List of modern conflicts in the Middle East

This is a list of modern conflicts in the Middle East ensuing in the geographic and political region known as the Middle East. The "Middle East" is traditionally defined as the Fertile Crescent (Mesopotamia), Levant, and Egypt and neighboring areas of Arabia, Anatolia and Iran. It currently encompasses the area from Egypt, Turkey and Cyprus in the west to Iran and the Persian Gulf in the east,[1] and from Turkey and Iran in the north, to Yemen and Oman in the south.

  • Conflicts are separate incidents with at least 100 casualties, and are listed by total deaths, including sub-conflicts.[2]
  • The term "modern" refers to the post-WWI period, in other words, since 1918.
Middle East
Contemporary Middle East
Countries (2018)Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Iraq (Iraqi Kurdistan), Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, North Cyprus*, Oman, Palestine*, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria (DFNS), Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Yemen

List of conflicts

Date Conflict Location Casualties
1902–1932 Unification of Saudi Arabia [a] Flag of the Second Saudi State.svg Emirate of Riyadh
Flag of Hejaz 1917.svg Kingdom of Hejaz
Flag of Kuwait 1921-1940.png Kuwaiti Emirate,
Flag of Nejd (1926).svg Sultanate of Nejd,
Jordan Emirate of Transjordan,
Iraq Mandatory Iraq
Flag of Nejd (1926).svg Kingdom of Nejd and Hejaz
8,000–9,000
1914–1918 Middle Eastern theatre of World War I [p] Flag of Persia (1910-1925).svg Persia
Flag of Egypt (1882-1922).svg Sultanate of Egypt
Flag of the Second Saudi State.svg Emirate of Nejd and Hasa
Flag of the Emirate of Ha'il.svg Emirate of Jabal Shammar
Flag of Kuwait 1914-1921.png Sheikhdom of Kuwait
Flag of the Sultanate of Lahej.svg Sultanate of Lahej
Ottoman flag.svg Ottoman Empire
Flag of the First Republic of Armenia.svg Armenia
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg Azerbaijan
2,825,000[3][4][5]–5,000,000[6] (Ottoman Empire deaths including civilians). 1,000,000–1,500,000 (Allied killed, wounded, captured or missing)

2,000,000 (Persians died by famine or disease, excluding influenza)[7][8][9]

