List of natural disasters by death toll

A natural disaster is a sudden event that causes widespread destruction, major collateral damage or loss of life, brought about by forces other than the acts of human beings. A natural disaster might be caused by earthquakes, flooding, volcanic eruption, landslide, hurricanes etc. In order to be classified as a disaster, it will have profound environmental effect and/or human loss and frequently incurs financial loss.

Ten deadliest natural disasters

Notes: The list does not include several volcanic eruptions with uncertain death tolls resulting from collateral effects (crop failures, etc.), though these may have numbered in the millions; see List of volcanic eruptions by death toll.
The list does not include the man-made 1938 Yellow River flood, caused entirely by a deliberate man-made act (an act of war, destroying dikes).
An alternative listing is given by Peter Hough in his 2008 book
Global Security.[1]

Rank Death toll (estimate) Event Location Date
1. 9,000,000–13,000,000 Drought and subsequent famine China 1876
2. 1,000,000–4,000,000[2][nb 1] 1931 China floods China July 1931
3. 900,000–2,000,000[3] 1887 Yellow River flood China September 1887
4. 830,000[4] 1556 Shaanxi earthquake China January 23, 1556
5. 500,000[2] 1970 Bhola cyclone East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) November 13, 1970
6. 316,000 2010 Haiti earthquake Haiti January 12, 2010
7. 300,000 1839 India cyclone[5] India November 26, 1839
1737 Calcutta cyclone[6] India October 7, 1737
9. 242,769–655,000 1976 Tangshan earthquake China July 28, 1976
10. 273,400[7] 1920 Haiyuan earthquake China December 16, 1920

Ten deadliest natural disasters since 1900

Note: This list does not include industrial or technological accidents, epidemics, or the 1938 Yellow River flood.

Rank Death toll (estimate) Event* Location Date
1. 1,000,000–4,000,000 1931 China floods China July 1931
2. 500,000[2] 1970 Bhola cyclone East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) November 1970
3. 316,000[8] 2010 Haiti earthquake Haiti January 12, 2010
4. 273,400 1920 Haiyuan earthquake China December 16, 1920
5. 242,769–655,000 1976 Tangshan earthquake China July 28, 1976
6. 229,000 Typhoon Nina—contributed to Banqiao Dam failure China August 7, 1975
7. 227,898 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami Indian Ocean December 26, 2004
8. 145,000 1935 Yangtze river flood China 1935
9. 143,000 1923 Great Kantō earthquake Japan September 1, 1923
10. 138,866 1991 Bangladesh cyclone Bangladesh April 1991

