christian existentialism

Christian humanism

Christian materialism

Christian philosophy

Christian Realism

Christianity and environmentalism

Christological argument

City of God (book)

Classical theism

Clemens Timpler

Clement of Alexandria

Clerical philosophers


Committee for the Scientific Examination of Religion



Contemporary Islamic philosophy

Continuum of Humanist Education

Contra Celsum

Cosmological argument

Cosmology (metaphysics)



Credo ut intelligam

Criticism of Christianity

Criticism of Hinduism

Criticism of Islam

Criticism of Jesus

Criticism of Judaism

Criticism of monotheism

Criticism of religion

Criticism of the Bible

Criticism of the Catholic Church

Criticism of the Latter Day Saint movement

Criticism of the Qur'an

Cultural materialism (anthropology)

Cultural materialism (cultural studies)

Curt John Ducasse

Daniel Rynhold

Dariush Shayegan


David ben Merwan al-Mukkamas

David Braine (philosopher)

David Ray Griffin

David Strauss

De Coelesti Hierarchia

De divisione naturae

De Mysteriis Aegyptiorum

Dean Zimmerman


Decline of Greco-Roman polytheism



Derech Hashem

Desire realm




Dharma transmission


Dharmarāja Adhvarin

Diamond Realm

Dietrich von Hildebrand

Dimitrije Mitrinović

Dipolar theism

Direct revelation


Divine apathy

Divine command theory

Divine simplicity




Doomsday argument

Doomsday cult

Doomsday event



Dwight H. Terry Lectureship


E. David Cook

Early Islamic philosophy

Eliminative materialism

Elizabeth Burns

Emergent materialism

Epistemic theory of miracles

Epistle to Yemen


Ernesto Buonaiuti

Ernst Ehrlich

Ernst Troeltsch


Essentially contested concept

Eternal Buddha

Eternal return

Eternal return (Eliade)

Ethica thomistica

Ethical will

Ethics in religion

Étienne Tempier

Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy

Euthyphro dilemma

Evolutionary argument against naturalism

Evolutionary Humanism


Existence of God

Extrinsic finality


Faith and rationality

Faith, Science and Understanding

Faraday Institute for Science and Religion

Fate of the unlearned


Fazlur Rahman Malik

Ferdinand Ebner

Fetter (Buddhism)

Fi Zilal al-Qur'an



Five hindrances

Four stages of enlightenment

Fourteen unanswerable questions

Francis Schaeffer

Franciszek Krupiński

Françoise Meltzer

Franz Rosenzweig

Frederick Ferré


French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools

Friedrich Nietzsche and free will

Friedrich von Hügel

Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling

Fujiwara Seika


Gary Habermas


George H. Smith

Gifford Lectures

Giles Fraser



God in Buddhism

God Is Not Great

God of the gaps

God, A Guide for the Perplexed

Gödel's ontological proof

Good and necessary consequence

Graham Oppy

Great chain of being

Greek hero cult

Gregory of Nyssa

Guru Nanak Dev

Gustav Glogau

Hajime Tanabe

Han Yong-un

Hans Rookmaaker


Hasidic philosophy

Hayashi Razan

Hayom Yom


Henry Corbin

Herbert McCabe





Hirata Atsutane


Historical materialism

Holy History of Mankind




Hossein Nasr

Hossein Ziai

Huayan school


Human beings in Buddhism

Human extinction


Humanism and Its Aspirations

Humanism in France

Humanism in Germany

Humanist Manifesto

Humanist Manifesto I

Humanist Manifesto II

Humanist Movement

Humanist Society Scotland

Humanistic naturalism

Huston Smith

Ian Ramsey

Ibn al-Nafis

Ibn Arabi



Illtyd Trethowan


Illuminationist philosophy




Incarnational humanism

Incompatible-properties argument

Indefinite monism



Infinite qualitative distinction


Institute for the Secularisation of Islamic Society

Integral humanism (India)


International League of Humanists

Intrinsic finality

Intuition (knowledge)

Invincible error

Invincible ignorance fallacy


Invisible Pink Unicorn


Irenaean theodicy


Is God Dead?