1918–1922 Simko Shikak revolt[10] Flag of Persia (1910-1925).svg Persia 1,000–5,500
1919 Egyptian Revolution of 1919[11] Egypt Sultanate of Egypt 3,000
1919–1923 Turkish War of Independence [b]  Ottoman Empire
 Greece
 Armenia
 Soviet Union
170,500–873,000
1919–2003 Iraqi–Kurdish conflict [c] Iraq
Iraq
Iraq Iraq
Flag of Kingdom of Kurdistan (1922-1924).svg Kingdom of Kurdistan
139,000–320,000 killed
1920 Franco-Syrian War Flag of Kingdom of Syria (1920-03-08 to 1920-07-24).svg Arab Kingdom of Syria
Flag of Syria French mandate.svg OETA
5,000
1920 Iraqi revolt against the British[12][13] Iraq Mandatory Iraq 2,050–9,000
1921–1948[l] Sectarian conflict in Mandatory Palestine  Mandatory Palestine 7,813
1923 Adwan Rebellion Jordan Transjordan 100
1925–1927 Great Syrian Revolt (Druze War)[14] Lebanese French flag.svg Greater Lebanon
State of Syria
Flag of Jabal ad-Druze (state).svg Jabal Druze
Alawite State
8,000–12,000
1925 Sheikh Said rebellion.[15]  Turkey 15,000–250,500
1930 Ararat rebellion[16][17][18][19][20]  Turkey
Kurdish flag (Khoiboun).png Republic of Ararat
4,500–47,000
1933 Simele massacre[21]  Kingdom of Iraq 3,000
1934 Saudi-Yemeni War[22]  Saudi Arabia
Flag of the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen.svg Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen
2,100
1935 Imam Reza shrine rebellion[23]  Iran 151
1935–1936 1935–36 Iraqi Shia revolts  Iraq 500
1935 1935 Yazidi revolt[21]  Iraq 200
1937 Dersim Rebellion[24]  Turkey 40,000–70,000
1939–1945 World War II (including the Anglo-Iraqi War, the Syria–Lebanon Campaign, and the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran)  Iraq
Iran Iran
Lebanese French flag.svg French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon
 Mandatory Palestine
≈16,000
1946 Egyptian Student Riots[25][26] Egypt Egypt 100–300
1946 Iran crisis of 1946[2][15][e]  Iran
 Republic of Mahabad
Azerbaijan people's government flag.svg Azerbaijan People's Government
2,000
1948–2005 Arab–Israeli conflict[f] Egypt Egypt
Flag of Hejaz 1917.svg All-Palestine Government
 Egypt
 United Arab Republic
 Syrian Republic
 Ba'athist Syria
 Jordan
 Lebanon
 Israel
 Palestinian Authority
73,000–84,000
1948 Alwaziri coup[2] Yemen Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen 4,000–5,000
1948 Al-Wathbah uprising  Iraq 300–400
1952 Egyptian Revolution of 1952[2] Egypt Egypt 1,000
1953 1953 Iranian coup d'état[2][15][27]  Iran 300–800
1954–1960 Jebel Akhdar War[15] Flag of Muscat.svg Sultanate of Muscat and Oman 100–523
1955–1959 Cyprus Emergency[28][29]  Cyprus 400–600
1956–1960 Yemeni–Adenese clan violence[2]  Aden 1,000
1958 1958 Lebanon Crisis[2][11][29]  Lebanon 1,300–4,000
1958 1958 Iraqi Revolution[2]  Arab Federation 100
1959 1959 Mosul uprising[2] Iraq Iraqi Republic 2,000–4,000
1962–1970 North Yemen Civil War[30][31][g]  North Yemen
 Saudi Arabia
 Egypt
100,000–200,000
1962–1975 Dhofar Rebellion[15]  Oman 10,000
1963 1963 Riots in Iran[15]  Iran 100
1963 February 1963 Ba'athist Iraqi coup[32]  Iraq 1,000
1963 8th of March Syrian Revolution[33]  United Arab Republic
 Syria
820
1963–1967 Aden Emergency[34]  Federation of South Arabia
 South Yemen
2,096
1963 November 1963 Iraqi coup [32]  Iraq 250
1964 1964 Hama riot[35][36]  Syria 70–100
1966 1966 neo-Ba'athist coup d'état in Syria[15]  Syria 400
1966 1966 Arif Abd ar-Razzaq second coup[37]  Iraq 80-100
1970–1971 Black September[29]  Jordan 2,000–25,000
1974 Turkish invasion of Cyprus[22][38]  Cyprus 1,500–5,000
1974 1974-75 Shatt al-Arab clashes[39]  Iran 1,000
1975–1990 Lebanese Civil War[40][h]  Lebanon 150,000
1976–1979 Political violence in Turkey, 1970s[41][42][43]  Turkey 5,000–5,388
1978– Kurdish–Turkish conflict (1978–present)[44]  Turkey
 Iraqi Kurdistan
 Iraq
30,000–100,000
1979 Iranian Revolution[45][46]  Iran 3,164–60,000
1979–1980 Consolidation of the Iranian Revolution [i]  Iran 10,171
1979–1983 Saudi Eastern Province unrest[47]  Saudi Arabia 182–219
1979 Grand Mosque Seizure[48]  Saudi Arabia 307
1979–1982 Islamist uprising in Syria  Syria 40,000+
1980 1980 Turkish coup d'état[49][50]  Turkey 127–550
1980 Sadr uprising[51]  Iraq 1,000–30,000
1980–1988 Iran–Iraq War[22][52][j]  Iran
 Iraq
 Kuwait
1,000,000–1,250,000
1986 South Yemen Civil War[53]  South Yemen 5,000–12,000
1986 1986 Egyptian Conscription Riot[54]  Egypt 107
1986 1986 Damascus bombings[55]  Syria 204
1987 Iranian pilgrim riot (Mecca massacre)[56]  Saudi Arabia 402
1987–1988 ANO Executions  Lebanon
 Syria
170
1989–1996 KDPI insurgency (1989–96)  Iran 168-503
1990–1991 Gulf War[40]  Iraq
 Kuwait
 Saudi Arabia
40,000–57,000
1991 1991 uprisings in Iraq[51][57]  Iraq 50,000–100,000
1994 1994 civil war in Yemen  Yemen 7,000–10,000
1995– Islamic Insurgency in Saudi Arabia  Saudi Arabia 300
1998 Operation Desert Fox[28][29] (Iraqi no-fly zones)  Iraq 2,000
1999 1999 Shia uprising in Iraq[15][58]  Iraq 100–200
2003–2011 Iraq War[59][60][61][62][63][64][k] Iraq Ba'athist Iraq
Iraq Iraq
109,032–650,726
See also: Casualties of the Iraq War
2004 Qamishli massacre (2004)[65][66]  Syria 30–100
2004–2014 Shia insurgency in Yemen[67][68][69]  Saudi Arabia
 Yemen
8,500–25,000
2004–2015 Iran–PJAK conflict[70]  Iran
 Iraqi Kurdistan
588–747
2006– Fatah–Hamas conflict[71][72]  Palestinian Authority
Flag of Hamas.svg Gaza Strip
600+
2006– Iran–Israel proxy conflict  Iran
 Israel
~2000
2007 Nahr al-Bared fighting  Lebanon 480
2008 2008 Lebanon conflict  Lebanon 105
2009–2015 South Yemen Insurgency[73]  Yemen 2,100+
2009–2010 Iranian election protests[74]  Iran 72–150
2010–2015 Yemeni al-Qaeda crackdown[75][76]  Yemen 3,000+
2011 2011 Bahraini uprising  Bahrain
 Saudi Arabia
100+
2011–2014 Egyptian crisis (2011–14)[m]  Egypt 7,000+
2011– Yemeni Crisis (2011–present)  Yemen 9,000+
2011– Syrian Civil War[n]  Syria 250,000–470,000+
2011–2017 Syrian Civil War spillover in Lebanon  Lebanon ~800
2011– Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict  Saudi Arabia
 Iran
2014–2017 Iraqi Civil War (2014–2017)[n]  Iraq 73,361+
2015– Yemeni Civil War  Yemen
 Saudi Arabia
50,000+
2016– 2016 West Iran clashes  Iran
 Iraqi Kurdistan
74–156
2016 2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt  Turkey 270–350
2017 2017 Iraqi–Kurdish conflict  Iraq 685–900
2017– Iraqi insurgency (2017–present)  Iraq

