Perhaps the first of what would become many notable mountain lists around the world was Sir Hugh Munro’s catalogue of the Munros, the peaks above 3,000’ in Scotland). Once defined the list became a popular target for what became known as peak bagging, where the adventurous attempted to summit all of the peaks on the list.
Over time the peaks on such lists grew more challenging, with perhaps the eight-thousanders as the most notable (as of June 2019, a winter completion of all 14 eight-thousanders has still not been completed). Other extreme examples are the Seven Summits, defined as the highest peaks on each of the seven continents.
The hills of Britain and Ireland are classified into a large number of lists for 'peak-bagging' purposes. Among the better-known lists are the following:
The standard list for the major peaks of the Andes is the list of 6000 m peaks as first compiled by John Biggar in 1996 and listed in his Andes guidebook. This list currently stands at 102 peaks, with no known completers.
See also List of ribus.
The Abels are a group of peaks in Tasmania over 1100 metres above sea level and separated from other mountains by a drop of at least 150 metres on all sides. Named after Abel Tasman, the first European to sight Tasmania.
This is a list of mountain peaks ordered by their topographic prominence.Lists of mountains
Mountains are listed according to various criteria:
List of mountains by elevation
List of highest mountains greater than 7,200 metres (23,622 ft) above sea level
List of most prominent mountains
List of peaks by prominence
Summits farthest from the Earth's center
Lists of highest points restricted to a specific geographic area
List of countries by highest point
List of islands by highest point
Lists of mountains by region sorted by country or province
Seven Summits, the highest peak on each continent
List of mountain types sorted by geological origin
List of mountain ranges organized into mountain rangesLists of mountains and hills in the British Isles
The mountains and hills of the British Isles are categorised into lists based on elevation (or "height"), prominence (or "relative height", or "drop"), and other criteria (e.g. isolation). These lists are used for peak bagging, whereby hillwalkers attempt to reach all the summits on a list, the oldest and best-known, being the 282 § Munros in Scotland, which amongst other criteria, must be above 3,000 feet (914.4 m).
A height above 2,000 ft, or more latterly 600 m, is considered necessary to be a "mountain" in the British Isles, and apart from the Munros (who favour isolation), all lists require a prominence of at least 15 metres (49.21 ft). A prominence of between 15–30 metres (49.21–98.43 ft) (e.g. some § Nuttalls and § Vandeleur-Lynams), does not meet the UIAA definition of an "independent" peak. Most lists consider a prominence between 30–150 metres (98.43–492.1 ft) as a "top", and not a mountain (e.g. many § Hewitts and § Simms). A popular designation are the § Marilyns, with a prominence above 150 metres (492.1 ft). Prominences above 600 metres (1,969 ft), are the § P600 (the "Majors"), the international classification of a "major" mountain.Lists of mountains in Ireland
These are lists of mountains and mountain ranges in Ireland. Those within Northern Ireland, or on the border, are marked with an asterisk, while the rest are within the Republic of Ireland. Where mountains are ranked by height, the definition of the "topographical prominence" (or "relative height", or "drop", or "re–ascent"), used to classify the mountain (e.g. the change in elevation required between neighbouring mountains), is noted. In British definitions, a height of 600 metres (1,969 ft) is required for a "mountain", whereas in Ireland, a lower threshold of 500 metres (1,640 ft) is sometimes advocated.
The lowest minimum prominence threshold of any definition of an Irish mountain is 15 metres (49 ft) (e.g. the Vandeleur-Lynam), however most definitions, including the UIAA criteria, do not consider prominences below 30 metres (98 ft) as being mountains (e.g. must at least be an Arderin or a Hewitt). Many British definitions consider a peak with a prominence below 150 metres (492 ft), as being a "top", and not a mountain (e.g. must be a Marilyn). A popular definition of an Irish mountain requires a minimum prominence of 100 metres (328 ft) (e.g. a HuMP), and is the basis for the 100 Highest Irish Mountains.
While Irish mountains are ranked according to Irish classifications, they are also ranked on classifications that cover Britain and Ireland (e.g. Simms and P600s).Peak bagging
Peak bagging or hill bagging is an activity in which hikers, climbers, and mountaineers attempt to reach a collection of summits, published in the form of a list. The activity was popularized in Scotland in the 1890s with the creation of the Munro list by Sir Hugh Munro. Peak bagging was brought to the United States by Robert and George Marshall in 1918. Since then, the activity has been popularized around the world, with lists such as 100 Famous Japanese Mountains, the Sacred Mountains of China, the Seven Summits, and the eight-thousanders becoming the subject of mass public interest.
There are numerous lists that a peakbagger may choose to follow. A list usually contains a set of peaks confined to a geographical area, with the peaks having some sort of subjective popularity or objective significance, such as being among the highest or most prominent of the area. In the UK, the Marilyns have become popular.Topographic prominence
In topography, prominence measures the height of a mountain or hill's summit relative to the lowest contour line encircling it but containing no higher summit within it. It is a measure of the independence of a summit. A peak's key col (highest gap between two mountains) is a unique point on this contour line and the parent peak is some higher mountain, selected according to various objective criteria.Ultra-prominent peak
An ultra-prominent peak, or Ultra for short, is a mountain summit with a topographic prominence of 1,500 metres (4,900 ft) or more; it is also called a P1500. There are approximately 1,524 such peaks on Earth. Some well-known peaks, such as the Matterhorn and Eiger, are not Ultras because they are connected to higher mountains by high cols and therefore do not achieve enough topographic prominence.
The term "Ultra" originated with earth scientist Stephen Fry, from his studies of the prominence of peaks in Washington in the 1980s. His original term was "ultra major mountain", referring to peaks with at least 1,500 metres (4,900 ft) of prominence.