List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM

The following is a partial list of IBM precursors, amalgamations, acquisitions and spinoffs. IBM has undergone a large number of such during a corporate history lasting over a century; the company has also produced a number of spinoffs during that time.

The acquisition date listed is the date of the agreement between IBM and the subject of the acquisition. The value of each acquisition is listed in USD because IBM is based in the United States. If the value of an acquisition is not listed, then it is undisclosed.

Many of the companies listed in this article had subsidiaries of their own who had subsidiaries who ... For examples, see Pugh's book Building IBM, page 26.[1]

Precursors 1889–1910

Herman Hollerith initially did business under his own name, as The Hollerith Electric Tabulating System, specializing in punched card data processing equipment.[2] In 1896 he incorporated as the Tabulating Machine Company.

  • 1889 Bundy Manufacturing Company incorporated.
  • 1891 Computing Scale Company incorporated.
  • 1893 Dey Patents Company (soon renamed the Dey Time Register Company) incorporated.
  • 1894 Willard & Frick Manufacturing Company (Rochester, New York) incorporated.
  • 1896
    • Detroit Automatic Scale Company incorporated.
    • Hollerith incorporates the Tabulating Machine Company. Will be reincorporated in 1905.
  • 1899 Standard Time Stamp Company acquired by Bundy Manufacturing Company.
  • 1900
    • International Time Recording Company incorporated, acquiring the time-recording business of the Bundy Manufacturing Company and the Willard & Frick Manufacturing Company (Rochester).
    • Chicago Time-Register Company acquired by International Time Recording Company.
    • Dayton Moneyweight Scale Company acquired by Computing Scale Company.
    • Detroit Automatic Scale Company acquired by Computing Scale Company.
  • 1905 Hollerith reincorporates as The Tabulating Machine Company.[3]
  • 1907 Dey Time Register Company acquired by International Time Recording Company.
  • 1908 Syracuse Time Recorder Company acquired by International Time Recording Company.

Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company, 1911

Since the 1960s or earlier, IBM has described its formation as a merger of three companies: The Tabulating Machine Company (1880s origin in Washington, DC), the International Time Recording Company (ITR; 1900, Endicott), and the Computing Scale Company of America (1901, Dayton, Ohio).[4][5][6] However, there was no merger, it was an amalgamation, and an amalgamation of four, not three, companies.[7] The 1911 CTR stock prospectus states that the Bundy Manufacturing Company was also included.[8] While ITR had acquired its time recording business in 1900 Bundy had remained a separate entity producing an adding machine and other wares.

CTR owned the stock of the four companies; CTR neither produced nor sold any product; the four companies continued to operate, as before, under their own names.

Acquisitions during 1912–1999


  • 1917
    • American Automatic Scale Company acquired as International Scale Company.
    • CTR consolidates three already-existing Canadian companies: The Canadian Tabulating Machine Co., Ltd, the International Time Recording Co. of Canada, Ltd., and the Computing Scale Co. of Canada, Ltd., in a new holding company, International Business Machines Co., Ltd.[9]
  • 1921
    • Pierce Accounting Machine Company (asset purchase).
    • Ticketograph Company (of Chicago).
  • 1923
  • 1924
    • CTR was renamed "IBM".


  • 1930 Automatic Accounting Scale Company.
  • 1932 National Counting Scale Company.
  • 1933 The separate companies were integrated in 1933 as IBM and the holding company eliminated.[11]
  • 1933 Electromatic Typewriters Inc. (See: IBM Electromatic typewriter)
  • 1941 Munitions Manufacturing Corporation.




  • 1993
    • CGI Informatique (France), bought in 1993, ran independently until 1996, and was then progressively absorbed by IBM, country by country, this process being achieved in 1999.
  • 1994
    • Transarc (Transarc Corporation bought by IBM in 1994, became part of IBM proper in 1999 as the IBM Pittsburgh Lab)[12]
  • 1995
  • 1996
  • 1997
    • Software Artistry for $200 million.
    • Unison Software.
    • Dominion Semiconductor (Manassas, VA) is created by forming a 50/50 joint venture with Toshiba to produce 64MB and 256MB DRAM chips. Administrative offices are located in Building 131 the former IBM Federal Systems campus now primarily owned by Lockheed Martin; the new state-of-the-art fabrication facility was built from on adjacent land.
  • 1998
    • CommQuest Technologies.
    • DataBeam Corporation, Lexington, KY
    • Ubique Ltd., Israel
  • 1999
    • Dascom Technologies (USA), A subsidiary of Dascom Holdings.
    • Mylex Corporation.
    • Sequent Computer Systems for $810 million.