Islam and democracy

Islamic fundamentalism in Iran

Islamic philosophy

Ivan Aguéli

Ivan Vyshenskyi

J. J. C. Smart

J. P. Moreland


Jakob Guttmann (rabbi)

Jakub of Gostynin

James Gustafson

Jay Newman

Jayarāśi Bhaṭṭa


Jean Meslier

Jewish ethics


Jiva Goswami


Johann Friedrich Flatt

Johann Joachim Lange

Johann Nepomuk Oischinger

Johannes Scotus Eriugena

John Calvin

John E. Hare

John Hick

John of Głogów

Joseph de Torre

Joseph Priestley and Dissent

Joseph Runzo

Kalam cosmological argument

Kalpa (aeon)


Kancha Ilaiah

Kang Youwei

Karl Heinrich Heydenreich

Karl Jaspers


Karma in Buddhism


Keith Ward


Kersey Graves

Kitaro Nishida

Klaus Klostermaier

Knight of faith

Kol HaTor


Kumārila Bhaṭṭa

Kurt Almqvist


Lazarus Geiger

Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion

Letter to a Christian Nation

Letters to a Philosophical Unbeliever

Lewis's trilemma

Life of Jesus (Hegel)

Likkutei Sichos

Lineage (Buddhism)

Linji school

List of female mystics

List of new religious movements

Logic in Islamic philosophy

Lutheran scholasticism

Macrocosm and microcosm

Madhusūdana Sarasvatī









Martin Luther


Maximus the Confessor

Maya (illusion)

Meera Nanda

Meister Eckhart

Melville Y. Stewart

Merit (Buddhism)

Mesillat Yesharim

Metaphysical naturalism


Methodios Anthrakites

Michael Gottlieb Birckner

Michael Martin (philosopher)

Michael Oakeshott

Michael Ruse

Middle way

Mind's eye


Miracle of the roses

Mircea Eliade

Mircea Eliade bibliography


Monad (Greek philosophy)


Monistic idealism

Morality without religion

Muhammad Husayn Tabatabaei

Muhammad ibn Muhammad Tabrizi

Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi

Muhammad Iqbal

Mulla Sadra

Mumbo Jumbo (phrase)

Mystical philosophy of antiquity

Mystical realism

Mystical theology


Myth of Er



National Federation of Atheist, Humanist and Secular Student Societies

National Secular Society

Natural theology

Naturalism (philosophy)

Naturalistic pantheism




Neoplatonism and Christianity

Neutral monism

New Age

New religious movement

New Thought


Nicholas of Kues

Nick Trakakis

Nikolai Lossky



Noble Eightfold Path



Nontheist Friend

Norman Geisler

Numenius of Apamea



Occasion of sin


Odium theologicum

Of Miracles

Olavo de Carvalho

Omega Point



Omnipotence paradox



Omphalos hypothesis

Ontological argument


Opium of the people

Or Adonai

Orchot Tzaddikim

Orlando J. Smith

Osvaldo Lira

Outline of humanism

Outline of theology




Pantheism controversy

Parallelism (philosophy)



Pascal's Wager


Paul Draper (philosopher)

Paul Häberlin

Paul J. Griffiths

Perennial philosophy


Peter Abelard

Peter Geach

Peter Kreeft

Peter Millican

Peter van Inwagen

Phenomenological definition of God

Phenomenology of religion

Phillip H. Wiebe

Philo's view of God


Philosophical Foundations of Marxist-Leninist Atheism

Philosophical theism

Philosophical theology

Philosophy of religion

Philotheus Boehner

Pierre Cally

Political theology

Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture

Postmodern Christianity






Preformation theory


Primum movens

Prince Shōtoku

Problem of evil

Problem of evil in Hinduism

Problem of Hell

Problem of why there is anything at all

Process theology

Proof of the Truthful


Protestant work ethic

Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite


Pseudo atheism


Psychoanalysis and Religion

Quantum mysticism

Quietism (Christian philosophy)

Quinque viae

R. De Staningtona

Rabia al-Adawiyya

Rabindranath Tagore

Ralph Tyler Flewelling


Rational fideism

Rational mysticism

Rational Response Squad

Real atheism

Reality in Buddhism

Rebirth (Buddhism)

