The European Union (EU) has undertaken a number of overseas missions and operations, drawing on civilian and military capabilities, in several countries across three continents (Europe, Africa and Asia), as part of its Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). The operation or mission in question will work in agreement and coordination with the EU delegations, until 2009 known as the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP).
In the EU terminology, civilian CSDP interventions are called ‘missions’, regardless of whether they have an executive mandate such as EULEX Kosovo or a non-executive mandate (all others). Military interventions, however, can either have an executive mandate such as for example Operation Atalanta in which case they are referred to as ‘operations’ and are commanded at two-star level; or non-executive mandate (e.g. EUTM Somalia) in which case they are called ‘missions’ and are commanded at one-star level.
All CSDP missions and operations are given a prefix depending on the nature of the mission, which is either military or civilian.
The operations are named as if the multinational force conducting it is established specifically for the unique operation, which is often the case. The force may however also consist of permanent multinational forces such as the European Corps.
Military operations may be launched after four planning phases, through which the Operation Commander (Op. Cdr.), Military Staff (EUMS), Military Committee (EUMC), Political and Security Committee (PSC) and Council have different roles:
For each military mission, also referred to as operation, the Council nominates the operational headquarters (OHQ) that will run the operation at strategic level and direct the subordinate force headquarters (FHQ), which carries out the operation on the ground. There are three main options for OHQ:
An additional theoretical option for military operations is to activate a European Union Operations Centre (EU OPCEN), a non-standing, ad-hoc headquarters. The OPCEN was active between 2012 and 2016, and its structures will be integrated into the MPCC in 2020. Prior to the creation of the MPCC, the Local Mission Headquarters were be established in the country in which training missions (EUTM) took place.
|31 March 2003||15 December 2003||European Union Military Operation in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia||EUFOR Concordia||Operation Concordia||400||?|
|12 June 2003||1 September 2003||European Union Military Operation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2003)||EUFOR Artemis||Operation Artemis||1800||?|
|2 December 2004||—||European Union Military Operation in Bosnia and Herzegovina||EUFOR BiH||Operation Althea||600||ACO|
|12 June 2006||30 November 2006||European Union Military Operation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2006)||EUFOR RD Congo||N/A||2300||?|
|17 March 2008||15 March 2009||European Union Military Operation in Chad and the Central African Republic||EUFOR Tchad/RCA||N/A||3700||?|
|5 November 2008||—||European Union Naval Force Somalia||EU NAVFOR Somalia||Operation Atalanta||1200||Northwood Headquarters|
|10 April 2010||—||European Union Training Mission in Somalia||EUTM Somalia||N/A||100||MPCC|
|18 February 2013||—||European Union Training Mission in Mali||EUTM Mali||N/A||500||MPCC|
|10 February 2014||23 March 2015||European Union Military Operation in the Central African Republic||EUFOR RCA||N/A||600||?|
|22 June 2015||—||European Union Naval Force Mediterranean||EUNAVFOR Med||Operation Sophia||?||OHQ: NPHQ Italian Joint Force Headquarters|
|16 July 2016||—||European Union Training Mission in the Central African Republic||EUTM RCA||N/A||?||MPCC|
|April 2014||—||European Union Capacity Building Mission in Mali||EUCAP Sahel Mali||N/A||?||?|
|July 2012||—||European Union Capacity Building Mission in Niger||EUCAP Sahel Niger||N/A||?||?|
|16 July 2012||—||European Union Regional Maritime Capacity Building for the Horn of Africa and the Western Indian Ocean[a]||EUCAP Somalia||EUCAP Nestor[b]||?||?|
|March 2015||July 2016||European Union Military Advisory Mission in the Central African Republic||EUMAM RCA||N/A||?||?|
|February 2013||January 2014||European Union Aviation Security Mission in South Sudan[c]||EUAVSEC South Sudan||N/A||?||?|
|9 December 2008||—||European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo||EULEX Kosovo||N/A||?||?|
|1 July 2005||31 December 2013||European Union Integrated Rule of Law Mission in Iraq||EUJUST LEX Iraq||N/A||?||?|
|12 February 2008||30 September 2010||European Union Mission in Support of Security Sector Reform in Guinea-Bissau[d]||EUSSR Guinea-Bissau||N/A||?||?|
|16 July 2004||14 July 2005||European Union Rule of Law Mission in Georgia[e]||EUJUST Georgia||EUJUST Themis||27||?|
|8 June 2005||2016||European Union Security Sector Reform Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo[f]||EUSEC RD Congo||N/A||?||?|
|15 September 2005||15 December 2006||European Union Monitoring Mission in Aceh||AMM||N/A||?||?|
|1 October 2008||—||European Union Monitoring Mission in Georgia||EUMM Georgia||N/A||?||?|
|December 2014||—||European Union Advisory Mission Ukraine||EUAM Ukraine||N/A||?||?|
|22 November 2017||—||European Union Advisory Mission Iraq||EUAM Iraq||N/A||?||?|
|12 April 2005||30 June 2007||European Union Police Mission in Kinshasa[g]||EUPOL Kinshasa||N/A||?||?|
|1 July 2007||30 September 2014||European Union Police Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo[h]||EUPOL RD Congo||N/A||?||?|
|15 December 2003||14 December 2005||European Union Police Mission in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia[i]||EUPOL FYROM||EUPOL Proxima||200||?|
