List of nearest galaxies

This is a list of known galaxies within 3.59 megaparsecs (11.7 million light-years) of the Solar System, in ascending order of distance. This encompasses all of the about 50 Local Group galaxies, and some that are members of neighboring galaxy groups, the M81 Group and the Centaurus A/M83 Group, and some that are currently not in any defined galaxy group.

The list aims to reflect current knowledge: not all galaxies within the 3.59 Mpc radius have been discovered. Nearby dwarf galaxies are still being discovered, and galaxies located behind the central plane of the Milky Way are extremely difficult to discern. It is possible for any galaxy to mask another located beyond it. Intergalactic distance measurements are subject to large uncertainties. Figures listed are composites of many measurements, some of which may have had their individual error bars tightened to the point of no longer overlapping with each other.[1]

List

# Picture Galaxy Type Distance from Earth Magnitude Group
Membership
Notes Diameter (ly)
Millions of light-years Mpc M m
  - Milky Way IR Spitzer Milky Way SBbc 0.0265[2] 0.008[2] −20.8[1] n/a Local Group Home galaxy of Earth 100,000–180,000 ly
  1 Canis Major Dwarf Irr (status as galaxy disputed) 0.025[3] 0.008 −14.5 23.3 Local Group Satellite of Milky Way (accretion by Milky Way) N/A
  2 Segue 1 dSph or Glob Clus 0.075 0.023[4] −3.0[4] 13.8[4] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
  3 S sgrdw1 Sagittarius Dwarf Sphr SagDEG dSph/E7 0.081 0.024[5] −12.67[5] 4.5[6] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way (partial accretion by Milky Way) 10,000 ly
  4 Ursa Major II Dwarf dSph 0.098 0.030 −4.2 14.3 Local Group Satellite of Milky Way (accretion by Milky Way) ~1,800 ly
  5 Reticulum II Dwarf 0.098 0.030[7] −2.7[7] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
  6 Triangulum II 0.098 0.030 Local Group Satellite of Milky Way (accretion by Milky Way) N/A
  7 Segue 2 dSph 0.114 0.035[8] −2.5[8] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
  8 Willman 1 dSph or Star Clus 0.120 0.038[9] −2.7[9] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
  9 Boötes II dSph 0.136 0.042[9] −2.7[9] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 10 Coma Berenices Dwarf dSph 0.137 0.042[10] −3.6[10] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 11 Boötes III dSph 0.150 0.046[11] −5.8[12] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 12 Large.mc.arp.750pix Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) Irr/SB(s)m 0.163 0.050[5] −17.93[5] 0.9[6] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way 14,000 ly
 13 Boo SDSS enhanced Boötes I dSph 0.197[6] 0.060 −5.8[13] 13.1 Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 14 VISTA’s view of the Small Magellanic Cloud Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC, NGC 292) SB(s)m pec 0.206 0.063[5] −16.35[5] 2.7[6] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way 7,000 ly
 15 Ursa Minor Dwarf - Giuseppe Donatiello Ursa Minor Dwarf dE4 0.206 0.063[5] −7.13[5] 11.9[6] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way
 16 PGC 60095 Draco Dwarf Hubble WikiSky Draco Dwarf (DDO 208) dE0 pec 0.258 0.079[5] −8.74[5] 10.9[6] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way with a large amount of dark matter ~2,700 × 1,900 ly
 17 Pisces I dIrr/dSph[14] 0.26 0.8[15] −10.35[14] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 18 Sextans Dwarf Sph dSph 0.281 0.086[5] −7.98[5] 12[6] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way 8,400 ly