Reformational philosophy

Relationship between religion and science


Religion & Ethics Newsweekly

Religion and abortion

Religion and happiness

Religious communism

Religious democracy

Religious humanism

Religious intellectualism in Iran

Religious interpretation

Religious interpretations of the Big Bang theory

Religious law

Religious naturalism

Religious philosophy

Religious skepticism

Religious views on business ethics

Religious views on suicide

Rémi Brague

Renaissance humanism

René Guénon


Richard Carrier

Richard Dawkins

Richard Swinburne


Robert Cummings Neville

Robert Merrihew Adams

Rudolf Otto

Rudolf Seydel

Rule of Three (Wiccan)


Sam Harris (author)



Saṃsāra (Buddhism)

Samuel Maximilian Rieser


Sarah Coakley

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan

Sathya Sai Baba

Sayyid al-Qimni

Sayyid Qutb

Scandal (theology)

School of Saint Victor

Science and Christian Belief


Secular ethics

Secular humanism

Secular saint

Secular theology


Secularism in the Middle East


Sefer ha-Ikkarim

Sefer ha-Qabbalah

Seiichi Hatano

Self-Indication Assumption Doomsday argument rebuttal

Self-referencing doomsday argument rebuttal



Seth Material

Seven Factors of Enlightenment

Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi


Shem Mishmuel





Societas Perfecta

Søren Kierkegaard



Soul dualism


Spiritual materialism

Spiritual philosophy

Sri Aurobindo

Stephen Mulhall

Stephen R. L. Clark

Strong agnosticism

Submission (2004 film)

Sufi metaphysics

Sufi philosophy


Summa contra Gentiles

Summa Theologica


Supreme Being


Suzuki Shōsan

Syed Ali Abbas Jallapuri


Tage Lindbom

Taha Abdurrahman





Tathagatagarbha doctrine



Teleological argument


Ten Commandments

Ten spiritual realms

Tetrad (Greek philosophy)


The Age of Reason

The Case for God

The End of Faith

The Essence of Christianity

The Freethinker (journal)

The God Delusion

The God Makers

The God Makers II

The Guide for the Perplexed

The Incoherence of the Philosophers

The Necessity of Atheism

The Only Possible Argument in Support of a Demonstration of the Existence of God

The Primordial Tradition

The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam

The Teachings of the Mystics

The True Word


Theistic realism


Theodore Drange

Theognostus of Alexandria

Theological aesthetics

Theological determinism

Theological noncognitivism

Theological veto

Theological virtues

Theologico-Political Treatise


Theories of religion

Theosophy (history of philosophy)


Thirtha prabandha

Thomas Aquinas

Thomas Aquinas and the Sacraments

Thomas Jefferson


Thought of Thomas Aquinas


Three marks of existence

Threefold Training

Time and Eternity (philosophy book)

Tomer Devorah

Trademark argument

Traditionalist School


Transcendence (religion)

Transcendental argument for the existence of God


Triad (Greek philosophy)


True-believer syndrome

Turtles all the way down

Twelve Nidānas

Two truths doctrine

Types of Buddha

Ultimate Boeing 747 gambit

Ultimate fate of the universe

Universality (philosophy)

Unmoved mover




Vācaspati Miśra

Varadaraja V. Raman


Victoria Institute


Vincent Miceli



Vipassana movement

Voluntarism (theology)