Lists of natural disasters by cause

Deadliest earthquakes

Rank Death toll (estimate) Event Location Date
1. 830,000 1556 Shaanxi earthquake Ming Dynasty (now China) January 23, 1556
2. 316,000 2010 Haiti earthquake Haiti January 12, 2010
3. 242,769–655,000[10] 1976 Tangshan earthquake China July 28, 1976
4. 273,400[7] 1920 Haiyuan earthquake Ningxia, Republic of China (now China) December 16, 1920
5. 250,000–300,000[11] 526 Antioch earthquake Byzantine Empire (now Turkey) May 526
6. 260,000[12] 115 Antioch earthquake Roman Empire (now Turkey) December 13, 115
7. 230,000 1138 Aleppo earthquake Zengid dynasty (now Syria) October 11, 1138
8. 227,898 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake Indonesia December 26, 2004
9. 200,000 1303 Hongdong earthquake[13] Mongol Empire (now China) September 17, 1303
856 Damghan earthquake Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran) December 22, 856
1780 Tabriz earthquake[14] Iran January 8, 1780
12. 150,000 893 Ardabil earthquake Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran) March 23, 893
13. 142,807[15][16] 1923 Great Kantō earthquake Japan September 1, 1923
14. 130,000[17] 533 Aleppo earthquake Byzantine Empire (now Syria) November 29, 533
15. 123,000[2] 1908 Messina earthquake Italy December 28, 1908
16. 110,000 1948 Ashgabat earthquake Turkmen SSR, Soviet Union (now Turkmenistan) October 5, 1948
17. 100,000 1290 Chihli earthquake Mongol Empire (now China) September 27, 1290
18. 87,587[18][19] 2008 Sichuan earthquake China May 12, 2008
19. 87,351 2005 Kashmir earthquake Pakistan (Azad Kashmir) October 8, 2005
20. 80,000 1721 Tabriz earthquake[20] Iran April 26, 1721
458 Antioch earthquake[21] Byzantine Empire (now Turkey) September 458
1667 Shamakhi earthquake Safavid dynasty (now Azerbaijan) November 1667
1854 Great Nankaidō earthquake Japan November 1854
1169 Aleppo earthquake[22][23] Zengid dynasty (now Syria) 1169
25. 77,000 1727 Tabriz earthquake Iran November 18, 1727
26. 73,000[24] 1718 Gansu earthquake Qing Empire (now China) June 19, 1718
27. 70,000 1970 Ancash earthquake[25] Peru May 31, 1970
1033 Ramala earthquake[26] Fatimid Caliphate (now West Bank) December 10, 1033
847 Damascus earthquake[27] Abbasid Caliphate (now Syria) 847
1868 Ecuador earthquakes[28] Ecuador August 15, 1868August 16, 1868
31. 60,000 587 Antioch earthquake[29] Byzantine Empire (now Turkey) September 30, 587
1101 Khorasan earthquake[30] Great Seljuq Empire (now Iran) 1101
1268 Cilicia earthquake Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (now Turkey) 1268
1693 Sicily earthquake Kingdom of Sicily (now Italy) January 11, 1693
1935 Quetta earthquake India (now part of Pakistan) May 31, 1935
36. 50,000 844 Damascus earthquake[31] Abbasid Caliphate (now Syria) September 18, 844
1042 Tabriz earthquake[32] Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran) November 4, 1042
1783 Calabrian earthquakes Kingdom of Naples (now Italy) 1783
1990 Manjil–Rudbar earthquake Iran June 21, 1990
40. 40,000–50,000[33] 1755 Lisbon earthquake Portugal November 1, 1755
41. 45,000 850 Iran earthquake[34] Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran) July 15, 850
856 Corinth earthquake[35] Byzantine Empire (now Greece) November 856
856 Tunisia earthquake[36][37] Abbasid Caliphate (now Tunisia) December 3, 856
44. 42,571[38] 1668 Shandong earthquake Qing Empire (now China) July 25, 1668
45. 40,900 1927 Gulang earthquake Gansu, China May 22, 1927
46. 40,000 342 Antioch earthquake[39] Roman Empire (now Turkey) 342
662 Damghan earthquake[40] Umayyad Caliphate (now Iran) April 26, 662
1455 Naples earthquake[41] Crown of Aragon (now Italy) December 5, 1455
1754 Cairo earthquake[42] Ottoman Empire (now Egypt) September 2, 1754
1755 Tabriz earthquake[43] Iran June 7, 1755
1797 Riobamba earthquake Spanish Empire (now Ecuador) February 4, 1797

Deadliest famines

Note: Some of these famines may have been caused or partially caused by humans.

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 15,000,000–43,000,000 Great Chinese Famine China 1958–1961
2. 25,000,000 Chinese Famine of 1907 China 1907–1911
3. 9,000,000–13,000,000[44] Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–1879 China 1876–1879
4. 11,000,000 Chalisa famine India 1783–1784
Doji bara famine or Skull famine India 1789–1793
6. 10,000,000 Bengal famine of 1770, incl. Bihar & Orissa British India 1769–1773
7. 7,500,000 Great European Famine Europe (all) 1315–1317
8. 7,400,000 Deccan famine of 1630–32 India 1630–1632
9. 5,000,000–8,000,000 Soviet famine of 1932–1933 (Holodomor in Ukraine) Soviet Union 1932–1933
10. 5,500,000 Indian Great Famine of 1876–78 British India 1876–1878
11. 5,000,000 Chinese Famine of 1936 China 1936
Russian famine of 1921 Russia, Ukraine 1921–1922
13. 3,000,000 Chinese famine of 1928–1930 China 1928–1930
14. 2,000,000–3,000,000 Chinese famine of 1942–43 China 1942–1943
15. 2,400,000 Javanese famine Japanese Java 1944–1945
16. 2,000,000 Russian famine of 1601–1603 Russia (Muscovy) 1601–1603
Deccan famine of 1702–1704 India 1702–1704
Upper Doab famine of 1860–61 British India 1860–1861
Indian Famine British India 1896–1902
Persian famine of 1917–1919 Persia 1917–1918
Famine during the Biafran War Nigeria 1967–1970
22. 1,500,000–3,000,000 Bengal famine of 1943 British India 1943–1944
23. 1,500,000 Rajputana famine of 1869 British India 1868–1870
Persian famine of 1870–1872 Persia 1870–1872
25. 1,300,000–1,500,000 French Famine France 1693–1694
26. 1,000,000–1,500,000 Great Irish Famine Ireland 1846–1849
Soviet famine of 1946–47 Soviet Union 1946–1947
28. 1,000,000 Orissa famine of 1866 British India 1866