 19 Virgo I 0.28 0.087[16] −0.8[16] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 20 Sculptor Dwarf Galaxy ESO Sculptor Dwarf (E351-G30) dE3 0.287 0.088[5] −9.77[5] 10.1[6] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 21 Ursa Major I Dwarf (UMa I dSph) dSph 0.330 0.10[17] −6.75[17] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way A few thousand ly
 22 Carina Dwarf Galaxy Carina Dwarf (E206-G220) dE3 0.330 0.10[5] −8.97[17] 11.3[6] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way 1,600 ly
 23 Crater II 0.383 0.1175[18] −8.2[18] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 24 Hercules Dwarf Galaxy Hercules Dwarf dSph 0.430 0.133[19] −5.3[19] 14.7[4] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 25 Fornax Dwarf Fornax Dwarf (E356-G04) dSph/E2 0.46 0.14[1] −11.5[5] 9.28[1] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 26 Canes Venatici II Dwarf dSph 0.49 0.15[4] −4.8[4] 15.1[4] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 27 Leo IV dwarf galaxy.jpeg Leo IV Dwarf dSph 0.502 0.154[20] −5.5[20] 15.9[4] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 28 Leo V Dwarf dSph 0.570 0.175[21] −5.2[21] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 29 Pisces II dG[22] 0.596 0.183[22] −4.1[22] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 30 LG Leo II (26422781005) Leo II Dwarf (Leo B, DDO 93) dE0 pec 0.701[23] 0.215 −9.23[5] 12.45[1] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way 4,100 ly (tidal)
 31 Canes Venatici I Dwarf dSph 0.711 0.218[24] −7.9[25] 13.9[25] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 32 Ugc5470 Leo I Dwarf (DDO 74, UGC 5470) dE3 0.820[23] 0.25 −10.97[5] 11.18[1] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 33 Leo T Dwarf dIrr/dSph 1.370 0.42[26] 16[6] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way? 2,300 ly
 34 Phoenix Dwarf Hubble WikiSky Phoenix Dwarf Galaxy (P 6830) IAm 1.44 0.44 −10.22[5] 13.07[1] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 35 NGC6822 Barnard's Galaxy (NGC 6822) IB(s)m IV-V 1.630[23] 0.50 −15.22[5] 9.32[1] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way 7,000 ly
 36 Ngc185 NGC 185 dE3 pec 2.010[27] 0.62 −14.76[5] 9.99[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 37 Andromeda II color cutout hst 13028 06 acs wfc f814w f475w sci Andromeda II dE0 2.130[27] 0.65 −9.33[5] 15.10[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 38 IC10 BVHa IC 10 (UGC 192) dIrr IV/BCD[6] 2.2 0.67 −15.57[5] 12.2[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 39 NGC147 NGC 147 (DDO 3) dE5 pec 2.200[27] 0.68 −14.9[5] 10.36[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 40 Leo A Hubble WikiSky Leo A (Leo III, DDO 69) IBm V 2.250[23] 0.80[28] −11.68[28] 12.92 Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 41 IC1613-3 IC 1613 (UGC 668) IAB(s)m V 2.350[23] 0.72 −14.51[5] 9.92[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 42 Andromeda XI dSph 2.410 0.74[29] −7.3[30] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 43 Andromeda I Hubble WikiSky Andromeda I dE3 pec 2.430[27] 0.75 −10.87[5] 13.9[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 44 Andromeda III color cutout hst 13739 22 acs wfc f814w f475w sci Andromeda III dE2 2.440[27] 0.75 −9.30[5] 15.20[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 45 Cetus Dwarf Galaxy color cutout hst 10505 31 acs wfc f814w f475w sci Cetus Dwarf dSph/E4 2.460[27] 0.75 −10.18[5] 14.4[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda[5] N/A
 46 MESSIER 032 2MASS M32 (NGC 221) E2 2.480;[23] 0.76 −15.96[5] 8.73[1] Local Group Close Satellite of Andromeda 6,500 ly