Acquisitions since 2000

Number of acquisitions per year according to table below:

  • In 2018 IBM acquired 3 companies
  • In 2017 IBM acquired 3 companies
  • In 2016 IBM acquired 12 companies
  • In 2015 IBM acquired 13 companies
  • In 2014 IBM acquired 4 companies
  • In 2013 IBM acquired 9 companies
  • In 2012 IBM acquired 9 companies
  • In 2011 IBM acquired 8 companies
Acquisition Date Company Business Country Value (USD) References
June 7, 2001 Mainspring Business strategy consulting  USA $80,000,000 [14]
July 2, 2001 Informix Corporation Database software  USA $1×109 [15]
Jan 14, 2002 CrossWorlds Software, Inc. Software  USA $129,000,000 [16]
June 25, 2002 Metamerge Identity management  NOR [17]
Aug 19, 2002 Trellisoft, Inc. Enterprise storage  USA [18]
Sep 12, 2002 Holosofx, Inc. Business Process Management  USA,  EGY [19]
Oct 2, 2002 PWC Consulting from PricewaterhouseCoopers Business Consulting and Technology Services  USA $3.5×109 [20]
Oct 6, 2002 Access360 Software  USA [21]
Oct 7, 2002 EADS Matra Datavision Product lifecycle management  USA [22]
Nov 15, 2002 Tarian Software Records Management  CAN [23]
Feb 21, 2003 Rational Software Corporation Software Development  USA $2.1×109 [24]
May 14, 2003 Think Dynamics Software  CAN [25]
July 1, 2003 Information Laboratory Software  USA [26]
July 15, 2003 Aptrix Software  AUS [27]
Oct 17, 2003 CrossAccess Corporation Enterprise Information Integration  USA [28]
Nov 13, 2003 Productivity Solutions, Inc. Automated Self-Checkout Systems  USA [29]
Dec 17, 2003 Green Pasture Software, Inc. Content management software  USA [30]
April 6, 2004 Trigo Technologies Product information management  USA [31]
April 7, 2004 Daksh e-Services BPO Services  IND $170,000,000 [32]
April 13, 2004 Business Continuity Services unit of Schlumberger IT Services  FRA [33]
June 7, 2004 Candle Corporation Infrastructure management  USA [34]
July 14, 2004 Alphablox Corporation Business Intelligence  USA [35]
July 29, 2004 Cyanea Systems Application management software  USA [36]
Oct 7, 2004 Venetica Enterprise Information Integration  USA [37]
Nov 19, 2004 Systemcorp ALG Ltd. Project Portfolio Management (PPM) software  CAN [38]
Nov 23, 2004 Liberty Insurance Services Business process services  USA [39]
Dec 1, 2004 Maersk Data and DMdata from Maersk IT Services  DEN [40]
Dec 13, 2004 KeyMRO Procurement Services  FRA [41]
Jan 7, 2005 Systems Research & Development Identity management  USA [42]
March 16, 2005 Corio Application Services  USA $182,000,000 [43]
April 29, 2005 Ascential Software Corporation Enterprise Information Integration  USA $1.1×109 [44]
May 10, 2005 Gluecode Software Application Server  USA [45]
June 23, 2005 Meiosys Application Management  USA,  FRA [46]
July 25, 2005 PureEdge Solutions, Inc. Electronic Forms  CAN [47]
July 27, 2005 Isogon Corporation Asset Management  USA [48]
Aug 2, 2005 DWL Enterprise Information Integration  USA,  CAN [49]
Oct 14, 2005 DataPower Technology, Inc. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)  USA [50]
Nov 1, 2005 iPhrase Systems, Inc. Information management software  USA [51]
Nov 10, 2005 Network Solutions Pvt Ltd IT Services  IND
Nov 15, 2005 Collation, Inc. Network management  USA [52]
Dec 20, 2005 Bowstreet, Inc. Portal-based tools  USA [53]
Jan 27, 2006 ARGUS Semiconductor Software From INFICON Semiconductor Manufacturing software  USA [54]
Jan 20, 2006 CIMS Lab, Inc. IT Financial Management  USA [55]
Feb 8, 2006 Viacore, Inc. Supply chain optimization  USA [56]
Feb 14, 2006 Micromuse, Inc. Network management  USA $865,000,000 [57]
March 16, 2006 Language Analysis Systems Identity management  USA [58]
May 2, 2006 BuildForge, Inc. Software Development  USA [59]
May 5, 2006 Unicorn Solutions, Inc. Metadata management  USA [60]