Deadliest impact events

Note: Although there have been no scientifically verified cases of astronomical objects resulting in human fatalities, there have been several reported occurrences throughout human history. Consequently, the casualty figures for all events listed are considered unofficial.

Rank Death toll (unofficial) Location Date Notes
1. 10,000+ Qingyang, Gansu, China 1490 1490 Ch'ing-yang event
2. "Tens" Changshou District, Chongqing, China 1639 10 homes destroyed[45][46]
3. 10+ China 616 CE a large meteorite fell onto the rebel Lu Ming-Yueh's camp, destroying a wall-attacking tower[46]
4. 2 Malacca ship, Indian Ocean 1648 2 sailors killed on board a ship[46]
Podkamennaya Tunguska River, Siberia, Russian Empire 1908 Tunguska event[45]
6. 1 Cremona, Lombardy, Italy 1511 a monk and several animals were killed by stones weighing up to 50 kg[46]
Milan, Lombardy, Italy 1633 or 1664 a monk died after being struck on the thigh by a meteorite[46]
Gascony, France 1790 a farmer was reportedly struck and killed by a meteorite[46]
Oriang, Malwate, India 1825 [45][47]
Chin-kuei Shan, China 1874 a cottage was crushed by a meteorite, killing a child[45][48]
Newtown, Indiana, United States 1879 a man was killed in bed by a meteorite[45]
Dun-le-Poëlier, France 1879 a farmer was killed by a meteorite[45]
Zvezvan, Yugoslavia 1929 a meteorite hit a bridal party[45]

Deadliest limnic eruptions

Note: Only 2 cases in recorded history.

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 1,744 Lake Nyos disaster Cameroon August 21, 1986
2. 37 Lake Monoun disaster Cameroon August 15, 1984

Deadliest wildfires / bushfires

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 1,200–2,500 Peshtigo Fire Wisconsin, United States October 8, 1871
2. 1,200 Kursha-2 Fire Soviet Union August 3, 1936
3. 453 Cloquet Fire[49] Minnesota, United States October 12, 1918
4. 418+ Great Hinckley Fire Minnesota, United States September 1, 1894
5. 282 Thumb Fire Michigan, United States September 5, 1881
6. 240 1997 Indonesian forest fires[50][51] Sumatra and Kalimantan, Indonesia September 1997
7. 223 Matheson Fire Ontario, Canada July 29, 1916
8. 191 Black Dragon Fire[50][51] China and Soviet Union May 1, 1987
9. 180 Black Saturday bushfires[50][51] Australia February 7, 2009
10. 160–300 Miramichi Fire Canada October 7, 1825
11. 102 2018 Attica wildfires Greece July 23, 2018
12. 87 Great Fire of 1910 Montana and Idaho, United States August 20, 1910
13. 85 Camp Fire[52] California, United States November 8, 2018
14. 84 2007 Greek forest fires[50] Greece June 28, 2007
15. 82 1949 Landes forest fire France August 19, 1949
16. 75 Ash Wednesday bushfires[50] Australia February 16, 1983
17. 73–200 Great Porcupine Fire Canada July 11, 1911
18. 71 Black Friday bushfires Australia January 13, 1939
19. 66 2017 Portugal wildfires Portugal June 17, 2017
20. 65+ Yacolt Burn[53][54] Washington and Oregon, United States September 8, 1902
21. 62 1967 Tasmanian fires Australia February 7, 1967
22. 60 1926 Victorian bushfires Australia January 26, 1926
23. 57 1991 Indonesian forest fires[50] Indonesia August 1991
24. 56 1992 Nepal wildfires[50] Nepal March 1992
25. 54 2010 Russian wildfires[50] Russia July 29, 2010