 47 Cassiopeia Dwarf (PGC 2807155) Hubble WikiSky Cassiopeia Dwarf (Cas dSph, Andromeda VII) dSph 2.490[27] 0.76 −11.67[5] 13.65[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda[5] N/A
 48 Andromeda IX dE 2.500[27] 0.77 −7.5[5] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda[5] N/A
 49 LGS 3 ubv LGS 3 dIrr/dSph 2.510[27] 0.77 −7.96[5] 16.18[1] Local Group Satellite of Triangulum N/A
 50 Andromeda V dSph 2.52[27] 0.77 −8.41[5] 16.67[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda[5] N/A
 51 Andromeda VI color cutout hst 08272 04 wfpc2 f555w f450w wf sci Pegasus Dwarf Sph (And VI) dSph 2.55[27] 0.78 −10.80[5] 14.05[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda[5] N/A
 52 Andromeda Galaxy (with h-alpha) Andromeda Galaxy (M31) SA(s)b 2.56[27] 0.79 −21.58[5] 4.17[1] Local Group Largest Galaxy in the Local Group, with at least 19 satellite galaxies 220,000 ly
 53 M33 Triangulum Galaxy (M33) SAc 2.64[27] 0.81 −18.87[5] 6.19[1] Local Group Most distant (difficult) naked eye object 60,000 ly
 54 Messier 110 M110 (NGC 205) E6p 2.69[27] 0.83 −16.15[5] 8.72[1] Local Group Close Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 55 Andromeda VIII dSph[31] 2.7 0.828 −15.6 9.1 Local Group Tidally distorted dwarf close to Andromeda discovered 2003[31] N/A
 56 Andromeda XXI Andromeda XXI[32] dSph 2.8 0.86 −9.9 Local Group Satellite of Andromeda 13,000 ly
 57 Tucana Dwarf Hubble WikiSky Tucana Dwarf dE5 2.87 0.88[5] −9.16 15.7[1] Local Group[5] Isolated group member — a 'primordial' galaxy[33] N/A
 58 Andromeda X Andromeda X dSph[6] 2.90 0.889 −8.1[34] 16.1[6] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda discovered 2006 N/A
 59 Pegasus Irregular Dwarf Galaxy Pegasus Dwarf Irregular (DDO 216) dIrr/dSph[6] 3.00[27] 0.92 −11.47[5] 13.21[6] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 60 Andromeda XIX[35] dG 3.04 0.933 −9.3 Local Group Satellite of Andromeda, spread over 1.7 kpc 22,200 ly
 61 The WLM galaxy on the edge of the Local Group Wolf-Lundmark-Melotte (WLM, DDO 221) Ib(s)m[6] 3.16 0.97[28] −14.06[28] 11.03[6] Local Group Isolated member at the edge of the local group N/A
 62 Andromeda XXII Andromeda XXII[32] dSph 3.22 0.987 18.0 Local Group Satellite of Andromeda
 63 SagDIG Sagittarius Dwarf Irregular Galaxy (SagDIG) IB(s)m V[6] 3.39 1.04[5] −11.49 15.5 Local Group[1] Isolated group member N/A
 64 Aquariusdwarf Aquarius Dwarf Galaxy (DDO 210) Im V 3.49[27] 1.07 / 0.94[28] −11.09[28] 14.0[6] Local Group Isolated group member N/A
 65 UGC 4879 UGC 4879 (VV124)[36] 3.59 1.1 −11.5[28] Local Group N/A
 66 Antlia Dwarf PGC 29194 Hubble WikiSky Antlia Dwarf dE3.5[6] 4.08 1.25[28] −9.63[28] 16.19[1] Local Group May have interacted with NGC 3109[37] 3,000 ly
 67 Sextans dwarf Sextans A (92205, DDO 75) IBm[6] 4.31[38] 1.32 −13.95[5] 11.86[6] Local Group[1] Isolated group member N/A
 68 NGC 3109 2MASS NGC 3109 SB(s)m 4.24 1.30[37] −15.68[1] 10.39[1] Local Group N/A
 69 Andromeda XVIII Andromeda XVIII[35] dG 4.42 1.355 −9.7 Local Group N/A
 70 Sextans B Hubble WikiSky Sextans B (UGC 5373) IM IV-V[6] 4.44 1.44[28] −14.08[28] 11.85[6] Local Group[1] N/A
 71 KKh 060 color cutout hst 11986 02 wfpc2 f814w f606w wf sci KKh 060 Irr 4.89 1.5[1] 18B[6] N/A
 72 KUG 1210+301B (KK98 127) S.. 4.89 1.5[1] 15.7[6] between LG and M94 Pair? N/A
 73 HIZSS 003 dIrr 5.5 1.69[28] −12.60[28] 18B[6] Far below the SG plane Hidden by the Milky Way N/A
 74 Color cutout hst 11986 07 wfpc2 f814w f606w wf sci KKR 25 KKR 25 Irr 6.07 1.86[1] −9.94[28] 17.0[6] N/A