June 27, 2006 Rembo Technology Installation Software   SUI [62]
Aug 1, 2006 Webify Solutions, Inc Service Oriented Architecture software  USA [63]
Sep 6, 2006 Global Value Solutions IT Services  BRA [64]
Oct 4, 2006 DORANA product line from Ubiquity Pty Limited Asset Management  AUS [65]
Oct 5, 2006 MRO Software Asset Management  USA $740,000,000 [66]
Oct 12, 2006 FileNet Corporation Content management software  USA $1.6×109 [67]
Oct 20, 2006 Internet Security Systems (ISS) Information security  USA $1.3×109 [68]
Oct 20, 2006 Palisades Technology Partners Management consulting  USA [69]
Jan 22, 2007 Consul Risk Management, Inc. Information security  NED [70]
Feb 13, 2007 Vallent Corporation Telecommunications Management  USA [71]
March 1, 2007 Softek Storage Solutions Corporation Data Mobility  USA [72]
March 18, 2007 BlackDot Networks, Inc. Enterprise Data Consulting  USA
April 20, 2007 Unicible IT Services   SWI $460,000,000 [73]
July 20, 2007 Watchfire Corporation Security Software Testing  USA [74]
Aug 21, 2007 WebDialogs Web conferencing and communications  USA [75]
Aug 31, 2007 DataMirror Corporation Change Data Capture  CAN $161,000,000 [76]
Sep 7, 2007 Qinnova, Inc. Internet Protocol Television (IPTV)  CAN [77]
Sep 10, 2007 Princeton Softech, Inc. Business Intelligence  USA [78]
Oct 24, 2007 NovusCG Storage Consulting and Technology Services  USA [79]
Jan 2, 2008 XIV Enterprise storage  ISR Over $300M [80]
Jan 18, 2008 AptSoft Corporation Business Intelligence  USA [81]
Jan 29, 2008 Solid Information Technology Database software  USA,  FIN [82]
Jan 31, 2008 Cognos Business Intelligence  CAN $5×109 [83]
Jan 31, 2008 Arsenal Digital Solutions Data backup services  USA [84]
Feb 15, 2008 Net Integration Technologies Inc. Business Server Software  CAN [85]
March 11, 2008 Encentuate, Inc. Enterprise Single Sign-On  USA [86]
April 3, 2008 Telelogic AB Enterprise software development  SWE $845,000,000 [87]
April 18, 2008 Diligent Technologies Data De-duplication  USA $200,000,000 [88]
April 21, 2008 FilesX Application Recovery Software  USA,  ISR [89]
April 29, 2008 InfoDyne Corporation Data Feed Connectors  USA [90]
July 2, 2008 Platform Solutions Mainframe, System Z technologies  USA [91]
July 28, 2008 ILOG Business Rules Management Systems  FRA $340,000,000 [92]
Nov 18, 2008 Transitive Corporation Virtualization Software  USA,  UK [93]
Jan 15, 2009 Outblaze's E-Mail Service Assets Online messaging and collaboration  HKG [94]
May 5, 2009 Exeros Assets Data Discovery Software  USA [95]
July 28, 2009 SPSS Inc. Statistical analysis software  USA $1,200,000,000 [96]
July 28, 2009 Ounce Labs Source code analysis  USA [97]
September 22, 2009 RedPill Solutions Analytics and Optimisation  SGP [98]
November 30, 2009 Guardium Database monitoring and protection  USA,  ISR [99]
December 16, 2009 Lombardi Business Process Management  USA [100]
January 20, 2010 National Interest Security Company, LLC Public sector consulting  USA [101]
February 3, 2010 Initiate Systems Data integrity software  USA [102]
February 16, 2010 Intelliden Inc. Network Automation software  USA [103]
May 3, 2010 Cast Iron Systems Cloud Integration  USA $190,000,000 [104] [105]
May 24, 2010 Sterling Commerce Business software integration  USA $1,400,000,000 [106]
June 15, 2010 Coremetrics Web Analytics  USA [107]
July 1, 2010 BigFix, Inc. Security and IT automation software  USA [108]
July 29, 2010 Storwize Data Compression  USA $140,000,000 [109]
August 10, 2010 Datacap Data capture and Content Management  USA [110]
August 13, 2010 Unica Corporation Marketing planning software  USA $480,000,000 [111]
September 15, 2010 OpenPages Integrated risk management solutions  USA [112]
September 20, 2010 Netezza Data warehousing and analytics  USA $1,700,000,000 [113]
September 27, 2010 BLADE Network Technologies Networking  USA [114]
October 13, 2010 PSS Systems Legal risk management  USA [115]
October 21, 2010 Clarity Systems Financial governance  CAN $350,000,000 [116]
March 22, 2011 Tririga Inc. Facility and Real Estate Management  USA [117]
August 31, 2011 i2 Limited Intelligence Analytics  UK [118]
September 1, 2011 Algorithmics Inc.[119] Risk Management  CAN $387,000,000 [120]
October 4, 2011 Q1 Labs[121] Security Intelligence  USA [122]
October 12, 2011 Platform Computing Cluster and Grid Management Software  CAN [123]
December 5, 2011 Cúram Software Smarter Cities  IRL [124]
December 8, 2011 DemandTec Cloud-based Retail Analytics  USA $440,000,000 [125]
December 15, 2011 Emptoris Supply Chain Analytics  USA [126]
January 4, 2012 Green Hat (software company)[127] Cloud based software testing  USA,  UK [128]
January 31, 2012 Worklight Software Development Firm  ISR $70,000,000 [129][130]
April 13, 2012 Varicent Compensation and Sales Performance Management Software Solutions  CAN [131]
April 25, 2012 Vivisimo Enterprise Search Software  USA [132]