Ten deadliest avalanches / landslides

Rank Death toll (estimate) Event Location Date
1. 100,000 1786 Dadu River landslide dam; triggered by the 1786 Kangding-Luding earthquake[55] China 1786
1920 Haiyuan landslides; triggered by the 1920 Haiyuan earthquake[55] China 1920
3. 22,000 1970 Huascarán avalanche; triggered by the 1970 Ancash earthquake[56] Peru 1970
4. 10,000–30,000 Vargas tragedy[57] Venezuela 1999
10,000 White Friday avalanches[58][59] Italy 1916
6. 5,000–28,000 Khait landslide[60][61] Tajikistan 1949
7. 4,000–6,000 1941 Huaraz avalanche[62] Peru 1941
4,000 1962 Huascarán avalanche[56] Peru 1962
9. 3,466 1310 Western Hubei landslide[55] China 1310
10. 3,429 1933 Diexi landslides[55] China 1933

Ten deadliest blizzards

Rank Death toll (estimate) Event Location Date
1. 4,000 1972 Iran blizzard Iran 1972
2. 3,000 Carolean Death March Norway 1719
3. 926 2008 Afghanistan blizzard Afghanistan 2008
4. 400 Great Blizzard of 1888 United States 1888
5. 353 Great Appalachian Storm of 1950 United States 1950
6. 318 1993 Storm of the Century United States 1993
7. 286 December 1960 nor'easter United States 1960
8. 250 Great Lakes Storm of 1913 United States and Canada (Great Lakes region) 1913
9. 235 Schoolhouse Blizzard United States 1888
10. 201 North American blizzard of 1966 United States 1966

Ten deadliest floods

Note: Some of these floods and landslides may be partially caused by humans – for example, by failure of dams, levees, seawalls or retaining walls.
This list does not include the man-made 1938 Yellow River flood caused entirely by a deliberate man-made act (an act of war, destroying dikes).

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 1,000,000–4,000,000[63] 1931 China floods China 1931
2. 900,000–2,000,000 1887 Yellow River (Huang He) flood China 1887
3. 229,000[64] Failure of 62 dams, the largest of which was Banqiao Dam, result of Typhoon Nina. China 1975
4. 145,000 1935 Yangtze river flood China 1935
5. >100,000 St. Felix's Flood, storm surge Holy Roman Empire 1530
6. 100,000 Hanoi and Red River Delta flood North Vietnam 1971
7. up to 100,000 1911 Yangtze River flood China 1911
8. 50,000–80,000 St. Lucia's flood, storm surge Holy Roman Empire 1287
9. 60,000 North Sea flood, storm surge Holy Roman Empire 1212
10. 36,000 St. Marcellus flood, storm surge Holy Roman Empire 1219

Ten deadliest heat waves

Note: Measuring the number of deaths caused by a heat wave requires complicated statistical analysis, since heat waves tend to cause large numbers of deaths among people weakened by other conditions. As a result, the number of deaths is only known with any accuracy for heat waves in the modern era in countries with developed healthcare systems.

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 70,000 2003 European heat wave Europe 2003
2. 56,000 2010 Russian heat wave Russia 2010
3. 9,500 1901 eastern United States heat wave United States 1901
4. 5,000–10,000 1988 United States heat wave United States 1988
5. 3,418 2006 European heat wave Europe 2006[65]
6. 2,541 1998 India heat wave India 1998[65]
7. 2,500 2015 Indian heat wave India 2015
8. 2,000 2015 Pakistan heat wave Pakistan 2015
9. 1,700–5,000 1980 United States heat wave United States 1980
10. 1,718[66] 2010 Japanese heat wave Japan 2010

Ten deadliest pandemics / epidemics

Death counts are historical totals unless indicated otherwise.

Rank Death toll (estimate) Event Location Date
1. 300,000,000 approx. Smallpox Worldwide 1900 to eradication.[67] Declared eradicated May 8, 1980.[68] 300 million smallpox deaths between 1900 and eradication would mean that, out of 4,713,503,215 worldwide deaths between 1900 and 1995,[69] 6.36% were from smallpox. Applied to the estimated total of ca. 95 billion deaths between 50000 BC and 1900,[70] this would mean that over 6 billion deaths in this period were from smallpox.
2. 200,000,000 Measles Worldwide last 150 years[71]
3. 100,000,000 approx. Black Death Worldwide 1331–1820
4. 80,000,000250,000,000 Malaria Worldwide 20th century – present.