Casualties breakdown

[a].^ Unification of Saudi Arabia (combined casualties 7,989–8,989+)

Battle of Riyadh (1902) – 37 killed.
Battle of Dilam (1903) – 410 killed.
Saudi–Rashidi War (1903–1907) – 2,300+ killed.
Annexation of Al-Hasa and Qatif (1913) – unknown.
Battle of Jarrab (1915) – unknown.
Battle of Kanzaan (1915) – unknown.
First Nejd–Hejaz War, 1918–1919 – 8,392+ killed[15]
Kuwait–Najd War (1921) – 200[15]–800 killed.
1921 Ikhwan raid on Iraq – 700 killed.
Conquest of Ha'il – unknown.
Ikhwan raids on Transjordan 1922–1924 – 500[77]-1,500 killed.
Second Nejd–Hejaz War (1924–1925) – 450 killed.[15]
Ikhwan Revolt (1927–1930) – 2,000 killed.[15]

[p].^ Middle Eastern theatre of World War I (combined casualty figure 2,825,000–5,000,000) of:

[b].^ Turkish War of Independence (combined figure 170,500–873,000+):

Greco-Turkish War – 70,000–400,000 casualties[40]
Franco-Turkish War – 40,000 casualties.
Turkish–Armenian War – 60,000–432,500 casualties.[78]
Koçkiri Rebellion – 500 killed.
Revolt of Ahmet Anzavur – unknown.
Kuva-i Inzibatiye revolt – unknown.