May 2, 2012 Tealeaf Technology Customer Experience Analytics Software  USA [133]
August 16, 2012 Texas Memory Systems Solid State Storage  USA [134]
August 27, 2012 Kenexa Corporation Human Capital Solutions  USA $1,400,000,000[135] [136]
September 24, 2012 Butterfly Software Ltd. Data Analysis and Migration Software  UK [137]
December 19, 2012 StoredIQ Big Data Analysis  USA [138]
February 1, 2013 Star Analytics Business Analytics  USA [139][140]
April 22, 2013 UrbanCode Software delivery automation  USA [141]
June 4, 2013 SoftLayer Technologies Cloud Computing Infrastructure  USA $2,000,000,000[142] [143]
July 9, 2013 CSL International Cloud Computing  ISR Not Disclosed [144]
August 15, 2013 Trusteer Cyber Security  ISR $1,000,000,000[145] [146]
September 19, 2013 Daeja Image Systems Viewer for document management systems  UK Not disclosed [147]
October 1, 2013 The Now Factory Mobile Networks Big Data Analytics  IRL Not disclosed [148]
October 3, 2013 Xtify In-app mobile messaging and push notification tools  USA Not disclosed [149]
November 13, 2013 Fiberlink Communications Mobile Device Management  USA $330,000,000 [150]
December 19, 2013 Aspera, Inc. Data Transfer Technology  USA Not disclosed [151]
February 24, 2014 Cloudant, Inc. Database-as-a-Service  USA Not disclosed [152]
April 10, 2014 Silverpop Systems, Inc. Behavioral Marketing Automation  USA Not disclosed [153]
May 19, 2014 Cognea Cognitive computing (conversational artificial intelligence platform)  USA Not disclosed [154]
July 31, 2014 CrossIdeas Cloud Security (Identity and Access Governance)  ITA Not disclosed [155]
August 11, 2014 Lighthouse Security Group Cloud Security  USA Not disclosed [156]
March 4, 2015 AlchemyAPI Natural language processing, big data  USA Not disclosed [157]
March 27, 2015 Blekko Web Search Engine, Cognitive Computing  USA Not disclosed [158]
April 13, 2015 Explorys Healthcare analytics  USA Not disclosed [159]
April 13, 2015 Phytel Health management software  USA Not disclosed [160]
June 3, 2015 Bluebox Private Cloud as a Service  USA Not disclosed [161]
July 23, 2015 Compose Inc. Database as a Service  USA Not disclosed [162][162]
August 6, 2015 Merge Healthcare Inc. Healthcare imaging software  USA $1,000,000,000 [163]
September 10, 2015 StrongLoop Inc. Mobile API capabilities  USA Not disclosed [164]
September 28, 2015 Meteorix LLC Consulting services for Workday applications  USA Not disclosed [165]
October 28, 2015 The Weather Company digital assets Weather data sources and analytics, related online and mobile products  USA Not disclosed [166][167][168]
November 3, 2015 Gravitant, Inc Cloud brokerage software and cloud management  USA Not disclosed [169]
November 6, 2015 Cleversafe Object-based storage software  USA $1,309,000,000[170] [171]
December 8, 2015 Clearleap Cloud-based video management  USA Not disclosed [172]
January 15, 2016 Iris Analytics Real time transaction fraud detection  GER Not disclosed [173]
January 21, 2016 Ustream Streaming video  USA Not disclosed [174]
January 28, 2016 Resource/Ammirati Digital marketing and creative agency  USA Not disclosed [175]
February 2, 2016 Aperto AG Digital marketing and creative agency  GER Not disclosed [176]
February 3, 2016 AG Digital marketing and creative agency  GER Not disclosed [177]
February 18, 2016 Truven Health Analytics Provider of cloud-based healthcare data, analytics and insights  USA $2,600,000,000 [178]
February 29, 2016 Resilient Systems Cyber security, incident response platform  USA Not disclosed [179]
March 18, 2016 Optevia Specialist provider of Microsoft Dynamics CRM based solutions and associated services to the public sector  UK Not disclosed [180]
March 31, 2016 Blue Wolf Group LLC Salesforce systems integrator and professional services  USA $200,000,000 [181]
June 1, 2016 EZSource Application discovery and dashboard visualization  ISR Not disclosed [182]
September 29, 2016 Promontory Financial Group Risk management and regulatory compliance  USA Not disclosed [183]
October 27, 2016 Sanovi Technologies Hybrid cloud recovery  IND Not disclosed [184]
February 3, 2017 Agile 3 Solutions Information security  USA Not disclosed [185]
May 2, 2017 Verizon - Cloud services Cloud services  USA Not disclosed [186]
May 31, 2017 XCC (division of TIMETOACT) Collaboration software  GER Not disclosed [187]
September 24, 2017 Cloudigo Data Center Company  Israel Not disclosed [188]
October 5, 2017 Vivant Digital Innovation Consultancy  AUS Not disclosed [189]
May 3, 2018 Armanta, Inc. Aggregation/analytics software for financial services firms  USA Not disclosed [190]
June 15, 2018 Oniqua Holdings Pty Ltd. Intelligent maintenance repair and operations (MRO) solutions  USA AUS Not disclosed [191]
October 28, 2018 Red Hat Provider of open source software and solutions  USA $3.4×1010 [192]