The World Health Report 1999 (WHO) states that “during the first half of the 20th century, the world sustained around 2 million deaths from malaria each year,” so for that period alone, there were a hundred million deaths. After that, mortality was halved by better treatment and eradication efforts, so we’ll add another 64 million deaths.[72]

5. 50,000,000100,000,000 Spanish flu Worldwide 1918–1920
6. 40,000,000100,000,000 Plague of Justinian Asia, Europe, Africa 540–590
7. 40,000,000100,000,000 Tuberculosis Worldwide 20th century – present.[71] There were about 1 billion worldwide deaths from TB in the 19th and 20th centuries.[73] At the turn of the 19th Century there were 7 million worldwide annual deaths from TB.[74] Projected to the whole century, this would mean ca. 700 million tuberculosis deaths in the 19th Century, leaving 300 million deaths for the 20th Century. There were 5,000,000 worldwide deaths from TB per year in, respectively, 1939[75] and 1954.[76]
8. 30,000,000[77] AIDS pandemic Worldwide 1960–present
9. 12,000,000 Third Pandemic of Bubonic Plague Worldwide 1855–1960
10. 5,000,000 Antonine Plague Roman Empire 165–180

Ten deadliest tornadoes

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 1,300 The Daulatpur–Saturia tornado Manikganj, Bangladesh 1989
2. 695 The Tri-State tornado United States (MissouriIllinoisIndiana) 1925
3. 681 1973 Dhaka tornado Bangladesh 1973
4. 660 1969 East Pakistan tornado East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) 1969
5. 600 The Valletta, Malta tornado Malta 1551 or 1556
6. 500 The Sicily Tornadoes Sicily, Two Sicilies (now Italy) 1851
The Narail-Magura tornado Jessore, East Pakistan, Pakistan (now Bangladesh) 1964
The Madaripur-Shibchar tornado Bangladesh 1977
9. 400 The Ivanovo-Yaroslavl tornado Soviet Union (now Russia) 1984
10. 317 The Great Natchez tornado United States (MississippiLouisiana) 1840

Ten deadliest tropical cyclones

Note: Earlier versions of this list have included the so-called 'Bombay Cyclone of 1882' in tenth position, but this supposed event has been proven to be a hoax.

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. ≥500,000 1970 Bhola cyclone East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) November 13, 1970
2. 300,000 1737 Calcutta cyclone[6] India October 7, 1737
1839 India Cyclone[5] India November 25, 1839
4. 229,000 Super Typhoon Nina—contributed to Banqiao Dam failure China August 7, 1975
5. 200,000[78] Great Backerganj Cyclone of 1876 India (now Bangladesh) October 30, 1876
6. 150,000 (30,000 to 300,000)[79] 1881 Haiphong Typhoon Vietnam October 8, 1881
7. 138,866 1991 Bangladesh cyclone Bangladesh April 29, 1991
8. 138,373 Cyclone Nargis Myanmar May 2, 2008
9. 100,000 July 1780 typhoon[80] Philippines 1780

Ten deadliest tsunamis

Note: A possible tsunami in 1782 that caused about 40,000 deaths in the Taiwan Strait area may have been of "meteorological" origin (a cyclone).[81]

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 227,898 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami Indian Ocean December 26, 2004
2. 123,000[2] 1908 Messina earthquake Italy December 28, 1908
3. 36,417–120,000 1883 eruption of Krakatoa Indonesia August 26, 1883
4. 40,000–50,000[33] 1755 Lisbon earthquake Portugal November 1, 1755
5. 30,000-100,000 (est.) Minoan Eruption Greece 2nd Millennium BC
6. 31,000 1498 Meiō Nankaidō earthquake Japan September 20, 1498
7. 30,000 1707 Hōei earthquake Japan October 28, 1707
8. 27,122[82] 1896 Sanriku earthquake Japan June 15, 1896
9. 25,674 1868 Arica earthquake Chile August 13, 1868
10. 5,700[83]–50,000[84] 365 Crete earthquake Greece July 21, 365