[c].^ Iraqi–Kurdish conflict (combined casualty figure 138,800-320,100) of:

Mahmud Barzanji revolts – unknown.
Ahmad Barzanji revolt (1931) – unknown.
1943 Iraqi Kurdish revolt (1943) – unknown.
First Iraqi–Kurdish War (1961–1970) – 75,000–105,000 killed.[30][40]
Second Iraqi–Kurdish War (1974–1975) – 9,000 killed.[79]
600,000 displaced[80][81]
PUK insurgency (1976–1978) – 800 killed.
Iraqi Kurdish uprising (1982–1988) – 50,000–198,000 killed.
1991 Uprising in As Sulaymaniyah – 700–2,000 killed.
Iraqi Kurdish Civil War (1994–1997) – 3,000[82]–5,000 killed.
2003 invasion of Iraq – several hundred killed (~300) on the Kurdish front, at least 24 Peshmerga killed.

[d].^ Middle Eastern theatre of World War II (combined casualty figure 12,338-14,898+) of:

Anglo-Iraqi War – at least 560 killed.[83][84]
Farhud 175–780 killed.
Syria–Lebanon Campaign 10,404–12,964 killed.
Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran 100[15] – 1,062 killed.
Bombing of Palestine in World War II 137 deaths.[85]
Bombing of Bahrain in World War II – unknown.

[e].^ Iran crisis of 1946 (combined casualty figure 1,921+):

Azerbaijan People's Republic crisis – 421 killed.[86]
Republic of Mahabad crisis – ~1,000 killed.
Civil interregnum – 500 killed.[87]

[f].^ Arab–Israeli conflict (combined casualty figure 76,338–87,338+):

Arab–Israeli War (1948–1949) – 14,400 casualties.
Palestinian Fedayeen insurgency and Retribution Operations (1950s) – 3,456 casualties
Suez War (1956) – 3,203 killed.
Israeli–Palestinian conflict (1965–present) – 24,000 killed
Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon – 2,600-20,000 killed
Operation Litani
1982 Lebanon War
First Intifada – 2,000 killed
Second Intifada – 7,000 killed
Gaza–Israel conflict – 3,500+ killed
Six-Day War (1967) – 13,976 killed.
War of Attrition (1967–1970) – 6,403 killed.
Yom Kippur War (1973) 10,000–21,000.[88]

[g].^ North Yemen Civil War (combined 100,000–200,000 casualties):

1962 Coup d'état
Ramadan offensive
Haradh offensive
1965 Royalist offensive
Siege of Sana'a (1967)

[h].^ Lebanese Civil War (combined 39,132–43,970+ mortal casualties):

Bus massacre – 27 killed.
Hundred Days' War – 160 killed.
Karantina massacre – 1,000–1,500 killed.
Damour massacre – 684 killed.
Battle of the Hotels – 700 killed.
Black Saturday (Lebanon) – 200–600 killed.
Tel al-Zaatar massacre – 1,778–3,278 killed.
1982 Lebanon War – 28,280 killed.
Sabra and Shatila massacre – 762–3,500 killed.
War of the Camps (1986–1987) – 3,781 killed.
Mountain War – 1,600 killed.
War of Liberation (1989–1990) – unknown.
October 13 massacre – 500–700 killed, 260 civilians massacred.

[i].^ Consolidation of the Iranian Revolution (combined fatalities count 12,000):

1979 Kurdish rebellion in Iran – 10,171+ killed and executed.[89][90]
1979 Khuzestan uprising – 112+ killed.
1979 Khorasan uprising – unknown.
1979 Azeri uprising – unknown.
1979 Baluchistan uprising – 50 killed.
Iran hostage crisis – 9 killed.
1979–1980 Tehran clashes – unknown.