 74 Color cutout HST MOS 4488 ACS WFC F814W F606W sci ESO 410-G 005 ESO 410-G005 E3[6] 6.33 1.94[28] −11.60[28] 14.85[6] NGC 55 & 300 N/A
 75 Color cutout hst 10503 07 acs wfc f814w f606w sci ESO 294-010 ESO 294-010 dS0/Im[6] 6.26[39] 1.96[28] −10.95[28] 15.6[6] NGC 55 & 300 N/A
 76 IC 5152 HST IC 5152 IA(s)m[6] 6.42 1.97[28] −15.56[28] 11.06[6] NGC 55 & 300 ? Remotely on the side of NGC 55 N/A
 77 KKs 3 dSph[40] 6.91 2.12[40] −12.3[40] 14.47[40] 4,900 ly[40]
 78 GR 8 GR 8 (DDO 155) ImV[6] 6.95 2.13[28] −12.14[28] 14.65[6] Inner edge of M94 Group "footprint galaxy" N/A
 79 PGC 166185.jpeg KKR 03 (KK98 230) dIrr 6.98 2.14[28] −9.8 17.90[6] Inner edge of M94 Group 980 ly
 80 Composite Image of NGC 300 NGC 300 SA(s)d[6] 7.01 2.15[39] −17.92[1] 8.95[6] Inner edge of Sculptor group forms pair with NGC 55 150,000? ly
 81 GALEX-NGC55 NGC 55 SB(s)m: sp[6] 7.08 2.17[28] −18.47[28] 8.84[1] Inner edge of Sculptor group Forms pair with NGC 300 730,000? ly
 82 UKS 2323-326 UGCA 438 (ESO 407-018) IB(s)m pec:[6] 7.24 2.22[28] −12.92[28] 13.86[1] NGC 55 & 300
 83 UGC 9128 UGC 9128 (DDO 187) ImIV-V 7.3 2.24[28] −12.47[28] 14.38[6] Inner edge of M94 Group
 84 Color cutout hst 08601 27 wfpc2 f814w f606w wf sci IC 3104 IC 3104 IB(s)m 7.40 2.27[1] −14.85[28] 13.63[6] On the way to Circinus galaxy
 85 Hst-IC4662 IC 4662 (ESO 102- G 014) IBm 7.96 2.44[28] −15.56[28] 11.74[6] On the way to Circinus galaxy
 86 Color cutout hst 10915 0n acs wfc f814w f475w sci KKh 98 KKh 98 Irr 7.99 2.45[1] −10.78[1] 16.7[6] IC 342/Maffei Group
 87 Color cutout hst 11719 19 wfc3 ir f160w f110w sci UGC 8508 UGC 8508 (I Zw 060) IAm 8.35[41] 2.69[28] −13.09[28] 14.40[6] M94 Group
 88 Color cutout hst 11986 13 wfpc2 f814w f606w wf sci KKh 086 KKh 086 Irr 8.51 2.60[28] −10.30[28] 16.8[6] Isolated (M94/Cent A)
 89 Color cutout hst 11986 15 wfpc2 f814w f606w wf sci DDO 99 DDO 99 (UGC 6817) Im 8.61 2.64[1]–3.9[6] −13.52[28] 13.4[6] M94 Group
 90 Color cutout hst 11986 11 wfpc2 f814w f606w wf sci DDO 125 UGC 7577 (DDO 125) Im 8.94 2.74[28] −14.32[28] 12.84[6] M94 Group
 91 UGC 9240 galaxy HST UGC 9240 (DDO 190) IAm 9.10 2.80[28] −14.19[28] 13.25[6] M94 Group
 92 Dwingeloo 1 (WISE) Dwingeloo 1 SB(s)cd 9.13 2.8[1] −18.78 19.8[6] IC 342/Maffei Group
 93 Maf2atlas Maffei 2 SAB(rs)bc 9.13 2.8[1] −20.15[5] 14.77[6] IC 342/Maffei Group
 94 UGCA 276 (or DDO 113) color cutout hst 10915 0r acs wfc f814w f475w sci UGCA 276 (DDO 113) Im 9.32 2.86[1] 15.40[6] M94 Group
 95 Fireworks of Star Formation Light Up a Galaxy - GPN-2000-000877 NGC 4214 (UGC 7278) IAB(s)m 9.58 2.94[1] 10.24[6] M94 Group Starburst galaxy
 96 UGCA 86 color cutout hst 9771 14 acs wfc f814w f606w sci UGCA 86 SAB(s)m[42] 9.65 2.96[43] 13.5[6] IC 342/Maffei Group[42]
 97 NGC 4163 Hubble NGC 4163 dIrr 9.65 2.96[43] 14.5[6] M94 Group
 98 Dwingeloo 2 Im? 9.78 3.0[1] −14.55[1] 20.5[6] IC 342/Maffei Group
 99 KKH 11 (ZOAG G135.74-04.53) dE/N 9.78 3.0[1] −13.35[5] 16.2[6] IC 342/Maffei Group
100 KKH 12 Irr 9.78 3.0[1] −13.03 17.8[6] IC 342/Maffei Group
101 MB 3 dSph 9.78 3.0[1] −13.65[5] 19.8[6] IC 342/Maffei Group
102 MB 1 (KK98 21) SAB(s)d? 9.78 3.0[1] −14.81[5] 20.5[6] IC 342/Maffei Group
103 Maf1atlas Maffei 1 S0- pec 9.78 3.0[1] −18.97[5] 11.4[6] IC 342/Maffei Group
104 Color cutout hst 9771 16 acs wfc f814w f606w sci UGCA 92 UGCA 92 Im?[6] 9.82 3.01[43] 13[6] IC 342/Maffei Group[42]
105 UGC 8651 color cutout hst 10210 04 acs wfc f814w f606w sci UGC 8651 (DDO 181) Im 9.82 3.01[1] 14.7[6] M94 Group
106 NGC 1569 NGC 1569 (UGC 3056) IBm;Sbrst[6] 9.98 3.06[44] −18.17[1] 11.86[6] IC 342/Maffei Group[42]
107 PGC 54392 (SDSS II) ESO 274-01[45] SAd: 10.1 3.09 11.7 Centaurus A Group