  • 1934 Dayton Scale Division is sold to the Hobart Manufacturing Company.
  • 1942 Ticketograph Division is sold to the National Postal Meter Company.
  • 1958 Time Equipment Division is sold to the Simplex Time Recorder Company.
  • 1974 Service Bureau Corporation sold to Control Data Corporation
  • 1984 Prodigy, formerly a joint venture with Sears, Roebuck and Company.
  • 1985 Satellite Business Systems sold to MCI Communications
  • 1988 Copier/Duplicator business, including service and support contracts, sold to Eastman Kodak.[193][194]
  • ARDIS mobile packet network, a joint venture with Motorola. Now Motient.
  • 1991 Lexmark (keyboards, typewriters, and printers). IBM retained a 10% interest. Lexmark has sold its keyboard and typewriter businesses.
  • 1991 Kaleida, a joint Multimedia software venture with Apple Computer.
  • 1992 Taligent, a joint software venture with Apple Computer.
  • 1992 IBM Commercial Multimedia Technologies Group, spun off to form private company Fairway Technologies.
  • 1992 IBM sells its remaining 50 percent stake in the Rolm Company to Siemens A.G. of Germany.[195]
  • 1994 Xyratex enterprise data storage subsystems and network technology, formed in a management buy-out from IBM.
  • 1995 Advantis (Advanced Value-Added Networking Technology of IBM & Sears), a voice and data network company. Joint Venture with IBM holding 70%, Sears holding 30%. AT&T acquires the infrastructure portion of Advantis in 1999, becoming the AT&T Global Network. IBM retained business and strategic outsourcing portions of the joint venture.
  • 1994 Federal Systems Division sold to Loral becoming Loral Federal Systems. The Federal Systems Division performed work for NASA. Loral was later acquired by Lockheed Martin.
  • 1996 Celestica, Electronic Manufacturing Services (EMS).
  • 1998 IBM Global Network sold to AT&T to form AT&T Business Internet.
  • 1999 Dominion Semiconductor (DSC) IBM sells its 50% share to JV partner Toshiba. DSC becomes a wholly owned subsidiary of Toshiba.
  • 2001 Information Services Extended department, developer of specialized databases and software for telephone directory assistance, is spun off to form privately held company ISx, Inc (later sold to Local Matters).
  • December 31, 2002 IBM sells its HDD business to Hitachi Global Storage Technologies for approximately $2 billion. Hitachi Global Storage Technologies now provides many of the hardware storage devices formerly provided by IBM, including IBM hard drives and the Microdrive. IBM continues to develop storage systems, including tape backup, storage software and enterprise storage.
  • December 2004 Lenovo acquires 90% interest in IBM Personal Systems Group, 10,000 employees and $9 billion in revenue.
  • April 3, 2006 Web analytics provider Coremetrics acquires SurfAid Analytics, a standalone division of IBM Global Services. The deal was said to be in the "eight-figure" range, making it worth at least $10 million. (Note: Since then Coremetrics has in turn been acquired by IBM)
  • January 25, 2007 Three-year joint venture with IBM Printing Systems division and Ricoh to form new Ricoh-owned subsidiary, InfoPrint Solutions Company, for $725 million.
  • September 2009 IBM launches online business IT video advice service in association with GuruOnline.
  • September 2009 IBM sells its U2 multivalue database and application development products (created by VMark, UniData, System Builder and Prime Computer, obtained via the Informix acquisition) to Rocket Software
  • April 2012 IBM sells its Retail Store Solutions division (Point-of-Sales) to Toshiba TEC [196]
  • January 2014 IBM sells its IBM System x business to Lenovo for $2.3 billion.[197]
  • October 2014 IBM sells its microelectronics (computer chips) business to GlobalFoundries. IBM will pay GlobalFoundries $1.5 billion over 3 years to take over the business.[198]
  • December 2014 UNICOM Global Acquires IBM Rational Focal Point and IBM Rational Purify Plus [199]
  • January 2015 IBM sells Algorithmics Collateral to SmartStream Technologies [200]
  • December 2015 UNICOM Global Acquires IBM Rational System Architect [201]