Walter of St Victor

Wang Chong

War of Anti-Christ with the Church and Christian Civilization

Watchmaker analogy

Weak agnosticism

What I Believe

Why I Am Not a Christian

Willem B. Drees

William Alston

William F. Vallicella

William James

William L. Rowe

William Lane Craig

Witness argument

Wolfgang Smith

Womb Realm


Works by Thomas Aquinas

Works of Madhvacharya

Yamazaki Ansai

Yi Hwang

Yunmen Wenyan


Zhu Xi

Zofia Zdybicka

List of UFO religions

UFO religions are groups which deal with alleged communication between humans and extraterrestrial beings. Forms of communication include telepathy and astral projection. Groups often believe that humanity can be saved after being educated by the aliens as to how to improve society. Alien abduction belief can lead to formation of a UFO religion. I AM Religious Activity, founded in 1930 by Guy Ballard, is seen, according to one author, as the first UFO Religion, though Aetherius Society founded by George King has also been given this distinction. Scholars identify the 1947 Roswell UFO Incident as a key event within the history of UFO spirituality. Melodie Campbell and Stephen A. Kent describe Heaven's Gate and Order of the Solar Temple as among the most controversial of the UFO belief groups. Scientology is seen by scholars as a UFO religion, due to its Xenu cosmogony and the presence of Space opera in Scientology doctrine.

List of social movements

Social movements are groupings of individuals or organizations which focus on political or social issues.

This list excludes the following:

Artistic movements: see list of art movements.

Independence movements: see lists of active separatist movements and list of historical separatist movements

Revolutionary movements: see List of revolutions and rebellions

Religious and spiritual movements: see List of religions and spiritual traditions and List of new religious movements

Missionary Church of Kopimism

The Missionary Church of Kopimism (in Swedish Missionerande Kopimistsamfundet), is a congregation of file sharers who believe that copying information is a sacred virtue and was founded by Isak Gerson, a 19-year-old philosophy student, and Gustav Nipe in Uppsala, Sweden in the autumn of 2010. The Church, based in Sweden, has been officially recognized by the Legal, Financial and Administrative Services Agency as a religious community in January 2012, after three application attempts.Gerson has denied any connection between the Church and filesharing site The Pirate Bay, but both groups are associated with the Swedish art and hacking collective Piratbyrån.


"Neo-Hindu" refers to Hinduism-inspired new religious movements,

in India, see

Hindu revivalism


in the West, see Hinduism in the West

New religious movement

A new religious movement (NRM), also known as a new religion or alternative spirituality, is a religious or spiritual group that has modern origins and is peripheral to its society's dominant religious culture. NRMs can be novel in origin or part of a wider religion, in which case they are distinct from pre-existing denominations. Some NRMs deal with the challenges posed by the modernizing world by embracing individualism, whereas others seek tightly knit collective means. Scholars have estimated that NRMs now number in the tens of thousands worldwide, with most of their members living in Asia and Africa. Most have only a few members, some have thousands, and a few have more than a million members.New religions have often faced a hostile reception from established religious organisations and various secular institutions. In Western nations, a secular anti-cult movement and a Christian countercult movement emerged during the 1970s and 1980s to oppose emergent groups. In the 1970s, the distinct field of new religions studies developed within the academic study of religion. There are now several scholarly organisations and peer-reviewed journals devoted to the subject. Religious studies scholars contextualize the rise of NRMs in modernity, relating it as a product of and answer to modern processes of secularization, globalization, detraditionalization, fragmentation, reflexivity, and individualization.Scholars continue to try to reach definitions and define boundaries. There is no single, agreed-upon criterion for defining a "new religious movement", but the term usually suggests that the group is of recent origin and is different from existing religions. There is debate as to how the term "new" should be interpreted in this context. One perspective is that it should designate a religion that is more recent in its origins than large, well-established religions like Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Buddhism. An alternate perspective is that "new" should mean that a religion is more recent in its formation. Some scholars view the 1950s or the end of the Second World War in 1945 as the defining time, while others look as far back as the founding of the Latter Day Saint movement in 1830.

New religious movements in the Pacific Northwest

New religious movements in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States have a history going back to the 19th century.

Outline of religion

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to religion:

Religion – organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems, and world views that relate humanity to an order of existence. Many religions have narratives, symbols, and sacred histories that are intended to explain the meaning of life and/or to explain the origin of life or the Universe. From their beliefs about the cosmos and human nature, people derive morality, ethics, religious laws or a preferred lifestyle. According to some estimates, there are roughly 4,200 religions in the world.