108 UGCA 292 color cutout hst 10915 0u acs wfc f814w f475w sci UGCA 292 ImIV-V 10.11 3.1[1] 16.0[6] M94 Group
109 NGC 3741 NGC 3741 ImIII/BCD 10.21[41] 3.13 14.3[6] M94 Group
110 KK98 35 Irr 10.31 3.16[1] −14.30 17.2[6] IC 342/Maffei Group
111 HIPASS J1247-77 Im 10.31 3.16[46] 17.B[6] Aligned with IC 3104
112 NGC 2366HST NGC 2366 IB(s)m 10.40[41] 3.19 11.43[6] M81 group
113 UGCA 133 (or DDO 44) color cutout hst 10915 0x acs wfc f814w f475w sci UGCA 133 (DDO 44) Im 10.40[41] 3.19 15.54[6] M81 group
114 Color cutout hst 11986 16 wfpc2 f814w f606w wf sci ESO 321-14 ESO 321-014[45] IBm[6] 10.40[45] 3.19 15.16[6] Centaurus A Group
115 UGC 8833 (HST) UGC 8833 Im 10.41 3.19[1] 16.5[6] M94 Group
116 UGC 4483 color cutout hst 08769 20 wfpc2 f814w f555w wf sci UGC 4483 dIrr 10.47[41] 3.21 15.2[6] M81 group
117 NGC 404 Hubble NGC 404 SA(s)0-:[6] 10.56 3.24[28] −16.61[28] 11.21[6] 'Mirach's Ghost'
118 Ugca105 UGCA 105 Im? 10.63[41] 3.26 −16.81 13.9[6] IC 342/Maffei Group
119 IC342 RGB2 IC 342 SAB(rs)cd[6] 10.70 3.28[1] −20.69[1] 9.37[1] IC 342/Maffei Group "the hidden galaxy"
120 Cas 1 (KK98 19) dIrr 10.76 3.3[1] −16.70 16.38[6] IC 342/Maffei Group
121 NGC 2403HST NGC 2403 SAB(s)cd HII 10.76 3.30[5] −19.29 8.93[6] M81 group
122 Camelopardalis B Irr 10.80[41] 3.31 −11.85 16.1[6] IC 342/Maffei Group
123 Color cutout hst 10915 0z acs wfc f814w f475w sci DDO 006 UGCA 15 (DDO 6) IB(s)m 10.90 3.34[5] −12.50[5] 15.19[6] Sculptor group
124 Hst 11719 38 wfc3 ir f160w f110w sci KKH 37 KKH 37 (Mai 16) S/Irr 11.06 3.39[46] 16.4[6] IC 342/Maffei Group
125 Irregular galaxy Holmberg II (captured by the Hubble Space Telescope) Holmberg II (DDO 50, UGC 4305) Im 11.06[41] 3.39 11.1[6] M81 group
126 NGC 5102 2MASS NGC 5102 SA0- HII 11.09 3.40[1] −18.08.56 10.35[6] Centaurus A Group
127 Color cutout hst 9771 94 acs wfc f814w f606w sci NGC 5237 NGC 5237 I0?[6] 11.09 3.40;[45] 13.23[6] Centaurus A Group
128 Color cutout hst 11986 24 wfpc2 f814w f606w wf sci ESO 325-11 ESO 325-11 11.09 3.40;[45] 13.99[6] Centaurus A Group
129 ESO 540-030 ESO 540-030 (KDG 2) IABm 11.10 3.40[5] −11.39 16.45[6] Sculptor group
130 FM2000 1 dSph? 11.15[41] 3.42 17.5[6] M81 group
131 Color cutout hst 10503 33 acs wfc f814w f606w sci ESO 540-32 ESO 540-032 IAB(s)m pec: 11.15 3.42[5] −11.32[5] 16.55[6] Sculptor group
132 NGC1560 - GALEX-WIKISKY NGC 1560 SA(s)d HII 11.25 3.45[1] −16.87[5] 12.16[6] IC 342/Maffei Group
133 Color cutout hst 11986 04 wfpc2 f814w f606w wf sci ESO 383-87 ESO 383-087 (ISG 39) SB(s)dm 11.3 3.45[45] −15.16[1] 11.03[6] Centaurus A Group
134 Color cutout hst 06814 01 wfpc2 f814w f555w f439w pc sci NGC 5206 NGC 5206 11.3 3.47;[45] Centaurus A Group
135 Color cutout hst 11986 35 wfpc2 f814w f606w wf sci ESO 269-37 KK 179 (ESO 269-37) 11.4 3.48[45] Centaurus A Group
136 Color cutout hst 9884 01 acs wfc f814w f606w sci KK98 77 KK98 77 dSph 11.35[41] 3.48 16.2[6] M81 group
137 Color cutout hst 9884 05 acs wfc f814w f606w sci DDO 71 DDO 71 Im 11.42[41] 3.50 18[6] M81 group
138 M82 Chandra HST Spitzer M82 I0;Sbrst HII 11.51 3.53[5] −19.63[5] 9.30 [6] M81 group 37,000 ly
139 Color cutout hst 10235 06 acs wfc f814w f606w sci ESO 269-66 ESO 269-66 (KK98 190) dE,N 11.55 3.54[1] −13.56 14.11[6] Centaurus A Group
140 M81 Dwarf A (KDG 52) I? 11.58[41] 3.55 −11.49[5] 16.5[6] M81 group
141 NGC 2976SSTFull NGC 2976 SAc pec HII 11.61[41] 3.56 −17.1[5] 10.82[6] M81 group
142 UGC 4459 UGC 4459 (DDO 53) Im 11.61[41] 3.56 −13.37[5] 14.48 [6] M81 group
143 Phot-18b-99-hires NGC 4945 SB(s)cd:sp[6] 11.70[47] 3.59 −20.51[1] 9.3[6] Centaurus A Group
#   Galaxy Type Dist from Earth Magnitude Group
Membership
Notes
Mly Mpc M m