|1 January 2003||30 June 2012||European Union Police Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina||EUPM BiH||N/A||774||?|
|15 June 2007||31 December 2016||European Union Police Mission in Afghanistan||EUPOL Afghanistan||N/A||?||?|
|1 January 2006||—||European Union Police Mission for the Palestinian Territories||EUPOL COPPS||N/A||?||?|
|1 December 2005||—||European Union Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine||EUBAM Moldova and Ukraine||N/A||?||?|
|May 2013||—||European Union Integrated Border Assistance Mission in Libya||EUBAM Libya||N/A||?||?|
|25 November 2005||—||European Union Border Assistance Mission to Rafah||EUBAM Rafah||N/A||?||?|
|15 December 2005||14 June 2006||European Union Police Advisory Team in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia[j]||EUPAT||N/A||?||?|
|18 July 2005||31 December 2007||European Union Support to African Union Mission in Sudan[k]||AMIS EU Supporting Action||N/A||?||?|
|December 2002||—||Police Assistance Mission of the European Community to Albania||PAMECA||N/A||?||?|
Related topics of the Common Security and Defence Policy:
Operations and exercises of the precursors of the Common Security and Defence Policy
Operations and exercises of the multinational forces made available to the CSDP in accordance with article 42.3 of the Treaty on European Union:
Missions and exercises of other organisations:
The Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability (CPCC) is the directorate of the External Action Service (EEAS) of the European Union (EU) that serves as operational headquarters (OHQ) for the civilian missions of the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP).
Through the Joint Support Coordination Cell (JSCC), the CPCC cooperates with its military counterpart, the Military Planning and Conduct Capability (MPCC).Defence forces of the European Union
This articles outlines the defence forces of the European Union (EU), which implement the EU's Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) in CSDP missions. There are two categories of EU multinational forces: ones that have been established intergovernmentally and made available to the CSDP through article 42.3 of the Treaty on European Union (TEU), such as the Eurocorps; and the EU Battlegroups, established at the EU level.History of the Common Security and Defence Policy
This article outlines the history of the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) of the European Union (EU), a part of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP).
The post-war period saw several short-lived or ill-fated initiatives for European defence integration intended to protect against potential Soviet or German aggression: The Western Union and the proposed European Defence Community were respectively cannibalised by the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) and rejected by the French Parliament. The largely dormant Western European Union (WEU) succeeded the Western Union's remainder in 1954. In 1970 the European Political Cooperation (EPC) brought about the European Communities' initial foreign policy coordination, which in turn was replaced by the newly founded EU's CFSP pillar in 1993. The WEU was reactivated in 1984 and given new tasks, and in 1996 NATO agreed to let it develop a European Security and Defence Identity (ESDI). The 1998 St. Malo declaration signalled that the traditionally hesitant United Kingdom was prepared to provide the EU with autonomous defence structures. This facilitated the transformation of the ESDI into the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) in 1999, when it was transferred to the EU. In 2003 the EU deployed its first CSDP missions, and adopted the European Security Strategy identifying common threats and objectives. In 2009, the Treaty of Lisbon introduced the present name, CSDP, while establishing the EEAS, the mutual defence clause and enabling a subset of member states to pursue defence integration within PESCO. In 2011 the WEU, whose tasks had been transferred to the EU, was dissolved. In 2016 a new security strategy was introduced, which along with the Russian annexation of Crimea, the scheduled British withdrawal from the EU and the election of Trump as US President have given the CSDP a new impetus.Operation Atalanta
Operation Atalanta, formally European Union Naval Force (EU NAVFOR) Somalia, is a current counter-piracy military operation at sea off the Horn of Africa and in the Western Indian Ocean, that is the first naval operation conducted by the European Union (EU). The operational headquarters is currently located at the Multinational Headquarters (MNHQ) at Northwood Headquarters in the United Kingdom, but will move to Naval Station Rota (NAVSTA Rota) in Spain as a result of the impending British withdrawal from the EU.The mission launched in December 2008 with a focus on protecting Somalia-bound vessels and shipments belonging to the WFP and AMISOM, as well as select other vulnerable shipments. In addition, Operation Atalanta monitors fishing activity on the regional seaboard. In 2012, the scope of the mission expanded to include Somali coastal territories and internal waters so as to co-ordinate counter-piracy operations with Somalia's Transitional Federal Government (TFG) and regional administrations. On 16 July 2012, the EU also mandated the EUCAP Nestor mission to build up the maritime capacity of regional navies.It is part of a larger global action by the EU to prevent and combat acts of piracy in the Indian Ocean, and it is the first EU naval operation to be launched. It cooperates with the multinational Combined Task Force 151 of the US-led Combined Maritime Forces (CMF) and NATO's anti-piracy Operation Ocean Shield.