This is a list of the largest cities in Canada by census starting with the 1871 Census of Canada, the first national census. Only communities that were incorporated as cities at the time of each census are presented. Therefore, this list does not include any incorporated towns that may have been larger than any incorporated cities at each census.
|1||Montreal, Quebec||107,225||Ranked #2 in 2016.|
|2||Quebec, Quebec||59,699||Ranked #11 in 2016.|
|3||Toronto, Ontario||56,092||Ranked #1 in 2016.|
|4||Halifax, Nova Scotia||29,582||Ranked #14 in 2016 as a regional municipality.|
|5||Saint John, New Brunswick||28,805||Saint John was incorporated in 1785 to become Canada’s first incorporated city. Ranked #83 in 2016.|
|6||Hamilton, Ontario||26,716||Ranked #10 in 2016.|
|7||Ottawa, Ontario||21,545||Ranked #4 in 2016.|
|8||London, Ontario||15,826||Ranked #15 in 2016.|
|9||Portland, New Brunswick||12,520||Portland was a city until 1889 when it amalgamated with Saint John, New Brunswick.|
|10||Kingston, Ontario||12,407||Ranked #43 in 2016.|
|4||Halifax, Nova Scotia||36,100|
|7||Saint John, New Brunswick||26,127|
|9||Portland, New Brunswick||15,226|
|6||Saint John, New Brunswick||39,179|
|7||Halifax, Nova Scotia||38,556|
|7||Halifax, Nova Scotia||40,832|
|8||Saint John, New Brunswick||40,711|
|10||Vancouver, British Columbia||26,133|
Source: Canada Year Book 1932
|4||Vancouver, British Columbia||120,847|
|8||Halifax, Nova Scotia||46,619|
Cities west of Ontario take up four of the top ten spots in this census. Many Western cities will grow quickly during the 20th century, in large part, because they are able to expand their borders. Source: Canada Year Book 1932
|4||Vancouver, British Columbia||162,229|
Source: Canada Year Book 1932
|3||Vancouver, British Columbia||246,593|
Source: Canada Year Book 1955
|3||Vancouver, British Columbia||275,353|
Source: Canada Year Book 1955
|3||Vancouver, British Columbia||344,843|
Source: Canada Year Book 1957-58
|3||Vancouver, British Columbia||364,844|
Source: Canada Year Book 1967
|3||Vancouver, British Columbia||384,522|
Source: Canada Year Book 1972
|4||Vancouver, British Columbia||426,256|
Though Winnipeg's population more than doubled in large part to amalgamation of its surrounding municipalities, a number of Canadian cities suffered population losses during the 1970s. Source: Canada Year Book 1988
|5||North York, Ontario||559,521|
|7||Vancouver, British Columbia||414,281|
Source: Government of Canada Publications
|6||North York, Ontario||556,297|
|8||Vancouver, British Columbia||431,147|
Source : Statistics Canada Community Profiles: Census 1991
|6||North York, Ontario||563,270|
|8||Vancouver, British Columbia||471,844|
Source: Georef 1996 Census
|6||North York, Ontario||589,653|
|9||Vancouver, British Columbia||514,008|
A wave of amalgamations took place in Ontario during the 1990s and 2000s that adjusted city population figures.
|1||Toronto, Ontario||2,481,494||Toronto amalgamated with six surrounding municipalities on January 1, 1998.|
|4||Ottawa, Ontario||774,072||Ottawa amalgamated with 11 surrounding municipalities on January 1, 2001.|
|8||Vancouver, British Columbia||545,671|
|9||Hamilton, Ontario||490,268||Hamilton amalgamated with six surrounding municipalities on January 1, 2001.|
|10||Surrey, British Columbia||347,825|
The wave of amalgamations extended into the province of Quebec: in 2002, both Montreal and Quebec City combined with a number of smaller surrounding cities, some of which later chose to leave the amalgamation. Source : Statistics Canada Community Profiles: Census 2006
|8||Vancouver, British Columbia||578,041|
|8||Vancouver, British Columbia||603,502|
|8||Vancouver, British Columbia||631,486|
A national census in Canada is conducted every five years by Statistics Canada. The census provides demographic and statistical data that is used to plan public services including health care, education, and transportation, determine federal transfer payments, and determine the number of Members of Parliament for each province and territory. At a sub-national level, two provinces (Alberta and Saskatchewan) and two territories (Nunavut and Yukon) have legislation that allows local governments to conduct their own municipal censuses.In an article in the New York Times in August 2015, journalist Stephen Marche argued that by ending the mandatory long-form census in 2011, the federal government "stripped Canada of its capacity to gather information about itself" in the "age of information." Nearly 500 organizations in Canada, including the Canadian Medical Association, the Canadian Chamber of Commerce and the Canadian Catholic Council of Bishops, protested the decision to replace the long form Census in 2011 with a shorter version.On November 5, 2015, during the first Liberal caucus meeting since forming a majority government, the party announced that it would reinstate the mandatory long-form census, starting in 2016.