[j].^ Iran–Iraq War (combined death count 645,000–823,000+):

Iraqi invasion 1980
Mujahedin al-Halq uprising 1981–1982
Liberation of Khorramshahr 1982 – 17,000 killed
Operation Undeniable Victory 1982 – 50,000 mortal casualties
Operation Ramadan 1982 – 80,000 killed
Kurdish Rebellion 1983–1988 (including the Al-Anfal Campaign) 50,000–198,000 killed
Operation Before the Dawn 1983 – 6,000+ killed
Operation Dawn 3 – 162,000 killed
Operation Dawn 5 1984 – 50,000 killed
Operation Dawn 6 1984 – unknown
Operation Khaibar 1984 – 49,000 killed
Tanker War 1984
Operation Badr (1985) – 30,000–32,000
War of the Cities 1985–1987
Operation Dawn-8 1986 – unknown
Operation Karbala-4 1986 – 15,000 killed
Operation Karbala-5 – 85,000 killed
Operation Nasr 4 – unknown
Operation Karbala-10 – unknown
Operation Mersad 1987 – 4,900 killed
1988 executions of Iranian political prisoners 2,000[91] – 30,000 executed

[k].^ Iraq War (combined casualty figure of 192,361–226,056+):

2003 invasion of Iraq – 35,000 killed
Iraqi insurgency (2003–06) – 15,000 killed
Civil war in Iraq 2006–2008 – 30,000–40,000 killed
Iraqi insurgency (2008–2011) – 5,000–10,000 killed
Withdrawal of U.S. troops from Iraq – ≈1,000 killed
Iraqi insurgency (post-U.S. withdrawal) – 54,000+ killed
Iraqi Civil War (2014–2017) – 53,361–72,056 killed

[l].^ Sectarian conflict in Mandatory Palestine (combined casualties 7,813)

1921 Jaffa riots – 95 killed
1929 Palestine riots – 251 killed.[92][93]
1933 Palestine riots – 20 killed.[94]
Arab Revolt in Palestine – 5,000 killed.[28]
Jewish insurgency in Palestine (1944–47) – 338 British[95] and around 100 Palestinian Jews killed.
1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine – 2,009 killed by 1 April 1948.[96]

[m].^ Egyptian Crisis (combined casualties 5,000+)

Egyptian Revolution of 2011 – 846 killed
Sinai insurgency – 2,800+ killed

[n].^ Syrian Civil War (combined casualties 270,000–450,000)

[o].^ Iran–Israel proxy conflict (combined casualties ~2,000)

See also

References

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  96. ^ Yoav Gelber (2006), p.85

External links

1926 Simko Shikak revolt

1926 Simko Shikak revolt refers to a short-timed Kurdish uprising against the Pahlavi dynasty of Iran in 1926, led by Kurdish chieftain Simko Shikak from Shikak tribe.

1935 Yazidi revolt

The 1935 Yazidi revolt took place in Iraq in October 1935. The Iraqi government, under Yasin al-Hashimi, crushed a revolt by the Yazidi people of Jabal Sinjar against the imposition of conscription. The Iraqi army, led by Bakr Sidqi, reportedly killed over 200 Yazidi and imposed martial law throughout the region. Parallel revolts opposing conscription also broke out that year in the northern (Kurdish populated) and mid-Euphrates (majorly Shia populated) regions of Iraq.

The Yazidis of Jabal Sinjar constituted the majority of Iraqi Yazidi population - the third largest non-Muslim minority within the kingdom, and the largest ethno-religious group in the province of Mosul. In 1939, the region of Jabal Sinjar was once again put under military control, together with the Shekhan District.

1986 Damascus bombings

The 1986 Damascus bombings were a series of terrorist acts perpetrated in Damascus, Syria in 1986, considered to be the deadliest acts of terrorism against civilians since the quelling of the Islamist uprising in Syria in 1982. The bombings appeared to be aimed at destabilizing the Syrian government under Hafez al-Assad with links being between the suspected perpetrators and Iraq.

1986 Egyptian conscripts riot

On February 25, 1986, around 25,000 Egyptian conscripts of the Central Security Forces (CSF), Egyptian paramilitary force, staged violent protests in and around Cairo. The riot came as a reaction to the rumour that their three-year compulsory service would be prolonged by one additional year without any additional benefits or rank promotion.