Ten deadliest volcanic eruptions

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 71,000+[85] 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora (see also Year Without a Summer) Indonesia April 10, 1815
2. 36,000+[86] 1883 eruption of Krakatoa Indonesia August 26, 1883
3. 30,000[87] Mount Pelée Martinique May 7, 1902
4. 23,000[88] Armero tragedy Colombia November 13, 1985
5. 15,000[89] 1792 Unzen earthquake and tsunami Japan May 21, 1792
6. 10,000 Mount Kelud Indonesia 1586
7. 6,000[90] Santa Maria Guatemala October 24, 1902
8. 5,000[91] Mount Kelud Indonesia May 19, 1919
9. 4,011[92] Mount Galunggung Indonesia 1822
10. 3,500 El Chichón Mexico 1982

See also

Other lists organized by death toll

Notes

  1. ^ Estimate by Novas sources are close to 4 million and yet Encarta's sources report as few as 1 million. Expert estimates report wide variance.

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External links

1972 Iran blizzard

The Iran Blizzard of February 1972 was the deadliest blizzard in history. A week-long period of low temperatures and severe winter storms, lasting February 3–9, 1972, resulted in the deaths of approximately 4,000 people. Storms dumped more than 10 feet (3.0 m) of snow across rural areas in northwestern, central and southern Iran.Southern Iran received as much as 26 feet (7.9 m) of snow, burying at least 4,000 individuals. According to contemporary reports by the newspaper Ettela'at, the city of Ardakan and outlying villages were hardest hit, with no survivors in Kakkan or Kumar. In the northwest, near the border with Turkey, the village of Sheklab and its 100 inhabitants were buried.

1998 China floods

The 1998 China floods (1998年中国洪水) lasted from middle of June to the beginning of September 1998 in China at the Yangtze River as well as the Nen River, Songhua River and the Pearl River.

526 Antioch earthquake

The 526 Antioch earthquake hit Syria (region) and Antioch in the Byzantine Empire in 526. It struck during late May, probably between 20–29 May, at mid-morning, killing approximately 250,000 people. The earthquake was followed by a fire that destroyed most of the buildings left standing by the earthquake. The maximum intensity in Antioch is estimated to be between VIII (Severe) and IX (Violent) on the Mercalli intensity scale.

Deadly earthquakes

Deadly earthquakes may refer to:

List of deadly earthquakes since 1900

List of natural disasters by death toll#Earthquakes

Lists of earthquakes#Deadliest earthquakes

Humanitarian crisis

A humanitarian crisis (or "humanitarian disaster") is defined as a singular event or a series of events that are threatening in terms of health, safety or well being of a community or large group of people. It may be an internal or external conflict and usually occurs throughout a large land area. Local, national and international responses are necessary in such events.Each humanitarian crisis is caused by different factors and as a result, each different humanitarian crisis requires a unique response targeted towards the specific sectors affected. This can result in either short-term or long-term damage. Humanitarian crises can either be natural disasters, man-made disasters or complex emergencies. In such cases, complex emergencies occur as a result of several factors or events that prevent a large group of people from accessing their fundamental needs, such as food, clean water or safe shelter.

Examples of humanitarian crises include armed conflicts, epidemics, famine, natural disasters and other major emergencies. If such a crisis causes large movements of people it could also become a refugee crisis. For these reasons, humanitarian crises are often interconnected and complex and several national and international agencies play roles in the repercussions of the incidences.

List of avalanches by death toll

This is an incomplete list of notable avalanches.

List of battles and other violent events by death toll

This page lists mortalities from battles and individual military operations or acts of violence, sorted by death toll. For wars and events more extensive in scope, see List of wars and disasters by death toll. For natural disasters, see List of natural disasters by death toll.

List of large volcanic eruptions in the 21st century

This is a list of volcanic eruptions of the 21st century measuring a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of at least 4, as well as notable smaller eruptions. Note that the size of eruptions can be subject to considerable uncertainty.

List of large volcanic eruptions of the 19th century

This is a list of volcanic eruptions of the 19th century measuring a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of at least 4. Note that there may be many other eruptions that have not been identified, and estimates for the size of eruptions can be subject to considerable uncertainties.