See also


  1. ^ Pugh, Emerson W. (1995). Building IBM. MIT. p. 26.
  2. ^ Austrian, 1982, p. 153.
  3. ^ Engelbourg, 1954, p. 52.
  4. ^ Austrian (1982) p.312
  5. ^ Belden, Martin; Belden, Marva (1961). The Lengthening Shadow - The Life of Thomas J. Watson, Little, Brown; p.92
  6. ^ "IBM Archives: Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (1911-1924)".
  7. ^ NY Times June 10, 1911 Tabulating Concerns Unite: Flint & Co. Bring Four Together with $19,000,000 capital
  8. ^ Bennett, Frank P.; Company (17 June 1911). United States Investor. 22, Part 2. p. 1298 (26).
  9. ^ Moody's 1918 Manual of Railroads and Corporation Securities
  10. ^ Aspray (ed.), William (1990). Computing Before Computers. Iowa State University Press. p. 137. ISBN 0-8138-0047-1.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  11. ^ Rodgers, Williams (1969). THINK. Stein and Day. p. 83.
  12. ^ "Acquisition To Bolster Ibm's Networking". Bloomberg Business News. 17 August 1994. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  13. ^ "IBM to acquire Data Sciences". New Straits Times. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
  14. ^ "IBM Completes Mainspring Acquisition" (Press release). IBM. 2001-06-07. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  15. ^ "IBM Completes Acquisition of Informix Database Assets" (Press release). IBM. 2001-07-02. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  16. ^ "IBM Completes Acquisition of CrossWorlds Software" (Press release). IBM. 2002-01-14. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  17. ^ "IBM Acquires Metamerge, Adds Directory Integration Software to IBM's Infrastructure Portfolio" (Press release). IBM. 2002-06-25. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  18. ^ "IBM Acquires TrelliSoft, Extends Leadership in Storage Management Software Market" (Press release). IBM. 2002-08-29. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  19. ^ "IBM Acquires Holosofx to Extend WebSphere Business Integration Software Portfolio" (Press release). IBM. 2002-09-12. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  20. ^ "IBM, PricewaterhouseCoopers Complete Sale of PwC Consulting" (Press release). IBM. 2002-10-02. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  21. ^ "IBM to Acquire Access360" (Press release). IBM. 2002-09-03. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  22. ^ "IBM To Acquire EADS Matra Datavision" (Press release). IBM. 2002-10-07. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  23. ^ "IBM Completes Acquisition Of Tarian Software" (Press release). IBM. 2002-11-15. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  24. ^ "IBM Completes Acquisition of Rational Software" (Press release). IBM. 2003-02-21. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  25. ^ "IBM Acquires Think Dynamics" (Press release). IBM. 2003-05-13. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  26. ^ "Missing Ref" (Press release). IBM. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  27. ^ "IBM Acquires Aptrix; Strengthens its Software Portfolio with Web Content Management Software" (Press release). IBM. 2003-07-15. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  28. ^ "IBM to Acquire CrossAccess Technology, Extends Leadership in Information Integration" (Press release). IBM. 2003-10-14. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  29. ^ "IBM Acquires Retail Self-Checkout Leader, PSI" (Press release). IBM. 2003-11-13. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  30. ^ "IBM Acquires Green Pasture Software, Extends Leadership in Enterprise Content Management" (Press release). IBM. 2003-12-17. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  31. ^ "IBM Completes Acquisition of Trigo Technologies" (Press release). IBM. 2004-04-06. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  32. ^ "IBM in $170m Indian call centre deal" (Press release). IBM. 2004-04-07. Retrieved 2008-10-27.
  33. ^ "IBM Acquires the Business Continuity Services unit of Schlumberger" (Press release). IBM. 2004-04-13. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  34. ^ "IBM Completes Acquisition of Candle Corporation" (Press release). IBM. 2004-06-07. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  35. ^ "IBM to Acquire Alphablox Corporation, Strengthens Leadership in Business Intelligence" (Press release). IBM. 2004-07-14. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  36. ^ "IBM To Acquire Cyanea" (Press release). IBM. 2004-07-29. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  37. ^ "IBM Completes Acquisition of Venetica" (Press release). IBM. 2004-10-07. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  38. ^ "IBM Completes Acquisition of Systemcorp" (Press release). IBM. 2004-12-19. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  39. ^ "IBM to Acquire Liberty Insurance Services" (Press release). IBM. 2004-11-23. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  40. ^ "IBM Increases Consulting and IT Services Capability with Acquisitions and Seals Services Deals Worth in Excess of $1 Billion" (Press release). IBM. 2004-12-01. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  41. ^ "IBM to Acquire KeyMRO, Procurement Services Leader in Europe and North America" (Press release). IBM. 2004-12-13. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  42. ^ "IBM Acquires SRD, Breaks New Ground in Identity Resolution Software" (Press release). IBM. 2005-01-07. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  43. ^ "IBM Completes Acquisition of Corio" (Press release). IBM. 2005-03-16. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  44. ^ "IBM Completes Acquisition Of Ascential Software" (Press release). IBM. 2005-05-02. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  45. ^ "IBM Acquires Gluecode Software; Acquisition Builds On IBM Support For Open Source Technology; Expands Customer And Business Partner Choice For WebSphere Software" (Press release). IBM. 2005-05-10. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  46. ^ "IBM Acquires Meiosys" (Press release). IBM. 2005-06-23. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  47. ^ "IBM Formally Acquires PureEdge Solutions Inc., Pledges Support for Emerging Electronic Forms Standard Called Xforms" (Press release). IBM. 2005-08-05. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  48. ^ "IBM Completes Acquisition of Isogon Corporation" (Press release). IBM. 2005-07-27. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  49. ^ "IBM Formally Acquires DWL, Enhancing Data Integration Portfolio" (Press release). IBM. 2005-09-01. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  50. ^ "" (Press release). IBM. 2005-10-18. Retrieved 2008-06-02. External link in |title= (help)
  51. ^ "IBM Acquires the Business of iPhrase Systems, Inc" (Press release). IBM. 2005-11-01. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  52. ^ "IBM Acquires Collation" (Press release). IBM. 2005-11-16. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  53. ^ "IBM Acquires Bowstreet, Inc. to Help Customers Quickly Create Portals that Integrate Existing Business Applications" (Press release). IBM. 2005-12-20. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  54. ^ "IBM Acquires ARGUS Semiconductor Software From INFICON" (Press release). IBM. 2006-01-27. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  55. ^ "IBM Acquires CIMS Lab, Inc" (Press release). IBM. 2006-01-25. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  56. ^ "IBM to Enhance Its Supply Chain BTO Offering" (Press release). IBM. 2006-02-08. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
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External links

Aspera (company)

Aspera is a data transport and streaming technology company that provides high speed data transfer solutions to send, share, stream and sync large files and data sets. Aspera belongs to the hybrid cloud business unit of IBM.

BLADE Network Technologies

BLADE Network Technologies, based in Santa Clara, California, was a supplier of Ethernet network switches for blade servers and server and storage data center racks.