The incited conscripts targeted tourist areas and destroyed two hotels. The regime of Mubarak relied on the Egyptian Army to crush the mutiny, thus when the poorly paid and poorly armed CSF mutinied, the Army was sent in to restore order. The Army deployed tanks and armoured personnel carriers and commando snipers to hunt down the rebelling conscripts, most of whom were unarmed or armed only with shields, batons, and assault rifles. In Upper Egypt and near Giza, the Army Aviation and the Air Force used helicopters and fighter jets to attack the rebelling conscripts, causing a large number of deaths. At least 4 to 5 helicopters, and 3 fighter jets, were used in the operation. The Air Force officer in command of the operation was Ahmed Shafik, as commander of all MiG-21 fleets in the Central Military Zone.

The riot lasted for 3 days and a total of 107 people died, mostly CSF conscripts, according to official reports. Over 20,000 conscripts were dismissed from service with no benefits, and the agitators received correctional punishment after being tried before State Security Court for arson, violent riots, and insubordination according to penal code. Some reports related that mutiny to a conspiracy against the Minister of Interior in charge by then (Gen. Ahmed Roshdy) due to his policies. After the suppression the government promised to overhaul the force by raising its entry standards, increasing payment and bettering living conditions in their camps.

1999 Latakia protests

The 1999 Latakia protests (or 1999 Latakia incident) were violent protests and armed clashes, which erupted in Latakia, Syria following 1998 People's Assembly's Elections. The violent events were an explosion of a long-running feud between Hafez al-Assad and his younger brother Rifaat. Two people were killed in fire exchanges of Syrian police and Rifaat's supporters during police crack-down on Rifaat's port compound in Latakia. According to opposition sources, denied by the government, the protests left hundreds of dead or injured.

2004 Qamishli riots

The 2004 Qamishli uprising was an uprising by Syrian Kurds in the northeastern city of Qamishli in March 2004. The riots started during a chaotic football match, when some fans of the guest team (Arabs) started raising pictures of Saddam Hussein, an action that angered the fans of the host team (the Kurds). Both groups began throwing stones at each other, which soon developed to a political conflict as the Arab group raised pictures of Saddam Hussein while the Kurdish group raised the Flag of Kurdistan. The Ba'ath Party local office was burned down by Kurdish demonstrators, leading to the security forces reacting. The Syrian army responded quickly, deploying troops backed by tanks and helicopters, and launching a crack-down. Events climaxed when Kurds in Qamishli toppled a statue of Hafez al-Assad. At least 30 Kurds were killed as the security services re-took the city. As a result of the crackdown, thousands of Syrian Kurds fled to Iraqi Kurdistan.

Adwan Rebellion

Adwan Rebellion or the Balqa Revolt was the largest uprising against the British mandate and the newly installed Transjordanian government, headed by Mezhar Ruslan, during its first years. The rebellion was initiated in the early months of 1923, under the slogan "Jordan for Jordanians", but was quickly crushed with the assistance of the British RAF. As a result, the revolt leader, Sultan al-Adwan, fled to Syria with his sons.

Al-Wathbah uprising

Al-Wathbah uprising (Arabic: انتفاضة الوثبة‎) or simply Al-Wathbah (Arabic: الوثبة‎), which means The Leap in Arabic, was the term that came to be used for the urban unrest in Baghdad in January 1948. The protests were sparked by the monarchy’s plans to renew the 1930 Anglo-Iraqi Treaty that effectively made Iraq a British protectorate. Nuri al-Said, the Prime Minister of Iraq, was planning on renewing, albeit in a revised form, this 1930 treaty that tied Iraq to British interests, allowed for the unrestricted movement of British troops on Iraqi soil, and provided significant protection to the British-installed Iraqi monarchy.

Alwaziri coup

The Alwaziri coup, also referred as the Yahia clan coup was a violent dynasty overthrow attempt in the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen in 1948, which created a great deal of violence and ended with around 5,000 fatalities. During the coup attempt, Imam Yahya Muhammad Hamid ed-Din, the ruler of the kingdom, was killed and the rival Sayyid family, the Alwazirs, seized power for several weeks. Backed by the al-Saud family of Saudi Arabia, the Hamidaddins restored their rule. After deposition of the Alwaziris, the restored monarchy of Imam Yahya was succeeded by his son Ahmad bin Yahya.