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn I. D. Karachentsev et al.(2004) A Catalog of Neighboring Galaxies Refinements in distance measurements could change the order presented in this list.
  2. ^ a b Earth is 8,122 ± 31 parsecs (26,490 ± 100 ly) or 0.0265 million light years from the galactic center (the center of the Milky Way). The distance of Earth from the galaxy which contains it is of course "zero"
  3. ^ "Astronomers find nearest galaxy to the Milky Way" (Press release). University of Strasbourg. 4 November 2003. Archived from the original on 2008-05-27.
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References

Bedin I

Bedin I is a dwarf spheroidal galaxy located in the constellation Pavo. It is situated behind the globular cluster NGC 6752, though is around 28.38 million light-years from Earth. Bedin I is one of the oldest galaxies known, having formed around 10–13 billion years ago, and is one of the most isolated dwarf galaxies known, situated around 2.12 million light-years away from NGC 6744, its nearest neighbor with which it may be physically associated. As such, it has been deemed by astronomers as a "fossil" from the early universe. It was accidentally discovered by Italian astronomer Luigi Bedin, whose team was studying white dwarfs in NGC 6752 using the Hubble Space Telescope in September 2018; the discovery was announced in a paper published in January 2019.

Donatiello I

Donatiello I, also known as Mirach's Goblin, is a dwarf spheroidal galaxy located in the constellation Andromeda, located between 8.1 and 11.4 million light-years from Earth. It is a possible satellite galaxy of the dwarf lenticular galaxy NGC 404, "Mirach's Ghost", which is located 60 arcminutes away. It is otherwise one of the most isolated dwarf spheroidal galaxies known, being physically located around 211,000 light-years away from NGC 404. The galaxy is named after its discoverer, amateur astrophotographer Giuseppe Donatiello, who sighted the galaxy in a 2016 review of his archival long exposures from 2010 and 2013. Follow-up observations with the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory led to a scientific paper on its discovery being published in December 2018.

Dwarf galaxy

A dwarf galaxy is a small galaxy composed of about 100 million up to several billion stars, a small number compared to the Milky Way's 200–400 billion stars. The Large Magellanic Cloud, which closely orbits the Milky Way and contains over 30 billion stars, is sometimes classified as a dwarf galaxy; others consider it a full-fledged galaxy. Dwarf galaxies' formation and activity are thought to be heavily influenced by interactions with larger galaxies. Astronomers identify numerous types of dwarf galaxies, based on their shape and composition.

Galaxy

A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter. The word galaxy is derived from the Greek galaxias (γαλαξίας), literally "milky", a reference to the Milky Way. Galaxies range in size from dwarfs with just a few hundred million (108) stars to giants with one hundred trillion (1014) stars, each orbiting its galaxy's center of mass.

Galaxies are categorized according to their visual morphology as elliptical, spiral, or irregular. Many galaxies are thought to have supermassive black holes at their centers. The Milky Way's central black hole, known as Sagittarius A*, has a mass four million times greater than the Sun. As of March 2016, GN-z11 is the oldest and most distant observed galaxy with a comoving distance of 32 billion light-years from Earth, and observed as it existed just 400 million years after the Big Bang.

Research released in 2016 revised the number of galaxies in the observable universe from a previous estimate of 200 billion (2×1011) to a suggested 2 trillion (2×1012) or more, containing more stars than all the grains of sand on planet Earth. Most of the galaxies are 1,000 to 100,000 parsecs in diameter (approximately 3000 to 300,000 light years) and separated by distances on the order of millions of parsecs (or megaparsecs). For comparison, the Milky Way has a diameter of at least 30,000 parsecs (100,000 LY) and is separated from the Andromeda Galaxy, its nearest large neighbor, by 780,000 parsecs (2.5 million LY).

The space between galaxies is filled with a tenuous gas (the intergalactic medium) having an average density of less than one atom per cubic meter. The majority of galaxies are gravitationally organized into groups, clusters, and superclusters. The Milky Way is part of the Local Group, which is dominated by it and the Andromeda Galaxy and is part of the Virgo Supercluster. At the largest scale, these associations are generally arranged into sheets and filaments surrounded by immense voids. The largest structure of galaxies yet recognised is a cluster of superclusters that has been named Laniakea, which contains the Virgo supercluster.

KKR 03

KKR 03 is a dwarf irregular galaxy located 6.4 million light-years (1.97 million parsecs) away from Earth. It has an absolute magnitude of -10.85 and lies on the inner edge of the M94 Group.

KKR 25

KKR 25 is a galaxy 6.07 million light years (1.86 million parsecs) away from the Earth. KKR 25 is located outside the Local Group but the Local group is the nearest galaxy group with the M81 Group being the second nearest.

List of Andromeda's satellite galaxies

The Andromeda Galaxy (M31) has satellite galaxies just like the Milky Way. Orbiting M31 are at least 14 dwarf galaxies: the brightest and largest is M32, which can be seen with a basic telescope. The second-brightest and closest one to M32 is M110. The other galaxies are fainter, and were mostly discovered only starting from the 1970s.

On January 11, 2006, it was announced that Andromeda Galaxy's faint companion galaxies lie on or close to a single plane running through the Andromeda Galaxy's center. This unexpected distribution is not obviously understood in the context of current models for galaxy formation. The plane of satellite galaxies points toward a nearby group of galaxies (M81 Group), possibly tracing the large-scale distribution of dark matter.

List of brightest stars

This is a list of the brightest stars down to magnitude +2.50, as determined by their maximum, total, or combined visual magnitudes as viewed from Earth. Although several of the brightest stars are known binary or multiple star systems and are relatively close to Earth, they appear to the naked eye as single stars. The list below combines/adds the magnitudes of bright individual components. Most of the proper names in this list are those approved by the Working Group on Star Names. Popular star names here that have not been approved by the IAU appear with a short note.

List of extremes in the sky

This article describes some extremes in the sky as a textual addition to the list of star extremes page.

List of galaxies

The following is a list of notable galaxies.

There are about 51 galaxies in the Local Group (see list of nearest galaxies for a complete list), on the order of 100,000 in our Local Supercluster and an estimated number of about one to two trillion in all of the observable universe.