BLADE became part of IBM System Networking in 2010. Later sold to Lenovo as part of purchase of IBM x86 server division


DataMirror Corporation, founded in 1993, is a computer software company based in Markham, Ontario, Canada with offices in several countries. The company provides real-time data integration, protection, and Java database products, and in 2006 claimed to have over 2100 business customers in industries including healthcare, retail, telecommunications, and financial services. As of 2007, the company is a wholly owned subsidiary of the IBM Corporation.


Datacap (an IBM Company), a privately owned company, manufactures and sells computer software, and services. Datacap's first product, Paper Keyboard, was a "forms processing" product and shipped in 1989. In August 2010, IBM announced that it had acquired Datacap for an undisclosed amount.Datacap sells products through a value-added distribution network worldwide. The software is classified as "enterprise software", meaning that it requires trained professionals to install and configure. Although the Company has focused on providing solutions for scanning paper documents, most recently Company materials have emphasized customer requirements to handle electronic documents ("eDocs"), documents being received into an organization electronically (usually email).

Datacap claims that its software is unique because of the rules engine ("Rulerunner") used for processing inbound documents, including performing the image processing (deskew, noise removal, etc.), optical character recognition (OCR), intelligent character recognition (ICR), validations, and export-release formatting of extracted data to target ERP and line of business application. Targets listed as supported include FileNet, Hyland Software, and SAP.


International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York, as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) and was renamed "International Business Machines" in 1924.

IBM produces and sells computer hardware, middleware and software, and provides hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology. IBM is also a major research organization, holding the record for most U.S. patents generated by a business (as of 2019) for 26 consecutive years. Inventions by IBM include the automated teller machine (ATM), the floppy disk, the hard disk drive, the magnetic stripe card, the relational database, the SQL programming language, the UPC barcode, and dynamic random-access memory (DRAM). The IBM mainframe, exemplified by the System/360, was the dominant computing platform during the 1960s and 1970s.

IBM has continually shifted business operations by focusing on higher-value, more profitable markets. This includes spinning off printer manufacturer Lexmark in 1991 and the sale of personal computer (ThinkPad/ThinkCentre) and x86-based server businesses to Lenovo (in 2005 and 2014, respectively), and acquiring companies such as PwC Consulting (2002), SPSS (2009), The Weather Company (2016), and Red Hat (agreement announced in October 2018, actual acquisition to be in the second half of 2019). Also in 2015, IBM announced that it would go "fabless", continuing to design semiconductors, but offloading manufacturing to GlobalFoundries.

Nicknamed Big Blue, IBM is one of 30 companies included in the Dow Jones Industrial Average and one of the world's largest employers, with (as of 2017) over 380,000 employees, known as "IBMers". At least 70% of IBMers are based outside the United States, and the country with the largest number of IBMers is India. IBM employees have been awarded five Nobel Prizes, six Turing Awards, ten National Medals of Technology (USA) and five National Medals of Science (USA).

List of mergers and acquisitions by Alphabet

Google is a computer software and a web search engine company that acquired, on average, more than one company per week in 2010 and 2011. The table below is an incomplete list of acquisitions, with each acquisition listed being for the respective company in its entirety, unless otherwise specified. The acquisition date listed is the date of the agreement between Google and the acquisition subject. As Google is headquartered in the United States, acquisition is listed in US dollars. If the price of an acquisition is unlisted, then it is undisclosed. If the Google service that is derived from the acquired company is known, then it is also listed here. Google itself was re-organized into a subsidiary of a larger holding company known as Alphabet Inc. in 2015.

As of December 2016, Alphabet has acquired over 200 companies, with its largest acquisition being the purchase of Motorola Mobility, a mobile device manufacturing company, for $12.5 billion. Most of the firms acquired by Google are based in the United States, and, in turn, most of these are based in or around the San Francisco Bay Area. To date, Alphabet has divested itself of four business units: Frommers, which was sold back to Arthur Frommer in April 2012; SketchUp, which was sold to Trimble in April 2012, Boston Dynamics in early 2016 and Google Radio Automation, which was sold to WideOrbit in 2009.Many Google products originated as services provided by companies that Google has since acquired. For example, Google's first acquisition was the Usenet company Deja News, and its services became Google Groups. Similarly, Google acquired Dodgeball, a social networking service company, and eventually replaced it with Google Latitude. Other acquisitions include web application company JotSpot, which became Google Sites; Voice over IP company GrandCentral, which became Google Voice; and video hosting service company Next New Networks, which became YouTube Next Lab and Audience Development Group. CEO Larry Page has explained that potential acquisition candidates must pass a sort of "toothbrush test": Are their products potentially useful once or twice a day, and do they improve your life?Following the acquisition of Israel-based startup Waze in June 2013, Google submitted a 10-Q filing with the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC) that revealed that the corporation spent $1.3 billion on acquisitions during the first half of 2013, with $966 million of that total going to Waze.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Facebook

Facebook is a social networking company that has acquired 80 other companies, including WhatsApp. The WhatsApp acquisition closed at a steep $16 billion; more than $40 per user of the platform. Facebook also purchased the defunct company ConnectU in a court settlement and acquired intellectual property formerly held by rival Friendster. The majority of the companies acquired by Facebook are based in the United States, and in turn, a large percentage of these companies are based in or around the San Francisco Bay Area. Facebook has also made investments in LuckyCal and Wildfire Interactive.