List of large volcanic eruptions of the 20th century

This is a list of volcanic eruptions of the 20th century measuring a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of at least 4, as well as notable smaller eruptions. Note that there may be many other eruptions that have not been identified, and estimates for the size of eruptions can be subject to considerable uncertainties.

List of tropical cyclones

This is a list of tropical cyclones, subdivided by basin. See the list of tropical cyclone records for individual records set by individual tropical cyclones.

List of Atlantic hurricanes - directory for Atlantic tropical cyclones north of the equator

South Atlantic tropical cyclone - covers tropical cyclones in the Atlantic Ocean south of the equator

List of Pacific hurricanes - listing of Pacific hurricanes east of the International Dateline and north of the equator

List of retired Pacific hurricane names

Pacific typhoon

Pacific typhoon season

List of retired Pacific typhoon names (JMA)

List of retired Philippine typhoon names

North Indian Ocean cyclone

North Indian Ocean tropical cyclone season

South-West Indian Ocean cyclone

South-West Indian Ocean tropical cyclone season

Australian region tropical cyclone

Australian region tropical cyclone

List of retired Australian region cyclone names

List of Western Australia tropical cyclones

South Pacific cyclone

South Pacific tropical cyclone season

List of retired South Pacific tropical cyclone names

List of meteorological histories of tropical cyclones

List of volcanic eruptions by death toll

Volcanic eruptions can be highly explosive, volatile, or neither. Certain volcanoes have undergone catastrophic eruptions, killing large numbers of humans, and this incomplete list attempts to document those volcanic eruptions by death toll.

Lists of disasters

The following are lists of disasters.

Malpasset Dam

The Malpasset Dam was an arch dam on the Reyran River, located approximately 7 km north of Fréjus on the French Riviera (Côte d'Azur), southern France, in the Var département. It collapsed on December 2, 1959, killing 423 people in the resulting flood. The damage amounted to an equivalent total of $68 million.

Meteorological disasters

Meteorological disasters are caused by extreme weather, e.g. rain, drought, snow, extreme heat or cold, ice, or wind. Violent, sudden and destructive to the environment related to, produced by, or affecting the earth's atmosphere, especially the weather-forming processes.

Examples of weather disasters include blizzard, , droughts, hailstorms, heat waves, hurricanes, floods (caused by rain), and tornadoes.

Natural disaster

A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth; examples are floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geologic processes. A natural disaster can cause loss of life or damage property, and typically leaves some economic damage in its wake, the severity of which depends on the affected population's resilience, or ability to recover and also on the infrastructure available.An adverse event will not rise to the level of a disaster if it occurs in an area without vulnerable population. In a vulnerable area, however, such as Nepal during the 2015 earthquake, an earthquake can have disastrous consequences and leave lasting damage, which can require years to repair.

Operation Fiery Vigil

Operation Fiery Vigil was the emergency evacuation of all non-essential military and United States Department of Defense civilian personnel and their dependents from Clark Air Base and U.S. Naval Base Subic Bay during the June 1991 volcanic eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines. This noncombatant evacuation operation (NEO) resulted in the transfer of roughly 20,000 people from Clark Air Base and U.S. Naval Base Subic Bay back to CONUS, by way of Cebu, Philippines. The Commanding General, 13th USAF, was in command of the Joint Task Force.

Outline of meteorology

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to meteorology:

Meteorology – interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere which explains and forecasts weather events. Meteorology has application in many diverse fields such as the military, energy production, transport, agriculture and construction.

Volcanic Explosivity Index

The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) is a relative measure of the explosiveness of volcanic eruptions. It was devised by Chris Newhall of the United States Geological Survey and Stephen Self at the University of Hawaii in 1982.

Volume of products, eruption cloud height, and qualitative observations (using terms ranging from "gentle" to "mega-colossal") are used to determine the explosivity value. The scale is open-ended with the largest volcanoes in history given magnitude 8. A value of 0 is given for non-explosive eruptions, defined as less than 10,000 m3 (350,000 cu ft) of tephra ejected; and 8 representing a mega-colossal explosive eruption that can eject 1.0×1012 m3 (240 cubic miles) of tephra and have a cloud column height of over 20 km (66,000 ft). The scale is logarithmic, with each interval on the scale representing a tenfold increase in observed ejecta criteria, with the exception of between VEI-0, VEI-1 and VEI-2.

Natural disasters · list by death toll
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