Egyptian Revolution of 1919

The Egyptian Revolution of 1919 (Arabic: ثورة 1919‎ Thawra 1919) was a countrywide revolution against the British occupation of Egypt and Sudan. It was carried out by Egyptians from different walks of life in the wake of the British-ordered exile of the revolutionary Egyptian Nationalist leader Saad Zaghlul, and other members of the Wafd Party in 1919.

The revolution led to Great Britain's later recognition of Egyptian independence in 1922 as the Kingdom of Egypt, and the implementation of a new constitution in 1923. Britain, however, refused to recognise full Egyptian sovereignty over Sudan, or to withdraw its forces from the Suez Canal Zone, factors that would continue to sour Anglo-Egyptian relations in the decades leading up to the Egyptian revolution of 1952.

Franco-Syrian War

The Franco-Syrian War took place during 1920 between the Hashemite rulers of the newly established Arab Kingdom of Syria and France. During a series of engagements, which climaxed in the Battle of Maysalun, French forces defeated the forces of the Hashemite monarch King Faisal, and his supporters, entering Damascus on July 24, 1920. A new pro-French government was declared in Syria on July 25, headed by 'Alaa al-Din al-Darubi. and eventually Syria was divided into several client states under the French Mandate of Syria and Lebanon. The British government, concerned for their position in the new mandate in Iraq, agreed to declare the fugitive Faisal as the new king of Iraq.

Goharshad Mosque rebellion

The Goharshad Mosque rebellion (Persian: شورش مسجد گوهرشاد) took place in 1935, when a backlash against the westernizing and secularist policies of Shah Reza Pahlavi erupted in the Imam Reza shrine in Mashhad, Iran.

The incident is described as a "bloody event".

Islamist uprising in Syria

The Islamist uprising in Syria comprised a series of revolts and armed insurgencies by Sunni Islamists, mainly members of the Muslim Brotherhood from 1976 until 1982. The uprising was aimed against the authority of the secular Ba'ath Party-controlled government of Syria, in what has been called a "long campaign of terror". During the violent events Islamists attacked both civilians and off-duty military personnel, and civilians were also killed in retaliatory strike by security forces. The uprising reached its climax in the 1982 Hama massacre.

Jafar Sultan revolt

The Jafar Sultan revolt (Kurdish: شۆڕشی جافر سان، Persian: شورش جعفر سلطان) refers to a Kurdish tribal revolt in Pahlavi Iran which erupted in 1931, and was one of the early tribal-nationalist Kurdish revolts against central Iranian rule during the early stage of Kurdish separatism in Iran.

Jebel Akhdar War

Jebel Akhdar War (Arabic: حرب الجبل الأخضر Ḥarb al-Jebel el-ʾAkhḍar) or Jebel Akhdar rebellion broke out in 1954 and again in 1957 in Oman, as an effort by Imam Ghalib Bin Ali to protect the Imamate of Oman lands from the Sultan Said bin Taimur; the rebellion was supported by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Egypt. The war continued until 1959, when the British armed forces intervened on the Sultan's side, helping him win the war.

List of conflicts in the Arab League

For conflicts in the Arab League, see the following lists:

List of modern conflicts in the Middle East

List of modern conflicts in North Africa

List of conflicts in Somalia

Political violence in Turkey (1976–80)

Political violence in Turkey became a challenging problem in late 1970s. The violence was even described as a "low-level war". The death squads of Turkish right-wing ultra-nationalist groups against left-wing opposition inflicted some 5,000 casualties. The wave of violence dimmed after the 1980 Turkish coup d'état.

Yemeni Civil War (1994)

The May–July 1994 civil war in Yemen, also known as the First Yemeni Civil War, was a civil conflict waged between the two Yemeni forces of the pro-union northern and the socialist separatist southern Yemeni states and their supporters. The war resulted in the defeat of the southern armed forces, the reunification of Yemen, and the flight into exile of many Yemeni Socialist Party (YSP) leaders and other separatists.

Yemeni–Adenese clan violence

Yemeni–Adenese clan violence refers to sectarian violence in Yemen and Aden during 1956-60, resulting in some 1,000 deaths.

List of modern conflicts in the Middle East
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