The discovery of the nature of galaxies as distinct from other nebulae (interstellar clouds) was made in the 1920s. The first attempts at systematic catalogues of galaxies were made in the 1960s, with the Catalogue of Galaxies and Clusters of Galaxies listing 29,418 galaxies and galaxy clusters, and with the Morphological Catalogue of Galaxies, a putatively complete list of galaxies with photographic magnitude above 15, listing 30,642. In the 1980s, the Lyons Groups of Galaxies listed 485 galaxy groups with 3,933 member galaxies. Galaxy Zoo is a project aiming at a more comprehensive list: launched in July 2007, it has classified over one million galaxy images from The Sloan Digital Sky Survey, The Hubble Space Telescope and the Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey.There is no universal naming convention for galaxies, as they are mostly catalogued before it is established whether the object is or isn't a galaxy. Mostly they are identified by their celestial coordinates together with the name of the observing project (HUDF, SDSS, 3C, CFHQS, NGC/IC, etc.)

List of nearest stars and brown dwarfs

There are 52 stellar systems beyond our own Solar System that currently lie within 5.0 parsecs (16.3 light-years) of the Sun. These systems contain a total of 63 stars, of which 50 are red dwarfs, by far the most common type of star in the Milky Way. Much more massive stars, such as our own, make up the remaining 13. In addition to these "true" stars, there are 11 brown dwarfs (objects not quite massive enough to fuse hydrogen), and 4 white dwarfs (extremely dense objects that remain after stars such as our Sun exhaust all fusable hydrogen in their core and slowly shed their outer layers while only the collapsed core remains). Despite the relative proximity of these objects to Earth, only nine (not including the Sun) are brighter than 6.5 apparent magnitude, the dimmest magnitude visible to the naked eye from Earth. All of these objects are located in the Local Bubble, a region within the Orion–Cygnus Arm of the Milky Way.

Based on results from the Gaia telescope's second data release from April 2018, an estimated 694 stars will possibly approach the Solar System to less than 5.0 parsecs (16 light-years) over the next 15 million years. Of these, 26 have a good probability to come within 1.0 parsec (3.3 light-years) and another 7 within 0.5 parsecs (1.6 light-years). This number is likely much higher, due to the sheer number of stars needed to be surveyed; a star approaching the Solar System 10 million years ago, moving at a typical Sun-relative 20–200 kilometers per second, would be 600–6,000 light years from the Sun at present day, with millions of stars closer to the Sun. The closest encounter to the Sun so far predicted is the low-mass orange dwarf star Gliese 710 / HIP 89825 with roughly 60% the mass of the Sun. It is currently predicted to pass 19,300 ± 3,200 astronomical units (0.305 ± 0.051 light-years) from the Sun in 1.280+0.041−0.039 million years from the present, close enough to significantly disturb our Solar System's Oort cloud.The easiest way to determine stellar distance to the Sun for objects at these distances is parallax, which measures how much stars appear to move against background objects over the course of Earth's orbit around the Sun. As a parsec (parallax-second) is defined by the distance of an object that would appear to move exactly one second of arc against background objects, stars less than 5 parsecs away will have measured parallaxes of over 0.2 arcseconds, or 200 milliarcseconds. Determining past and future positions relies on accurate astrometric measurements of their parallax and total proper motions (how far they move across the sky due to their actual velocity relative to the Sun), along with spectroscopically determined radial velocities (their speed directly towards or away from us, which combined with proper motion defines their true movement through the sky relative to the Sun). Both of these measurements are subject to increasing and significant errors over very long time spans, especially over the several thousand-year time spans it takes for stars to noticeably move relative to each other.

Lists of astronomical objects

This is a list of lists, grouped by type of astronomical object.

Lists of galaxies

This is a list of lists of galaxies.

Local Group

The Local Group is the galaxy group that includes the Milky Way. The Local Group comprises more than 54 galaxies, most of them dwarf galaxies. Its gravitational center is located somewhere between the Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy. The Local Group has a diameter of 10 Mly (3.1 Mpc) (about 1023 meters) and has a binary (dumbbell)

distribution. The group itself is a part of the larger Virgo Supercluster, which may be a part of the Laniakea Supercluster.

The three largest members of the group (in descending order) are the Andromeda Galaxy, the Milky Way and the significantly smaller Triangulum Galaxy. The larger two of these spiral galaxies each have their own system of satellite galaxies.

The Andromeda Galaxy's satellite system consists of Messier 32 (M32), Messier 110 (M110), NGC 147, NGC 185, Andromeda I (And I), And II, And III, And V, And VI (also known as Pegasus Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy, or Pegasus DSph), And VII (also known as Cassiopeia Dwarf Galaxy), And VIII, And IX, And X, And XI, And XIX, And XXI and And XXII, plus several additional ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies.

The Milky Way's satellite galaxies system comprises Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy, Large Magellanic Cloud, Small Magellanic Cloud, Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy (disputed, considered by some not a galaxy), Ursa Minor Dwarf Galaxy, Draco Dwarf Galaxy, Carina Dwarf Galaxy, Sextans Dwarf Galaxy, Sculptor Dwarf Galaxy, Fornax Dwarf Galaxy, Leo I (a dwarf galaxy), Leo II (a dwarf galaxy), and Ursa Major I Dwarf Galaxy and Ursa Major II Dwarf Galaxy, plus several additional ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies.

The Triangulum Galaxy may or may not be a companion to the Andromeda Galaxy. Pisces Dwarf Galaxy is equidistant from the Andromeda Galaxy and the Triangulum Galaxy, so it may be a satellite of either.