Religious naturalism

Religious naturalism (RN) combines a naturalist worldview with perceptions and values commonly associated with religions. In this, "religious" is understood in general terms, separate from established traditions, in designating feelings and concerns (e.g. gratitude, wonder, humility, compassion) that are often described as spiritual or religious. Naturalism refers to a view that the natural world is all we have substantiated reason to believe exists, and there is no substantiated reason to believe that anything else, including deities, exists or may act in ways that are independent of the natural order.Areas of inquiry include attempts to understand the natural world and the spiritual and moral implications of naturalist views. Understanding is based in knowledge obtained through scientific inquiry and insights from the humanities and the arts. Religious naturalists use these perspectives in responding to personal and social challenges (e.g. finding purpose, seeking justice, coming to terms with mortality) and in relating to the natural world.

Sahaja Yoga

Sahaja Yoga is a new religious movement, founded in 1970 by Nirmala Srivastava. Srivastava is more widely known as Her Holiness Shri Mataji Nirmala Devi or as "Mother" by her followers, who are called Sahaja yogis.Sahaja Yoga is not only the name of the movement, but also the meditation technique the movement teaches and the state of awareness that is said to be achieved by the technique. According to the movement, this state is the state of self-realization produced by kundalini awakening and is accompanied by the experience of thoughtless awareness or mental silence. The movement teaches the belief that self-realization through kundalini awakening is a transformation which can be experienced on the central nervous system and results in a more "moral, united, integrated and balanced" personality.Srivastava described Sahaja Yoga as the pure, universal religion integrating all other religions. She also claimed that she herself was a divine incarnation, more precisely an incarnation of the Holy Ghost, or the Adi Shakti of the Hindu tradition, the great mother goddess who had come to save humanity. This is also how she is regarded by most of her devotees. It has sometimes been characterized as a cult.


Shinnyo-en (真如苑, Borderless Garden of Truth) is a Japanese new religion in the tradition of the Daigo branch of Shingon Buddhism. It was founded in 1936 by Shinjō Itō (真乗伊藤, 1906-1989), and his wife Tomoji (友司, 1912-1967) in a suburb of metropolitan Tokyo, the city of Tachikawa, where its headquarters is still located.In 2011, Shinnyo-en was reported to have 860 000 members, and temples and training centers in several countries in Asia, Europe and the Americas. The temples are characterised by the Nirvana image, a statue of the reclining Buddha.

Central to Shinnyo-en is the belief, expressed in the Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra, that all beings possess Buddha-nature, a natural, unfettered purity that can respond creatively and compassionately to any situation in life.

As of 2017 the head of Shinnyo-en was Shinsō Itō (born 1942, also known as 'Keishu'), who holds the rank of Daisōjō, the highest rank in traditional Shingon Buddhism.

Spiritual naturalism

Spiritual naturalism, or naturalistic spirituality combines mundane and spiritual ways of looking at the world. Spiritual naturalism may have first been proposed by Joris-Karl Huysmans in 1895 in his book En Route – "In 'En Route' Huysmans started upon the creation of what he called 'Spiritual Naturalism,' that is, realism applied to the story of a soul. ...".

Coming into prominence as a writer during the 1870s, Huysmans quickly established himself among a rising group of writers, the so-called Naturalist school, of whom Émile Zola was the acknowledged head...With Là-bas (1891), a novel which reflected the aesthetics of the spiritualist revival and the contemporary interest in the occult, Huysmans formulated for the first time an aesthetic theory which sought to synthesize the mundane and the transcendent: "spiritual Naturalism". Long before the term spiritual naturalism was coined by Huysmans, there is evidence of the value system of spiritual naturalism in the Stoics. "Virtue consists in a will that is in agreement with Nature".

UFO religion

A UFO religion is any religion in which the existence of extraterrestrial (ET) entities operating unidentified flying objects (UFOs) is an element of belief. Typically, adherents of such religions believe the ETs to be interested in the welfare of humanity which either already is, or eventually will become, part of a pre-existing ET civilization. Others may incorporate ETs into a more supernatural worldview in which the UFO occupants are more akin to angels than physical aliens; this distinction may be blurred within the overall subculture. These religions have their roots in the tropes of early science fiction (especially space opera) and weird fiction writings, in ufology, and in the subculture of UFO sightings and alien abduction stories.

Major groups
Notable figures
Public education

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.