Most of Facebook's acquisitions have primarily been "talent acquisitions" and acquired products are often shut-down. Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg has stated in 2010 that "We have not once bought a company for the company. We buy companies to get excellent people... In order to have a really entrepreneurial culture one of the key things is to make sure we're recruiting the best people. One of the ways to do this is to focus on acquiring great companies with great founders." The Instagram acquisition, announced on 2012-04-09, appears to have been the first exception to this pattern. While continuing with a pattern of primarily talent acquisitions, other notable product focused acquisitions include the $19 billion WhatsApp acquisition and the $2 billion Oculus VR acquisition.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Microsoft

Microsoft is an American public multinational corporation headquartered in Redmond, Washington, USA that develops, manufactures, licenses, and supports a wide range of products and services predominantly related to computing through its various product divisions. Established on April 4, 1975 to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800, Microsoft rose to dominate the home computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s, followed by the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems. Microsoft would also come to dominate the office suite market with Microsoft Office. The company has diversified in recent years into the video game industry with the Xbox, the Xbox 360, and the Xbox One, as well as into the consumer electronics and digital services market with Zune, MSN and the Windows Phone OS.

The company's initial public offering was held on March 14, 1986. The stock, which eventually closed at US$27.75 a share, peaked at $29.25 a share shortly after the market opened for trading. After the offering, Microsoft had a market capitalization of $519.777 million. Microsoft has subsequently acquired over 225 companies, purchased stakes in 64 companies, and made 25 divestments. Of the companies that Microsoft has acquired, 107 were based in the United States. Microsoft has not released financial details for most of these mergers and acquisitions.

Since Microsoft's first acquisition in 1987, it has purchased an average of six companies a year. The company purchased more than ten companies a year between 2005 and 2008, and it acquired 18 firms in 2006, the most in a single year, including Onfolio, Lionhead Studios, Massive Incorporated, ProClarity, Winternals Software, and Colloquis. Microsoft has made ten acquisitions worth over one billion dollars: Skype (2011), aQuantive (2007), Fast Search & Transfer (2008), Navision (2002), Visio Corporation (2000), Yammer (2012), Nokia's mobile and devices division (2013), Mojang (2014), LinkedIn (2016) and GitHub (2018).

Microsoft has also purchased several stakes valued at more than a billion dollars. It obtained an 11.5% stake in Comcast for $1 billion, a 22.98% stake in Telewest for $2.263 billion, and a 3% stake in AT&T for $5 billion. Among Microsoft's divestments, in which parts of the company are sold to another company, only Expedia Group was sold for more than a billion dollars; USA Networks purchased the company on February 5, 2002 for $1.372 billion.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Twitter

Twitter is an online social networking and microblogging service that enables users to send and read "tweets", which are text messages limited to 280 characters. Registered users can read and post tweets but unregistered users can only read them. Users access Twitter through the website interface, SMS, or mobile device app. Twitter Inc. is based in San Francisco and has offices in New York City, Boston, and San Antonio.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Yahoo!

Yahoo! is a computer software and web search engine company founded on March 1, 1995. The company is a public corporation and its headquarters is located in Sunnyvale, California. It was founded by Stanford University graduate students Jerry Yang and David Filo in 1994. According to web traffic analysis companies, Yahoo has been one of the most visited websites on the Internet, with more than 130 million unique users per month in the United States alone. As of October 2007, the global network of Yahoo receives 3.4 billion page views per day on average, making it one of the most visited US websites.Yahoo's first acquisition was the purchase of Net Controls, a web search engine company, in September 1997 for US$1.4 million. As of April 2008, the company's largest acquisition is the purchase of, an Internet radio company, for $5.7 billion, making co-founder Mark Cuban a billionaire. Most of the companies acquired by Yahoo are based in the United States; 78 of the companies are from the United States, and 15 are based in a foreign country. As of July 2015, Yahoo has acquired 114 companies, with Polyvore being the latest.

Lists of corporate acquisitions and mergers

Lists of corporate acquisitions and mergers

Rational Application Developer

Rational Application Developer for WebSphere Software (RAD) is a commercial Eclipse-based integrated development environment (IDE), made by IBM. It provides tools for visually designing, constructing, testing, analyzing, and deploying many types of applications including Java, Java EE, Web 2.0, hybrid mobile, Portal applications, and Web and REST services.

The Weather Company

The Weather Company is a weather forecasting and information technology company that owns and operates and Weather Underground. The Weather Company is a subsidiary of the Watson & Cloud Platform business unit of IBM.

Tivoli Software

Tivoli Software encompasses a set of products originally developed by Tivoli Systems Inc. IBM bought the company and ran the operation as its Tivoli Software division. Additional products were acquired and run under the Tivoli portfolio brand. IBM began phasing out use of the Tivoli in 2013 and by 2016 had moved the portfolio products into a revised and rebranded hierarchy.


WebDialogs, Inc. was founded in 1998 in Billerica, Massachusetts and provides online meeting and communication solutions.On August 22, 2007, IBM acquired WebDialogs, Inc. for an undisclosed amount.

Business entities
Board of directors
Mergers and acquisitions by company

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