There have been questions about religion in Canada in the national Census since 1871, in 1951 when the national census was switched from being collected every 10 years to every 5 years, questions about religion were still only asked every 10 years. Religion questions were not included in the 2016 National Household Survey.List of Canadian provinces and territories by population
Canada is divided into ten provinces and three territories. The majority of Canada's population is concentrated in the areas close to the Canada–US border. Its four largest provinces by area (Quebec, Ontario, British Columbia and Alberta) are also (with Quebec and Ontario, switched in order) its most populous; together they account for 86% of the country's population. The territories (the Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Yukon) account for over a third of Canada's area but are home to only 0.3% of its population, which skews the national population density value.
Canada's population grew by 5.0% between the 2006 and 2011 censuses. Except for New Brunswick, all territories and provinces increased in population from 2011 to 2016. In terms of percent change, the fastest-growing province or territory was Nunavut with an increase of 12.7% between 2011 and 2016, followed by Alberta with 11.6% growth. New Brunswick's population decreased by 0.5% between 2011 and 2016.
Canada's population has increased every year since Confederation in 1867: see List of population of Canada by years.List of census divisions of Canada by population
The following table lists Canada's census divisions by population in the Canada 2011 Census, from highest to lowest. Clicking on the province's two letter abbreviation will take you to a list of census divisions for that province with links.List of cities in Canada
This is a list of incorporated cities in Canada, in alphabetical order categorized by province or territory. More thorough lists of communities are available for each province.List of the 100 largest cities and towns in Canada by area
Canada had 1,137 municipalities that held city, town or ville status as of 2011. This list presents the 100 largest of these municipalities by land area in square kilometres at the time of the 2011 census. Municipalities with other statuses and unincorporated areas are excluded.List of the 100 largest municipalities in Canada by population
The table below lists the 100 largest census subdivisions (municipalities or municipal equivalents) in Canada by population, using data from the Canada 2016 census for census subdivisions.This list includes only the population within a census subdivision's boundaries as defined at the time of the census. Many census subdivisions are part of a larger census metropolitan area or census agglomeration. For their ranking, see the list of census metropolitan areas and agglomerations in Canada.List of the 100 largest population centres in Canada
A population centre, in the context of a Canadian census, is a populated place, or a cluster of interrelated populated places, which meets the demographic characteristics of an urban area, having a population of at least 1,000 people and a population density of no fewer than 400 people per square km2.The term was first introduced in the Canada 2011 Census; prior to that, Statistics Canada used the term urban area.Statistics Canada listed 944 population centres in its 2011 census data; 513 of them, 54 per cent of all population centres in Canada, were located in Ontario or Quebec, the two most populous provinces.List of towns in Canada
This is a list of towns in Canada. Only municipalities currently incorporated as towns are listed here.Lists of the 100 largest cities in Canada by population
The largest cities in Canada by population may refer to:
List of census metropolitan areas and agglomerations in Canada, metropolitan areas as defined by Statistics Canada.
List of the 100 largest municipalities in Canada by population, municipalities ranging from cities to rural districts.
List of the 100 largest population centres in Canada, population centres (formerly urban areas) based on continuous population density, regardless of municipal boundaries.Population of Canada
Canada ranks 38 comprising about 0.5% of the world's total population, with over 37 million Canadians as of 2018. Despite having the 2nd largest landmass, the vast majority of the country is sparsely inhabited, with most of its population south of the 55th parallel north and more than half of Canadians live in just two provinces: Ontario and Quebec. Though Canada's population density is low, many regions in the south such as the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor, have population densities higher than several European countries. Canada's largest population centres are Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton and Ottawa with those six being the only ones with more than one million people. The large size of Canada's north which is not arable, and thus cannot support large human populations, significantly lowers the carrying capacity. Therefore, the population density of the habitable land in Canada can be modest to high depending on the region.
The historical growth of Canada's population is complex and has been influenced in many different ways, such as indigenous populations, expansion of territory, and human migration. Being a new world country, Canada has been predisposed to be a very open society with regards to immigration, which has been the most important factor in its historical population growth. The 2016 Canadian census counted a total population of 35,151,728, an increase of around 5.0 percent over the 2011 figure. Between 1990 and 2008, the population increased by 5.6 million, equivalent to 20.4 percent overall growth.Regional municipality
A regional municipality (or region) is a type of Canadian municipal government similar to and at the same municipal government level as a county, although the specific structure and servicing responsibilities may vary from place to place. Regional municipalities were formed in highly populated areas where it was considered more efficient to provide certain services, such as water, emergency services, and waste management over an area encompassing more than one local municipality. For this reason, regions may be involved in providing services to residents and businesses.
Regional municipalities, where they include smaller municipalities within their boundaries, are sometimes referred to as "upper-tier" municipalities. Regional municipalities generally have more servicing responsibilities than counties. Typical services include maintenance and construction of arterial roads (including in urban areas, where counties do not), transit, policing, sewer and water systems, waste disposal, region-wide land-use planning and development and health and social services.
Regions are typically more urbanized than counties. Regional municipalities are usually implemented in census divisions where an interconnected cluster of urban centres forms the majority of the division's area and population.
|Census in Canada|