The membership of NGC 3109, with its companions Sextans A and the Antlia Dwarf Galaxy, is uncertain due to extreme distances from the center of the Local Group.

The other members of the group are likely gravitationally secluded from these large subgroups: IC 10, IC 1613, Phoenix Dwarf Galaxy, Leo A, Tucana Dwarf Galaxy, Cetus Dwarf Galaxy, Pegasus Dwarf Irregular Galaxy, Wolf–Lundmark–Melotte, Aquarius Dwarf Galaxy, and Sagittarius Dwarf Irregular Galaxy.

Satellite galaxies of the Milky Way

The Milky Way has several smaller galaxies gravitationally bound to it, as part of the Milky Way subgroup, which is part of the local galaxy cluster, the Local Group.There are 59 small galaxies confirmed to be within 420 kiloparsecs (1.4 million light-years) of the Milky Way, but not all of them are necessarily in orbit, and some may themselves be in orbit of other satellite galaxies. The only ones visible to the naked eye are the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, which have been observed since prehistory. Measurements with the Hubble Space Telescope in 2006 suggest the Magellanic Clouds may be moving too fast to be orbiting the Milky Way. Of the galaxies confirmed to be in orbit, the largest is the Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy, which has a diameter of 2.6 kiloparsecs (8,500 ly) or roughly a twentieth that of the Milky Way.

Spiral galaxy

Spiral galaxies form a class of galaxy originally described by Edwin Hubble in his 1936 work The Realm of the Nebulae and, as such, form part of the Hubble sequence. Most spiral galaxies consist of a flat, rotating disk containing stars, gas and dust, and a central concentration of stars known as the bulge. These are often surrounded by a much fainter halo of stars, many of which reside in globular clusters.

Spiral galaxies are named by their spiral structures that extend from the center into the galactic disc. The spiral arms are sites of ongoing star formation and are brighter than the surrounding disc because of the young, hot OB stars that inhabit them.

Roughly two-thirds of all spirals are observed to have an additional component in the form of a bar-like structure, extending from the central bulge, at the ends of which the spiral arms begin. The proportion of barred spirals relative to their barless cousins has likely changed over the history of the Universe, with only about 10% containing bars about 8 billion years ago, to roughly a quarter 2.5 billion years ago, until present, where over two-thirds of the galaxies in the visible universe (Hubble volume) have bars.Our own Milky Way is a barred spiral, although the bar itself is difficult to observe from the Earth's current position within the galactic disc. The most convincing evidence for the stars forming a bar in the galactic center comes from several recent surveys, including the Spitzer Space Telescope.Together with irregular galaxies, spiral galaxies make up approximately 60% of galaxies in today's universe. They are mostly found in low-density regions and are rare in the centers of galaxy clusters.

Virgo Stellar Stream

The Virgo Stellar Stream, also known as Virgo Overdensity, is the proposed name for a stellar stream in the constellation of Virgo which was discovered in 2005. The stream is thought to be the remains of a dwarf spheroidal galaxy that is in the process of merging with the Milky Way. It is the largest galaxy visible from the Earth, in terms of the area of the night sky covered.

The stream was discovered from photometric data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, which was used to create a three-dimensional map of the Milky Way, using the colors and brightness of certain characteristic types of stars to estimate their distance (a method known as "photometric parallax"). The first suggestion of a new galaxy in Virgo was made in 2001 from data obtained as part of the QUEST survey, which used the one-metre Schmidt telescope at the Llano del Hato National Astronomical Observatory in Venezuela to search for RR Lyrae variable stars. Five were found in a clump with a right ascension near 12.4 hours, and the astronomers speculated that this clump was part of a small galaxy being "cannibalised" by the Milky Way.The stream covers over one hundred square degrees and possibly as much as one thousand square degrees (approximately five percent of the hemisphere visible at any one time, or five thousand times the area of the full moon). Despite its proximity to the solar system and the solid angle that it consequently covers, the stream contains only a few hundred thousand stars. The low surface brightness of the galaxy (possibly as low as 32.5 mag/arcmin²) may have militated against its detection in surveys before SDSS. The number of stars in the stream is not greatly in excess of a star cluster, and it has been described by a member of the team that discovered it as "a rather pathetic galaxy" in comparison to the Milky Way. Many of the stars have been known for centuries and thought of as normal Milky Way stars, although they have a lower metallicity than normal Population I stars in the Milky Way.

The stream lies within the Milky Way, approximately 10 kiloparsecs (30,000 light-years) from the Sun, and extending over a region of space at least 10 kpc across in three dimensions. It is close on the plane of the sky to the Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy, which was found in 1994 through a similar photometric analysis of a star survey. The Sagittarius Dwarf is another small galaxy which is also in the process of merging with the Milky Way; however, it is approximately 4 times further away than the stream, so the two are unlikely to be physically related, although it is possible that the Virgo Stellar Stream is a remnant left behind by the disruption of the Sagittarius Dwarf as it had orbited around the Milky Way. The Virgo Stellar Stream also resembles the Monoceros Ring, found in 2002, which has similarly been attributed to the Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy merging with the Milky Way.

Morphology
Structure
Active nuclei
Energetic galaxies
Low activity
Interaction
Lists
See also

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